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administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory
until such time as they are able to stand alone. The
wishes of these communities must be a principal con-
sideration in the selection of the mandatory.

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa,
are at such a stage that the mandatory must be re-
sponsible for the administration of the territory under
conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience
or religion subject only to the maintenance of public
order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as
the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic
and the prevention of the establishment of fortifica-
tions or military and naval bases and of military
training of the natives for other than police purposes
and the defense of territory and will also secure
equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of
other members of the League.
349



PROBLEMS IN FOREIGN POLICY

There are territories, such as Southwest Africa
and certain of the South Pacific islands, which, ow-
ing to the sparseness of their population or their
small size or their remoteness from the centers of
civilization or their geographical contiguity to the
territory of the mandatory and other circumstances,
can be best administered under the laws of the man-
datory as integral portions of its territory subject to
the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the
indigenous population. In every case of mandate, the
mandatory shall render to the Council an annual re-
port in reference to the territory committed to its
charge.

The degree of authority, control or administration
to be exercised by the mandatory shall^ if not previ-
ously agreed upon by the members of the League, be
explicitly defined in each case by the Council.

A permanent commission shall be constituted to
receive and examine the annual reports of the manda-
tories and to advise the Council on all matters relat-
ing to the observance of the mandates.

Article XXIII

Subj ect to and in accordance with the provisions of
international conventions existing or hereafter to be
agreed upon, the members of the League (a) will
endeavor to secure and maintain fair and humane con-
ditions of labor for men, women and children both
in their own countries and in all countries to which
their commercial and industrial relations extend, and
350



COVENANT AS REVISED

for that purpose will establish and maintain the neces-
sary international organizations; (b) undertake to
secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of ter-
ritories under their control; (c) will entrust the
League with the general supervision over the execu-
tion of agreements with regard to the traffic in women
and children, and the traffic in opium and other dan-
gerous drugs; (d) will entrust the League with the
general supervision of the trade in arms and am-
munition with the countries in which the control of
this traffic is necessary in the common interest;
(e) will make provision to secure and maintain free-
dom of communication and of transit and equitable
treatment for the commerce of all members of the
League. In this connection the special necessities of
the regions devastated during the war of 1914-1918
shall be in mind; (f) will endeavor to take steps in
matters of international concern for the prevention
and control of disease.

Article XXIV

There shall be placed under the direction of the
League all international bureaus already established
by general treaties if the parties to such treaties con-
sent. All such international bureaus and all commis-
sions for the regulation of matters of international
interest hereafter constituted shall be placed under the
direction of the League.

In all matters of international interest which are



PROBLEMS IN FOREIGN POLICY

regulated by general conventions but which are not
placed under the control of international bureaus or
commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, sub-
ject to the consent of the Council and if desired by
the parties, collect and distribute all relevant infor-
mation and shall render any other assistance which
may be necessary or desirable.

The Council may include as part of the expenses of
the Secretariat the expenses of any bureau or commis-
sion which is placed under the direction of the
League.

Article XXV

The members of the League agree to encourage
and promote the establishment and co-operation of
duly authorized voluntary national Red Cross organi-
zations having as purposes improvement of health, the
prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering
throughout the world.

Article XXVI

Amendments to this covenant will take effect when
ratified by the members of the League whose repre-
sentatives compose the Council and by a majority of
the members of the League whose representatives
compose the Assembly.

No such amendment shall bind any member of the
League which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in
that case it shall cease to be a member of the League.



COVENANT AS REVISED

Annex to the Covenant

One. Original members of the League of Na-
tions.

Signatories of the Treaty of Peace.

United States of America, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil,
British Empire, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New
Zealand, India, China, Cuba, Czecho-Slovakia, Ecua-
dor, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hedjaz, Hon-
duras, Italy, Japan, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama,
Peru, Poland, Portugal, Roumania, Servia, Siam,
Uruguay.

States invited to accede to the covenant:

Argentine Republic, Chile, Colombia, Denmark,
Netherlands, Norway, Paraguay, Persia, Salvador,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Venezuela.

