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GIUSEPPE MAZZINI.
After a Pen-trait from Life, Engraved by George E. Pernfie.



ROYAL EDITION



THE



(Uorld's Best Essays



FROM THE

EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME



DAVID J. BREWER

EDITOR

EDWARD A. ALLEN WILLIAM SCHUYLER

ASSOCIATE EDITORS



TEN VOLUMES
VOL. VIII.



ST. LOUIS

FERD. P. KAISER •§•

1900



Royal Edition



LIMITED TO 1000 COMPI^ETE SETS, OF WHICH THIS IS



No.



340



Copyright 1900

BY

FERD. P. KAISER



All rights reserved





EDITOR



PUBLISHER



THE WERNER COMPANY

PRINTERS AND BINDERS
AKRON, OHIO



U UNI ^ '^^T-TFCRNIA

'P^ SANTA -^ ..^^E^-E LIBRARY

'' 1 , I ', f*< <r?> r^ .r;, r",

^ i H I 7 € 3 y e

"Bh- the advisory council



■1



v>

SIR WALTER BESANT, M. A., F. S. A..

Soho Square, London W., England.

PROFESSOR KUNO FRANCKE. Ph. D.,

Department of German, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

HIRAM CORSON, A. M., LL. D.,

Department of English Literature, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

WILLIAM DRAPER LEWIS, Ph. D.,
Dean of the Department of Law,

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph. D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages,

Columbia University, in the City of New York.

MRS. LOUISE CHANDLER MOULTON,

Author « Swallow Flights, » « Bed-Time Stories, » etc. Boston, Mass.

WILLIAM VINCENT BYARS,

Manager The Valley Press Bureau, St. Louis.

F. M. CRUNDEN, A. M.,

Librarian St. Louis Public Library; President (1890) American
Library Association.

MAURICE FRANCIS EGAN, A. M., LL. D.,
Professor of English and Literature,

Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

ALCEE FORTIER, Lit. D.,

Professor of Romance Languages, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

SHELDON JACKSON, D. D., LL. D.,

Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.

A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT, Ph. D., LL. D.,
Professor of Romance Languages,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
WILLIAM P. TRENT, M. A.,

Professor of English Literature,

Columbia University, in the City of New York.

CHARLES MILLS GAYLEY, Litt. D.,

Department of English, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.

RICHARD JONES, Ph. D.,

Department of English, vice Austin H. Merrill, deceased, Department
of Elocution, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

W. STUART SYMINGTON, Jr., Ph.D.,

Professor of Romance Languages, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME Vlll



LIVED PAGE

Mazzini, Giuseppe 1805-1872 2859

On the French Revolution

Mencius {c. 372-289 B. C.) 2870

Universal Love

The Most Difficult Thing in the World

Mendelssohn, Moses 1729-1786 2875

The Historical Attitude of Judaism
Shakespeare as a Master of the Sublime

MiCHELET, Jules 1798-1874 2881

The Death of Jeanne D'Arc

Mill, John Stuart 1806-1873 2888

On Liberty

Milton, John 1608- 1674 2902

The Strongest Thing in the World

On His Reading in Youth

On Giving Despots a Fair Trial

Ragged Notions and Babblements in Education

Mitchell, Donald Grant 1822- 2910

Spring

A Reverie of Home

Mitford, Mary Russell 1786-1855 2915

The Talking Lady

MivART, St, George 1827-1900 2921

Happiness in Hell



VI

LIVED PAGE

MoNTACu. Lady Mary Wortley 1689-1762 2930

In Praise of Oriental Life
On Matrimonial Happiness
On Training Young Girls

Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de i 533-1592 2936

Of Books
That Men Are Not to Judge of Our Happiness till

after Death
Of Liberty of Conscience
That We Taste Nothing Pure
Of Thumbs and Poltroons
Of the Vanity of Words
That the Intention Is Judge of Our Action
Of Idleness
Of « Lyars »

Of Quick or Slow Speech
That the Soul Discharges Her Passions upon False

Objects Where the True Are Wanting
Of the Inequality amongst Us
Of Glory and the Love of Praise
Of Presumption and Montaigne's Own Modesty
Of Friendship and Love
Of Prayers and the Justice of God

Montesquieu 1689-175 5 2990

Of the Liberties and Privileges of European Women

Relation of Laws to Different Beings

Education in a Republican Government

Conquests Made by a Republic

Of Public Debts

A Paradox of Mr. Bayle

Sumptuary Laws in a Democracy

Particular Cause of the Corruption of the People

More, Hannah 1745-1833 3001

*' Moriana "

