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DAVID LIVINGSTONE,




H. M. STANLEY.



LIVINGSTONE'S AFRICA.



PERILOUS ADVENTURES AND EXTENSIVE DISCOVERIES

IN TIIK

Interior of Africa,

Irrnn Wit l^rsonal giuTatiiie

OF

DAVID UVmGSTONE, LL.D., D.C.L.,

TOGETHER WITH

THE REMARKABLE SUCCESS AND IMPORTANT RESULTS



OF TUE



Herald-Stanley Expedition,

AS FURNISHED BY H. M. STANLEY, ESQ.,

SPKCI.VL CORRESPONDENT OF TUB NEW YORK HER.\LI>.

BEING

A COMPLETE RELIABLE AND GRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE EXTENSIVE EXPLORATION:^, IMPOR

TANT DISCOVERIES AND THRILLING ADVENTURES OF THE GREATEST EXPLORER OF MODERN

TIMES, IN THE RICHEST AND WILDEST COUNTRY UPON THE FACE OF THE EARTH,

AMONG S.AVAGE MEN, FEROCIOUS BEASTS, DEADLY REPTILES, POISONOUS INSECTS,

ETC., ETC., COVERING A PERIOD OF NEARLY TWENTY-EIGHT YEARS, AND

INCLUDING A FULL AND GRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF THE HERALD-STANLET

EXPHDITION, AND WHAT IT EXPERIENCED AND ACCOMPLISHED,

ETC., ETC., ETC.

Td which is added a Sketch of other Important Discoieries in Afripn,

INCLUDING

THE CELEBRATED BIAMOND DIGGINGS AT OOLESBERO KOPJE.

ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS



SOLD ONLY I;Y SUBSCRIPTION.

HUBBARD BBOS., PHTLA. & BOSTON ;

Goodspeed's Empire Publishing House, Chicago,

ClXCINNATI, AND St. LoUIS. GoODWYN & Co., ISTeW

Orlean-s, La. A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Francisco, Cal.






Entered accordiug to Act of Congress, ia the year 1S72, by

nUBBARD BROS.,

In the Office of tlie Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.







PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.



The interest taken in modern times in books of travel
is significant of the growing feeling of sympathy with all
manifestations of human activity. The railroad and the
telegraph have brought the most distant nations into
closer commercial and social relations than it was possible
to create, even fifty years ago. The nations of the East,
India, China, Japan, Turkey, have all begun to feel the
need of opening their gates to the advent of civilization.
Even the tribes of Central Africa have been made better
acquainted with the rest of the world, through the labors
of recent explorers, than they have ever been before.
Among these travellers, whc have devoted the best
energies of their lives in exploring these hitherto inaccessi-
ble countries, the most distinguished is Doctor Living-
stone. His enthusiasm, his real Christian charity, his
devotion to the abolition of the slave trade — that curse
of Africa — have made the accounts of his explorations
peculiarly interesting to all classes of intelligent readers.
The publishers of this volume, therefore, present it to the
public with confidence. It contains, in a compact form,
the history of all of Doctor Livingstone's voyages of dis-
covery, and at a price wliioli vill enable those to possess it

NOV 12 1970



VI PUBLISHERS PREFACE.

wlio could not aiford to purchase the expensive volumes in
which the results of iiis explorations were originally pub-
lished. Nothing has been omitted that would be of
interest to the general reader. Only such records of
scientific observations, as Avould be of use only to the special
students in their various branches of scientific research,
are not here reproduced. The accounts, from Doctor
Livingstone himself, of his successive voyages ; the origin
of the reports of his death ; the result of the search expe-
dition, sent out by the Neio York Herald, under Mr.
Stanley ; the letters in which Doctor Livingstone narrates
what he was doing while the world supposed him dead ;
the results of his discoveries, and what he expects to do to
complete his life-long devotion to African exploration,
will be found in the pages of this volume, told with that
charm of simplicity of style M-hich has made his former
narrations so interesting and popular.