Two. First Secretary General of the League of
nations. 2

2 The appointment of Sir James Eric Drummond, of
the British Foreign Office, as Secretary General is an-
nounced.



INDEX



ADAMS, John, 77
"Amalfi, table of," 99
Amendments, 276, 283,

327-333

American republics, 146
Arbitration, as provided
for in the Covenant,
120-121
Armenia, 137
Asquith, Mr., 8
Austin, John, 82
Authority of the Cov-
enant under the
Constitution of the
United States, 149,
155-157



BALANCE OP POWER, 15,

16, 212, 213, 245
Balfour, Mr., 8, 10
Bernstorff, Count von, 39
Blackstone, Sir William,



70



Bolshevism, 49, 137, 201,

223, 232, 249, 250,

251, 262
Bonaparte, Napoleon I,

254
Bourgeois, Monsieur, 10,

204, 205
British Prize Cpurt, 71-

72, 73-75
Brockdorff - Rantzau,

Count von, 39
Brotherhood of Men, 33
Burlamaqui, 77
Butler, Charles Henry.

172



CALHOUN, John C., 167-

168

Cambon, Paul, 101
Cartography, peace by,

256, 257
Castlereagh, Lord, 241,



242



355



INDEX



Cecil, Lord Robert, 276
Challenge, the Presi-
dent's, to the Senate,
264, 265
Clayton-Bulwer treaty ;

the, 107-108

Clemenceau, Monsieur.
204, 205, 211, 212,
298

Cleveland, President, 134
Conscription, 13, 14
"Consolato," the, 99
Constitution of the
League of Nations.
See Covenant
Cooper, Sir R., 151
Council. See Executive
Council and Supreme
Council

Covenant, the, as agreed
upon at Paris, on
February 14, 1919,
309

as revised, 334
attitude of, toward In-
ternational Law,
122

not merely an agree-
ment, 110, 111



Covenant, the, work of
politicians, not of
jurists, 120

Crandall, 172

Cruce, Emeric, 1

Cuba, 127, 243

Curzon, Lord, 10, 11

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS,

22
Democracy, character of

the German, 52, 53
tendency of, to oli-
garchy, 12, 13
Denmark, 130, 131
Devlin, 172, 173
Direct taxes, 156
Distribution of power,

158, 159, 160, 161
Dumas, 78

EBERT, Premier of Ger-
many, 52, 54

Edward VII, 188

Efficiency, American,
cause of, 32

Entente of Free Nations,
character of, the, 34,
35, 76, 117, 118,



356



INDEX



119, 174, 195, 222,
223, 225

Entente of Free Nations,

formula of, 101
referred to, 227, 261,
262

"Eternal Peace," 3

Executive Council, pow-
ers of the, 114-119,
123-125, 274-282,
293

Expediency, not consid-
ered, 219, 283

FARRAND, Max, 86

Federation, 24, 94, 144-
145

Firth, J. B., 9, 11

Fiscal policy, 31

Foreign policy, independ-
ence in, 25

"Fourteen Points" of
President Wilson,
180, 181, 206, 259,
260, 303

Franklin, Benjamin, 79

Freedom of the seas, 98,
128, 209, 210

"Free Nations," 26



Full powers, British for-
mula of, 140

GEORGE, Lloyd, 8, 152
Gray, Mr. Justice, 74
"Great Design," the, 2
Grey, Sir Edward, now

Viscount, 100-101
Grotius, Hugo, 1, 4, 76,

77

HAGUE CONFERENCES;
the, 90

Hague Conventions, the,
121

Hamilton, Alexander, 71,
77, 87, 88, 185

Hapsburg, House of, 2

Harden, Maximilian, 65

Harrison, Austin, 14-21

Henry IV, of France, 1,
208

Hindenburg, Field-Mar-
shal von, 51, 54

Hohenzollern dynasty.
42. See also Wil-
liam II

Holy Alliance, 240-242,
253



357



INDEX



Hughes, Charles Evans,
284-288, 328-330

IMPERIALISM, 138, 139j

147, 176

Imperium, the, of the
League of Nations,
111, 112, 113, 126,
131, 132, 134, 148,
174, 175, 178, 252
Indemnities, 61, 62, 65
Industries, Belgian, 59,

61

French, 59, 61
German, 56, 57, 58, 60
Inequality of nations, 27,

31

International govern-
ment, 23, 24, 25, 29,
30

International Law, as af-
fected by treaties^
89, 90

authority of, 91, 92
attitude of the Cov-
enant toward, 122,
123, 127, 128,
129
born of the sea, 99



International Law, char-
acter of, 75-76, 83-
84

conditions of establish-
ing, 22
part of Common Law,

70-71
part of United States

law, 74-75, 91
revision of, 289, 290
violations of, 16

JAY, John, 84
Jefferson, President, 175
Johnson, Willis Fletcher,

135-136

Jugemens d'Oleron, 99
Juristic equality of na-
tions, 27

KANT, Immanuel, 3, 24
Knox, Senator, 274-282

LABOR, Bureau of, 255
Lapradelle, Professor de.