Accomplishments

Applause

Authors

The Bible

Books

Calamities

Christianity

Duty

Education



Vll

lived page

More, Sir Thomas 1478-1535 3010

Of Their Trades and Manner of Life in Utopia

MoRLEY, John 1838- 3015

George Eliot and Her Times

Morris, William i 834-1 896 3021

The Beauty of Life

Motley, John Lothrop 1814-1877 3025

William the Silent

MouLTON, Louise Chandler 1835- 3034

Young Beaux and Old Bachelors
Motives for Marriage
Engagements

MiJLLER, Max 1823-1900 3044

Language Science and History-
Women in Mohammed's Paradise

Newman, Cardinal i 801-1890 3049

Inspiration and Higher Criticism

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg 1776-1831 3053

The Importance of Roman History

NiZAMi 1141-1202 3056

On Truth

On the Pride of Wealth

«NovALis» 1772-1801 3060

The Holy Mystery of Night

Sleep

Eternity

The Transports of Death

Star Dust

«0'Rell, Max» 1848- 3070

John Bull and His Moral Motives
Degradation in London

Crsted, Hans Christian 1777-1851 3076

Are Men Growing Better ?



Vlll





LIVED


PAGE


« OUIDA »


1840-


3081


The Ugliness of Modern Life






The Quality of Mercy







OvERBURY. Sir Thomas 1581-1613 3087

A Good Wife

A Usurer

An Ingrosser of Corn

The Tinker

The Fair and Happy Milkmaid

A Franklin

Paine, Thomas c. i 737-1 809 3094

The Rights of Man

Pascal, Blaise 1623-1662 3101

Vocations
Selfishness
Skepticism
Thoughts on Style

Pater, Walter 1839-1894 31 11

The Genius of Plato

Petrarch 1304-1374 311 7

Concerning Good and Bad Fortune

Plato ^.429-347 B.C. 31 21

Crito; — «Of What We Ought to Do»
Socrates Drinks the Hemlock
The Immortality of the Soul
Platonic Analects

Wisdom

The Falsehoods of Sense

Heavenly and Earthly Love

Misanthropy

The Effect of Love

The Philosopher

Evil

God and Man

Heaven's Perfect Gifts

Experience

Pliny the Younger 62-113 A. D. 3146

The Destruction of Pompeii
A Roman Fountain



IX

LIVED PAGE

Plutarch <:. 46A. D.-? 3152

Concerning the Delay of the Deity

Apothegms

Homer on the Methods of God

Family Heredity

The Evil Deeds of Parents

Nature, Learning, and Training

Mothers and Children

Teachers and Their Pupils

The Eye of the Master Fattens the Horse

Garrulity

Man

PoE, Edgar Allan i 809-1 849 3160

The Pleasures of Rhyme

Imagination

The Fate of the Very Greatest

The Art of Conversing Well

The Genius of Shelley

Pope, Alexander 1688-1744 3168

How to Make an Epic Poem
Cruelty and Carnivorous Habits
On Shakespeare
Thoughts on Various Subjects

Party Zeal

Acknowledgment of Error

Disputation

Censorious People

How to Be Reputed a Wise Man

Avarice

Prescott, William Hickling 1796-1859 3184

Don Quixote and His Times
Isabella and Elizabeth

Proctor, Richard A. 1834-1888 3193

The Dust We Breathe
Photographic Ghosts
Miracles with Figures

<< Prout, Father ** ^.1804-1866 3202

The Rogueries of Tom Moore

Quintilian <r. 35-r. 96 a. D. 3214

Advantages of Reading History and Speeches



lived page

Rkmusat. Madame de 1780-1821 3219

The Character of Napoleon Bonaparte

Renan, Joseph Ernest 1823-1892 3224

State of the World at the Time of Christ

Reynolds. Sir Joshua 1723-1792 3233

Easy Poetry

Genius and Rules

Michael Angelo, " The Homer of Painting *

RiCARDO. David 1772-1823 3240

The Influence of Demand and Supply on Prices

Richardson, Samuel 1689-1761 3244

A Rambler Essay on Woman

RiCHTER, Jean Paul Friedrich 1763-1825 3250

Love and Marriage

His View of Goethe

A Dream upon the Universe

Analects

Complaint of the Bird in a Darkened Cage

On the Death of Young Children

The Prophetic Dewdrops

On Death

Imagination Untamed by Realities

On Reviewers

Female Tongues

Forgiveness

Nameless Heroes

The Grandeur of Man in His Littleness

Night

The Stars

Martyrdom

The Quarrels of Friends

Dreaming

Two Divisions of Philosophic Minds

The Dignity of Man in Self-Sacrifice



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS



VOLUME VIII



PAGE

Giuseppe Mazzini (Portrait, Photogravure) Frontispiece

John Milton (Portrait, Photogravure) 2902

Montesquieu (Portrait, Photogravure) 2990

The First Preaching of Christianity in Britain (Photogravure) 3001
Sir Thomas More and His Daughter (Photogravure) 3010