Of the style in wdiicli the volume is prepared, and for
which the publishers are responsible, they feel it unneces-
sary to say more than that no care or pains have been
spared upon it. The book will speak for itself; and they
feel assured that their efforts to please will be duly appre-
ciated by the public.



CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.



Personal Saetcb — Highland Ancestors — Family Traditions —Grandfather re-
moves to t'ho Lowlands — Parents — Early Labors and Efforts — Evening
School — Love of Reading — Religious Impressions — Medical Education —
Youthful Travels — Geology — Mental Discipline — Study in Glasgow — London
Missionary Society — N xvve Village — Medical Diploma — Theological Studies
— Departure for Africa No Claim to Literary Accomplishments Page il



CHAPTER I.

The Bakwdin Country — Study of the Language — Mabotsa Station — A Lion
Encounter — Virus of the Teeth of Lions — Scchele — Baptism of Seehele —
Opposition of the Natives — Purchase Land at Chonuilue — Relations with
the People — Their Intelligence — Prolonged Drought — Consequent Trials —
The Hunting IIopo 18



CHAPTER IL

The Boers — Their Treatment of the Natives — The Tale of the Cannon — The
Boers threaten Seehele — In violation of Treaty, they expel Missionaries —
They attack the Bakwains — Their Mode of Fighting — -The Natives killed
and the School-Children carried into Slavery — Destruction of English Pro-
perty — Continued Hostility of the Boers — The Journey North — Prepara-
tions — Fellow-Travellers 28



CHAPTER IIL

Departure from Kolobeng, 1st June, 1S49 — Companions — Our Route — Sorotii,
a Fountain in the Desert — The Hyena — The Chief Sekouii — Dangers — The
Wandering Guide — Cross Purposes — Slow Progress — Want of AV^ater — The
■"ii!t-l'an at Ncbokotsa — The Mirage — Reach the River Zouga — The Quaker?
f Africa — Discovery of Lake Ngami, 1st August, 1849 — Its Extent — Small
Uepth of Water — The Bamangwato and their Chief — Desire to risit Sebi-
tuane, the Chief of the Makololo — Refusal of Lechulatebe to furnish us witfc
'Viidas — The Banks of tho Zouga 34



CHAPTER IV.

Leave Kolobeng again for the Country of Scbituane — Reach the Zouga- -The
Tsetse — A Party of Englishmen — Death of Mr. Rider — Obtain Guides —
Children lull sick with Fever — Relinquish the Attempt to reach Sobituane —
Return to Kolobeng — Make a Third Start thence — Reach Nchokotsa — Oii)



VI Ji CONTENTS.

Guide Sbobo— The 13anaj6a— An Ugly Chief— The Tsetse- Bite fatal to
Domestis Animals, but harmless to Wild Animals and Man — Operition ot
the Poison— Losses caused by it — The Makololo — Our Meeting with Sebi
tuane — His Sudden Illness and Death — Succeeded by his Daughter— Her
Friendliness to us — Discovery, in June, 1851, of the Zambesi flowing in the
Centre of the Continent — Determine to send Family to England — Return to
the Capo in April, 1852 — Safe Transit through the Caffre Country during
Hostilities — Need of a '• Special Correspondent" — Kindness of the London
Missionary Society — Assistance afiforded by the Astronomer-Royal at the
Cape Page 44

CHAPTER V.