79

Law, Bonar, 151-153
Law of Nations. See In-
ternational Law



INDEX



Laws of Wisby, 99
League of Nations, the,
as an American idea,
15, 16, 21, 299
a corporate entity, 108-

110

criticism of, not parti-
san, 283

not spontaneously as-
sented to, 204
not ultimate ideal, 259,

288
schemes pf, 17, 23,



sovereign character of,

133
League to Enforce Peace,

20, 25, 205, 273
Liberum veto, 116
London, secret treaty of,

287

Louisiana Purchase, 175
I

MADISON, James, 1 66-

167
"Manchester Guardian,"



137

Manchester, President's
speech at, 211

359



Mandataries, 112, 135-
138, 174-176, 214,
288, 298

NATIONAL CONFERENCES,

22
National interests, 231-

232
Nationalism, necessity of,

249
Neutrality, 14, 97-98,

128-131, 174, 210,

298
Norway, 130-131



OLIGARCHY IN DEMOC-
RACY, 12-15
Orders in Council, 71-73

PAN-GERMANISM, 257
Paquete Habana, case of

the, 74

Parker, Lord, 72, 97
Peace, terms of, 63, 64
Persia, 137
President of the United



States. See Treaty-
making power, also
Wilson



INDEX



"Project of Perpetual

Peace," 8, 237-239
Pufendorf, 77

REPARATION, 61-62, 65

Roman Law, 77

Root, Elihu, 120-121,

159-160, 284, 288-

290, 330-3SS

SAMOAN ISLANDS, 96,
134-136, 176

Self-determination, 27,
28, 248, 249, 255

Senate, the constitutional
relation of the, to the
treaty-making pow-
er, 267-272. See
also Treaty-making
power

Senate "Round Robin,"
the, 325

Siberia, 12

Sieyes, 9

Simonds, Frank H., 202

Smith, Sir Frederick, 71

Smuts, General, 138,
176-178, 213, 297,
300



Society of States, nature

of the, 259-260, 289
Sovereignty, 24, 138,

275
Standard of living, 31-

32
State, the, as an economic

entity, 28-31

Stafford, Mr. Justice, 109
St. Pierre, the Abbe de, 3,

237-239

Sully, Duke of, 1, 208
Super-government, the

League of Nations

a, 112-118, 173-174,

223-225, 226, 272-

276, 280, 281
Supreme Council, 254,

258, 296
Sweden, 130-131
Switzerland, 129-130
Sydenham, Lord, 9

TAFT, Henry W., 124
Taft, William Howard,

273-283, 327-328
Thirty Years' War, 1
Treaties, as contracts,

106-108



360



INDEX



Treaties, not abrogated
by unilateral legis-
lation, 106, 108
the supreme law of the

land, 80, 81
under the Confedera-
tion, 84

when self-executing, 86
Treaty-making power,
under the Constitu-
tion of the United
States, 149-150, 155,
170-171
limitations of the, 157-

169

under the British Gov-
ernment, 150-156
Tucker, John Randolph,

168-169

Tucker, St. George, the
elder, 168

UNANIMITY, in the Ex-
ecutive Council of



the League of Na-
tions, 275-277
Utrecht, Congress of, 3,
237

VATTEI,, 77-78

WAR DEBTS, 65-66

Washington, President,
84, 242

Westphalia, Congress of,
1

William II, German Em-
peror, 42-48, 183

Wilson, President, 6-7 }
18-19, 38-40, 61-64,
137, 180-185, 202,
211, 218-220, 233-
235, 263-264, 282,
294

Workmen and Soldiers,
Councils of, 49

ZAMORA, case of the, 72



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Online LibraryDavid Jayne HillPresent problems in foreign policy → online text (page 17 of 17)