Barthold Georg Niebuhr (Portrait, Photogravure) 3053

Don Quixote Consults the Enchanted Head (Photogravure) 3184
Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (Portrait, Photogravure) 3250



2859




GIUSEPPE MAZZINI

(1805-1872)

fiusEPPE Mazzini was one of the most remarkable men of the
nineteenth century, and though his work as the creator of
United Italy has overshadowed his achievement as a writer,
there is no question but that his writings alone would have perpetu-
ated his memory, were they the sole monument of his extraordinary
genius. It is true, however, and it must not be forgotten in connec-
tion with them, that his essays, and indeed whatever else he has
written, are incidents of the moral force and intellectual activity
which made him one of the great agencies in compelling the prog-
ress of Europe in spite of the strong reactionary tendencies of the
second half of the nineteenth century. A man of action whose whole
life was that of the leaven which disturbs while it renovates the
lump, he wrote not for the sake of artistic expression, but rather to
express what he conceived to be the purposes of a broader humanity
and a higher civilization.

He was born at Genoa in June, 1805. His father, Giacomo Maz-
zini, a reputable physician of that city, was able to give him a uni-
versity education, and in 1826 Mazzini graduated in law after having
completed his course in literature. He joined the Carbonari society
at an early age, but became dissatisfied with its methods and was on
the point of organizing a new association when he was arrested
(1830) and imprisoned for six months in the fortress of Savona. There
he conceived what he called his <^ Apostolate, ^^ and on his release he
began the serious work of his life, — nothing less than the enfranchise-
ment of Italy and Europe. He purposed to organize the young men
of Italy and other European countries to check centralization and to
substitute self-governing republics of free people for the great mili-
tary empires which were then beginning to threaten. Taking refuge
at Marseilles, and when driven from Marseilles working from Geneva
and London, he organized the << Young Europe Association *> of 1834,
and was largely instrumental in organizing the movement of 1847
and 1848, which resulted in the German Revolution. As a result of
this movement, during which the Roman republic of 1849 collapsed
almost immediately after it was proclaimed, he spent much of his
life not merely an exile, but a hunted exile, with a sentence of death
hanging over his head. He continued his agitation until, with the
help of Garibaldi and Cavour, Italian unity had been secured; but



286o GIUSEPPE MAZZINI

unity at the expense of monarchy, Mazzini would not accept. When
the monarchy was proclaimed he declared that he sorrowfully recog-
nized the national will; "but monarchy, » he added, « will never num-
ber me among its servants or followers. ^^ He refused to take office
when elected to the Italian parliament, and when a pardon was de-
creed for him he refused to be thus relieved from the sentence of
death which had been decreed against him " for having loved Italy
above all earthly things.** He returned to Geneva and resumed the
work of organizing the most daring among European Liberals into
societies for the support of republican institutions, and in 1869 the
Italian government rewarded his services by securing his expulsion
from Switzerland. After visiting England he landed in Sicily and was
imprisoned for several months. After his release his activity was cut
short by failing health, and he died at Pisa, March loth, 1872. Much
of his best prose was written and published in London, but English
literature has no claim upon it. It belongs to Italy which alone
could have produced Mazzini. He had the spirit of Dante, softened
and made more nearly divine by love. The " cruel indignation **
against wrong, which tortured Dante, ceased to be a fire in the soul
of Mazzini and became light, making his whole life incandescent with
love of liberty and humanity. The nineteenth century produced no
loftier character. He was in the old Hebrew sense a prophet, not
the mere soothsayer who predicts events, but the maker of destiny
who prophesies for (that is speaks for) those who cannot speak for
themselves. " Whom shall I send ? ** God said to Isaiah when the
cause of progress and civilization seemed lost. And when the same
call came to Mazzini in the nineteenth century which came to Isaiah
"in the year that King Uzziah died,** the Italian prophet answered
as the Hebrew prophet had answered before him, " Send me ! **

W. V. B.



ON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

IDEAS rule the world and its events. A revolution is the pas-
sage of an idea from theory to practice. Whatever men have
said, material interests never have caused, and never wiP
cause, a revolution. Extreme poverty, financial ruin, oppressive
or unequal taxation, may provoke risings that are more or less
threatening or violent, but nothing more. Revolutions have their
origin in the mind, in the very root of life; not in the body, in
the material organism. A religion or a philosophy lies at the
base of every revolution. This is a truth that can be proved
from the whole historical tradition of humanity.