Start, in June, 1852, on the Last and Longest Journey from Cape Town- -
Companions — Wagon-Travelling — Migration of Springbucks — The Orang*
River — Territory of the Griquas and Bechuanas — The Griquas — The Chief
Waterboer — His Wise and Energetic Government — His Fidelity — Success
of the Missionaries among the Griquas and Bechuanas — Manifest Improve-
ment of the Native Character — Dress of the Natives — Articles of Commerce
in the Country of the Bechuanas — Their Unwillini^ness to learn and Readi-
ness to criticize il



CHAPTER VL

Kuruman — Its fine Fountain — The Bible translated by Mr. Alull'at — Capa-
bilities of the Language — Christianity among the Natives — Disgraceful
Attack of the Boers on the Bakwains — Letter from Sechele— Details of the
Attack — Destruction of House and Property at Kolobcng — The Boers vow
Vengeance against me — Consequent Difficulty of getting Servants to accom-
pany mo on my Journey — Start in November, 1852 — Meet Sechele on hia
way to England to obtain Redress from the Queen — He is unable to proceed
beyond the Cape — Meet Mr. Macabe on his Return from Lake Ngami — Reach
Litubaruba — The Cave Lepelole — Superstitions regarding it — Impoverished
State of the Bakwains — Retaliation ou the Boers — Slavery — Attachment of
the Bechuanas to Children 63



CHAPTER VIL

Departure from the Country of the Bakwains — Largo Black Ant — Habits of
Old Lions — Cowardice of the Lion — Its Dread of a Snare — Major Vardon'a
Note — The Roar of the Lion resembles the Cry of the Ostrich — Seldoia
attacks full-grown Animals— Buffaloes and Lions — Sekomi's Ideas of Ho-
nesty — Gordon Cumming's Hunting Adventures — A Word of Advice for
Youag Sportsmen — Busbwomen drawing AVater 73



CHAPTER VIIL

Effectr jf Missionary Efforts — ISelief in the Deity — Departure from iheir
Coui/try — Nebokotsa — The Btishuien— Their Superstitions — Elephant-Hant-
lEg — The Chief Kaisa — His Fear of Rcitponsibility — Severe Labor in cutting
our Way — Party seized with Fever — Discovery of Grape-Bearing Vines —
Difficulty of passing through the Forest — Sickness of my Companion — The
Bushmen — Their Mode of destroying Lions — Poisons — A Pontooniug Ex-
pedition — The Chobe — Arrive at the Village of Moremi — Surprise c*" the
Makololo a" our Sudden Appearance — Cross the Chobo on our wav ti
Linyanti *"



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER IX.



Reception at Linyanti— The Court Herald— Sekeletu obtains the Chioftainfhip
from his Sister— Sckeletu's Reason for not learning to road the Bible-
Public Religious Services in the Kotla— Unfavorable Associations of the
Place— Native Doctors— Proposals to teach the Makololo to read— Sekeleta's
Present— Reason for accepting it— Trading in Ivory— Accidental Firo—
Presents for Sekeletu Page 96



CHAPTER X.

Ihe Fever— Its Symptoms— Remedies of the Native Doctors— IlospiUlity of
Sekeletu and his People— They cultivate largely— The Makalaka or Subject
Tribes— Sebituane's Policy respecting them— Their Affection for him— Pro-
ducts of the Soil— Instrument of Culture— The Tribute— Distributed ty the
Chief— A Warlike Demonstration — Lechulatebe's Provocations — The Ma-
kololo determine to punish him 104



CHAPTER XI.

Departure from Linyanti for Sesheke— Level Country— Ant-Hills— Wild Date-
Trees — Appearance of our Attendants on the March — The Chief's Guard—
They attempt to ride on Oxback — Reception at tho Villages — Presents of
Beer and Milk — Eating with the Hand— The Chief provides tho Oxen for
Slaughter — Social Mode of Eating— Cleanliness of Makololo Huts — Their
Construction and Appearance — The Beds — Cross the Leeambye — Aspect of
this part of the Country — Hunting — An Eland . 109