GIUSEPPE MAZZINI 2 86 1

Now, what were the ruling ideas in the period immediately-
preceding the revolution ? What were the doctrines that hovered
over its cradle ? What was it that inspired and baptized its de-
velopment and the various parties that promoted it ? Did they
go beyond the confines of the age of the individual and his
rights ? Did they initiate the age of duty ; and of association,
the only means of fulfilling duty ?

Three men, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, comprehended
the whole intellectual movement of the eighteenth century, and
exercised a visible and predominant influence on the develop-
ment of the Revolution; Montesquieu, on the ideas of the Con-
stituent Assembly; Rousseau, on the men of the Convention;
Voltaire, on the beginnings of the movement and certain general
tendencies that reappear intermittently to recall his name, and
the indefatigable war he waged for fifty years against the tradi-
tions of the Church and the caprice of despotism.

Voltaire's genius was quick, subtle, acute, analytic, encyclo-
pedic, but not profound; he was moved by good and philan-
thropic instincts rather than by strong and reasoned moral
beliefs; a warrior rather than an apostle; a hater of evil rather
than a worshiper of good; too much extolled by some, too
much depreciated by others, Voltaire founded no doctrine, but,
as I have said, popularized tendencies, — tendencies that existed
already, and were almost innate in the French genius, but to
which he gave new force and clothed in noble language, — tend-
encies which leak out in a number of the events of the Revolu-
tion, and, excepting the more rigid puritans of the Mountain,
from Camille Desmoulins to Barras, influence, one might say,
every actor of the period. They were philanthropic tendencies,
inspired by momentary impulses of kindness rather than by a
conception of life, and of its law, — tendencies of a vague, sterile,
superficial deism, that relegated God to heaven and sundered
his undying connection with the world, and which was merely
a compromise between the tradition still extant in the popular
mind, and the skepticism that, however covertly, dominated Vol-
taire and his followers, — tendencies of antagonism to every im-
posed authority, to every form of superstition and fanaticism,
but born rather of a sense of rebellion natural to one who thinks
than of faith in the destinies of those who have yet to learn
to think, — tendencies that worshiped the rights of reason, but
only for those individuals who by good fortune and education



2862 GIUSEPPE MAZZINI

can share in them, and which were mingled with some spirit of
contempt for the masses, a spirit which afterwards founded the
fatal distinction between the popular and the bourgeois classes,
— tendencies of equality, but confined, as in the philosophy of
the Ancients, to one order of men, regardless of the rest. I
have mentioned the bourgeois class, and Voltaire was, in fact,
consciously or unconsciously, the teacher and master of the bour-
geoisie, and his influence was all-powerful in the acts that, in
the period just before the Revolution, traced the first lines of a
division that has been more recently organized into a system, by
Guizot and the French eclectic school. The bourgeosie of the
two Bourbon revolutions idolized him. A man of impulses, of
intuitions, rapid but short-lived, of enthusiasm, intellectual rather
than moral, Voltaire, who displayed rare humanity in his efforts
to clear the memory of Calas and the Sirven family, was flat-
terer at once of the Empress Catherine and King Frederic of
Prussia. He sanctified their crimes; he burlesqued, in low comic
verse, the heroic resistance o the Poles to the dismemberment
of their Fatherland. An apostle of toleration in religious mat-
ters, he was the type of intolerance towards all his enemies, and
capable of using any weapon, even calumny, to their prejudice.
He waged a relentless, rabid war against Catholicism, and when
threatened with death wrote a declaration of catholic faith and
repentance. I write this as a debt to my own conscience, and
because I see arising among our young men, who have neither
studied all his works nor his life, an intemperate and dangerous
admiration for him; but it is more important to my present pur-
pose to note how Voltaire destroyed prejudices and errors, but
neither built nor cared for the future. He had no perception
(his historical works and his theory that great events depend
upon little causes prove this) of a law dominating the life of
humanity, no perception of progress, of a human mission, of
duty, of association, or of anything that constitutes the end and
the method of the new era that we invoke. He recognized no
standard of good except in the rights of the individual. And
like all who start from the idea of right alone, he could not help
being forced to give the preference to rights already existing
and recognized. He declared that "A State being a collection of
lands and houses, those who possessed neither land nor house
ought not to have any deliberative voice in the management of
public affairs.^ In one of the most beautiful moments of his



GIUSEPPE MAZZINI 2863

long life, he gave full expression to the idea that guided him,
when he uttered, under guise of a blessing on Franklin's young
son, the sacred but insufficient words — God and Liberty; a for-
mula that opens the way to a possible initiative, but does not
itself initiate. Liberty is a mere instrument of good or evil
according to the path it chooses.