CHAPTER XIL

Procure Canoes and ascena Ibo Leeambye — Beautiful Islands — AVinter Land-
scape — Industry and Skill uf the Banyeti — Rapids — Falls of Gonye — Nalicle,
tho Capital, built on an Artificial Mound — Santuru, a Great Hunter — >The
Barotse — More Religious Feeling — Belief in a Future Stato and in the
Existence of Spiritual Beings — Hippopotamus-Hunters — No Healthy Loca-
tion — Determine to go to Loanda — Buflaloes, Elands, and Lions above
Libonta — Two Arabs from Zanzibar — Their Opinion of the Portuguese and
the English — Reach tho Town of Ma-Sekeletu — Joy of the People at tlw
First Visit of their Chief — Return to Sesheke — Heathenism llfl

CHAPTER XIII

Preliminary Arrangements for the Journey — A Picho — Twenty-Seven Men
f ppointed to accompany me to tho West — Eagerness of tho Makololi; fdi
Direct Trade with the Coast — Effects of Fever — A Makololo Question — Re-
flections — The Outfit for the Journey — lltli November, 1853, leave Linyanti
and embark on the Chobe — Dangerous Hippopotami — Banks of Chobe —
Xrees — The Course of the River — The Island Mparia at the Confluence of
the Chobe and the Leeambye — Anecdote — Ascend tho Leeambye — Public
Addresses at Sesheke — Attention of the People — Results — Proceed up th«
River — The Fruit which yields Nux vomica — The Rapids — Hippopotami and
their Young 128



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XIV.



Increasing Beauty :f tLo Country — Mode of spending the Day— The People
ftud tbo Falls of Gonyc — A Makololo Foray — A second prevoutetl, and Cap-
tive* delivered up — Politeness and Liberality of the People — The Kains —
Present of Oxen — Death from a Lion's Bite at Libonta — Continued Kindness
— Arrangements for spending the Night during the Journej' — Cooking and
Washing — Abundance of Animal Life— Alligators — Narrow Escape of one
of my Men — Superstitious Feelings respecting the Alligator — Large Game—
Ehoals of Fish — Hippopotami Pago I'^s



CHAPTER XV.

Message to Masiko, the Barotse Chief, regarding the Captives^Navigation of
the Leeambye — Capabilities of this District — The Leeba — Buffalo-Hunt—
Suspicion of the Balonda — Sekelcnke's Present — Message from Manenko, a
Female Chief — Mambari Traders — A Dream — Sheak6ndo and his People —
Interview with Nyamoina, an Hber Female Chief— Court Etiquette — Haii
versus on it — Native Devices for killing Game — Tsetse now in
Country — Agricultural Industry — An Albino murdered by his Mother —
"Guilty of Tlolo" — Women who make their Mouths '•'like those of Ducks"
— First Symptom of the Slave-Trade on this Side — Selole's Hostility — An
Armed Party hoaxed — An Italian Marauder slain — Elephant's Tenacity of
Life — A AVord to Young Sportsmen — Mr. Oswell's Adventure v/ith an Ele-
phant: Narrow Escape — Mburuma's Village — Suspicious Conduct of his
People — Guides attempt to detain us — The Village and People of Ma-
Mburuma — Character our Guides give of us 35J

CHAPTER XXIX.

Confluence of Loangwa and Zambesi — Hostile Appearances — Huins of a
Church — Turmoil of Spirit — Cross the River — Friendly Parting — Tho Situa-
tion of Zurabo for Commerce — Pleasant Gardens — Dr. Lacerda's Visit to
Cazembe— Pereira's Statement — Unsuccessful Attempt to establish Trade



XIV CONTENTS.

with ihe People of Cazembe — One of my Men tossed by a Buffalo —Meet a
Man with Jacket and Hat on — Hear of the Portuguese and Native War-
Dancing for Corn — JMpende's Hostility — Incantations — A Fight anticipated —
Courage and Remarks of my Men — Visit from two old Councillors of Mpcinle
— Their Opinion of the English — Mpende concludes not to fight us — llij
subsequent Friondsliip — Aids us to cross the River — Desertion of one of my
Men — Meet Native Traders with American Calico — Boroiua — Freshets —
Leave the River — Loquacious Guide — Nyampungo, the Rain-Charmer — An
on Man — Nfl Silver— Gold- Washing — Nj Cattle Page 372

CHAPTER XXX.