Montesquieu, a more profound thinker than Voltaire, though
less profound than some say, was the chief of a political school
that had for its disciples, in the first period of the Revolution,
Monnier, Malouet, and many others in the Assembly; Rivarol,
Bergasse, Mallet Dupan, and others in the periodical press. The
influence of the ideas he expounded in the Esprit des Lois
is visible in the acts of the Constituent Assembly.

His influence lay in his historical studies of antiquity, that
would be thought superficial at the present day, but then ap-
peared vast and almost unique. His intellect was acute, and
swift in seizing the salient points of things; his aspirations were
advanced; the expression of his thoughts vigorous. Montesquieu
was at times unconsciously impelled, by his native logic, near to
the unknown confines of the new age; but he was hindered by
his lack of any religious conception of the life of humanity, by
the prevailing theory of the ebb and flow of nations, perhaps,
too, by the inevitable influences of a semi-patrician birth and the
conditions of office ; and so he retreated ever more and more
towards the old age, and never, even in his most daring flights,
crossed the limits of a period that began the transition. For an
instant he caught a glimpse of the true definition of liberty, when
he said that it consisted ^* in being able to do what one ought to
will, and in not being constrained to do what one ought not to
will.'' But this was a momentary flash, an isolated saying, whose
consequences he was unable to deduce. He suspected the exist-
ence of a general end, common to humanity, and a special end,
belonging to each nation; but he was incapable of rising from
that glimpse of an idea to the conception of a providential mis-
sion. He notes ^* that the object of Rome was aggrandizement;
of Lacedaemonia, war; of the Judaic laws, religion; of Marseilles,
commerce ; of the barbarians, natural liberty '' ; but he never saw
that those facts were only means to reach the end, and that the
appointed end is general progressive civilization, the slow forma-
tion of a collective human unity. It is clear from twenty passages
that he feels in his soul the superiority of the Republican form



2S64 GIUSEPPE MAZZINI

of government to all others; and yet, finding no body of prin-
ciples that convert the intuition of the moment into a demon-
strated truth, he concludes by laboring to teach how a monarchy
may be durably established. He too, in all his researches, starts
only from the individual, and so, like all who have no other
criterion of truth, he can only grasp the notion of right. For
him, as for the other philosophic thinkers of the time, there are
rights consecrated by the fact of their existence, by prolonged
possession; and the political program is reduced to efforts to find
a place for them in the social organism, and to seek an impossible
equilibrium that shall preserve the peace among them, and prevent
one right from doing violence to another. Placed between a
monarchy that said "France is mine,** an aristocracy powerful by
past domination and an exclusive influence over the monarchy,
and the first threatening murmurings of the Tiers Etat, Montes-
quieu did not pretend to pass judgment on those three forces, or
ascertain the sum of vitality that existed in each, and which was
doomed to early death, which destined to long life in the future.
They existed, and he accepted them, consecrating the labor of
his intellect to co-ordinate their existence and functions in the
organization of the State. His ideal was the English system, the
result, not of any conception of political philosophy, but of a
unique historical development of causes and effects which existed
nowhere else. His theory is that which we have seen in practice
for more than half a century under the name of constitutional
monarchy, where the search for an equilibrium between the three
elements of Crown, and Nobility, and Commons, has everywhere
condemned the peoples to alternate between stagnation, reaction,
and periodic revolution.

The problem, therefore, in the Esprit des Lois is vitiated by
a fundamental error. Montesquieu labors heavily about the dis-
tinction between the three powers, legislative, executive, and ju-
diciary, and makes this the cardinal point of the whole question;
he thus, by exaggerating this distinction, destroys the conception
of national unity. The real, the sole, the vital question should
be, for him as for us all, the question of sovereignty; what is its
origin, and where its interpretation is to be sought with the least
uncertainty and the greatest probability.

There does not, and ought not to exist more than one law; it
is its application to the diverse branches of social life that im-
plies a distinction in the higher branches of the administration



GIUSEPPE MAZZINI 2865

between the different functions delegated to provide for its execu-
tion. Just as the exaggeration of the triple aspect of life in God
changed little by little the three different aspects of divine action
into Three Persons, and founded a Tri-theism in religion opposed
to the conception of Unity, so the theory of rights, and hence of
acquired rights, impelled Montesquieu to discover powers where
they did not exist, and found a political Tri-theism which has



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