An Elephant-Hunt — Offering and Prayers to the Barimo for Success — Nativ«
Mode of Expression— -Working of Game-Laws — A Feast — Laughing Hycrjas
— Numerous Insects — Curious Notes of Birds of Song — Caterpillars — Butter
flies — Silica — Tiie Fruit Makoronga and Elephants — Rhinoceros-Adventure
— Honey and Bees'- Wax — Superstitious Reverence for tlie Lion — Slow Tra-
relling — Grapes — The Ue — Monina's Village — Native Names — Suspected of
Falsehood — War-Dance — Insanity and Disappearance of Monahin — Fruit-
less Search — Monina's Sympathy — The Sand-River Tangwc — The Ordeal
Muavi : its Victims — An Unreasonable Man — "Woman's Rights" — Presents
— Temperance — A Winding Course to shun Villages — Bunyai Complexion
and Hair — Mushrooms — The Tubers, Mokuri — -The Tree Shckabakadzi—
Face of the Country— Pot-Holcs — Pursued by a Party of Natives^Unplea-
eant Threat — Aroused by a Company of Soldiers — A Civilized Breakfast —
Arrival at Tele 387

CJIAl'TER XXXL

tvind Reception from the Commandant — His Generosity to my Men — -The Vil-
lage of I'ete — The Population — Distilled Spirits — The Fort — Cause of the
Decadence of Portuguese Power — Former Trade — Slaves employed in Gold-
Washing — Slave-Trade drained the Country of Laborers — The Rebel
Nyaude's Stockade — He burns Tctc — Extensive Field of Sugarcane — The
Commandant's Good Reputation among the Natives — Providential Guidance
— Seams of Coal — A Hot Spring — Picturesque Country — Watcr-Carriage t«
the Conl-Fields — Workmen's AVages — Exports — Price of Provisions — Visit
Gold-Washings — Coal within a Gold-Field — Present from Major Sicard- -
Natives raise Wheat, Ac. — Liberality of the Commandant — Geographical
Information from Senhor Candido — Earthquakes — Disinterested Kindness
of the Portuguese 405



CHAPTER XXXIL

Leave Tete and proceed down the River — Pass the Stockade of Bonga— War-
Drum at Shiramba — Reach Senna — -Its Ruinous State — Landoens levy Fine*
upon the Inhabitants — Cowardice of Native Militia— Boat-Building at Senna
— Our Departure — Fever: its EflFects — Kindly received into the House of
Colonel Nunes at Kilimane — Forethought of Captain Nolloth and Dr. Walsh
— Joy imbittered — Deep Obligations to the Earl of Clarendon, Ac. — De-
sirableness of Missionary Societies selecting Healthy Stations — Arrange-
ments on leaving my Men — Site of Kilimane — Unhealthiness — Arrival of
U.M. Brig "Frolic" — Anxiety of one of my Men to go to England — Rough
Passage in the Boats to the Ship — Sekwebu's Alarm — Sail for Mauritius-
Sekwebu on board : ho becomes insane: drowns himself — Kindness of Major-
Oeneral C. M. Hay — Escape Shipwreck — Reach Home 420

Historical Sketch of Discoveuv in Africa 434



CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER XXXIII.

The time spent in England— Honors conferred on Dr. Livingstone— The next
E.^pedition— Tliu Ste.imer Pearl— The launch "Ma Robert "—The Zambesi
—Firing Up with Ebony and Lignum Vitse— The Baobab Tree — Tette —
SuperstiT;ions of the Natives— Gun and other Doclors—Morunibwa— A Na-
tive Concert— An African Christmas— The African Language— The Flood
of the Zambesi— African Fever— The Sliire— The "Murchison" Cataracts—
The Divine Right of Kings — Crazy Guides Page 434

CHAPTER XXXIV.

Search for Lake Nyassa— The Chief Tinjane— Elephant Marsh— The Borassus
Palm— Discovering Lake Nyassa — Protected Villages — A Woman Rondo —
Cotton Raising and Iron Working — The Pepele, an Evidence of the Force
of Fashion — Manganja Beer — The Price of Slaves 442



CHAPTER XXXV.

Returning the Makololo to their Homes — Resemblance of Africans to Ancient
Assyrians — The Order of March — Deposits of Coal — The Ruins of ZMmbo —
The Honey Bird — The Baenda-pezi, or " Go-nakeds " — Native African
Poets 450



CHAPTER XXXVI.

Victoria Fall? — Comparison with Niagara — The View from Gaiden Island —
Columns of Vapor — The Upper Zambesi — Meat- Eaters and Grain-Eaters —
A Fashionable Lady — Polygamy — Smoking Bang — The Labor Question —
Batoka Manners — The Color of the Africans — The Tsetse — Return to
Tette 461



CHAPTER XXXVn.

Arrival of the " Pioneer" — The Missionaries — Again on the Shire — Freeing a
Party of Slaves— On to Lake Nyassa— Its Banks Thickly Settled— A Cake
of Flies — Lost for Four Days — The Zambesi Again — Arrival of Mrs. Liv-
ingstone — Her Death and Burial — Exploring the Rovuma — Returning to the
"Pioneer" 47.3



CHAPTER XXXVIIL

Up the Shire Again— Notes on Crocodiles — Varieties of Poisons — Native Su-
perstitions — The Cataracts of the Shire — A Woman Chief — Return to the
Coast — Trip to Bombay — Arrival in England 480



CHAPTER XXXrX.

Starts on a Fresh Voyage — Report of his Death — Doubts of the Accuracy of
the Story — Search Expedition — The Hernhl Expedition — Livingstone Found
— The Meeting — Livingstone's Storv i.f his Travels — The End of Nyassa
Lake — The Head Waterf of the Nile — Lake liineoln — Livingstone iiml
Stanley Exploring in Company — Return <>i the Herald Expedition 402



XVI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XL.

Stanley Arrives at Marseilles — Livingstone's Insensibility to Fear — Living-
stone's Letter to the Herald — The Evils of the Slave Trade — Bloated African
Aristocrats — The Beauty of the Women — Their Ornaments — Dying of a
Broken Heart — A Cannibal Nation — Lake Lincoln — A Comparison of Afri-
cans with Europeans — Native Markets Page 513

CHAPTER XLL

Doubts of the Accounts brought by Stanley — Proofs of their Veracity — Grass
Ten Feet High — Natural Grass Bridges — The Home of the Gorilla — Winter
Quarters — Ulcerated Feet — Gorilla Eaters — Livingstone to Lord Clarendon —
The Springs of the Nile^ — The Mountains of the Moon — The Secret of the
Nile — Cannibals — Guns Thought to be Supernatural — The Reasons why
the Expedition Failed — The Further Discoveries Livingstone Hopes to
Make 531

Historical Sketch of Discoveries in Africa 586

The Diamond Diggings at New Rush 597



JOURNEYS AND RESEARCHES

IN

SOUTH AFRICA.



INTRODUCTION.



My own inclination Avould lead nie to say as little as pos-
sible about myself; but several friends, in whose judgment
I have confidence, have suggested that, as the reader likes to
know something about the author, a short account of his
origin and early life would lend additional interest to this
book. Such is my excuse for the following egotism ; and, if
any apology be necessary for giving a genealogy, I find it in
the fact that it is not very long, and contains only one inci-
dent of which I have reason to be proud.

Our great-grandfather fell at the battle of CuUoden, fight-
ing for the old line of kings; and our grandfather was a
small farmer in Ulva, where my father was born. It is one
of that cluster of the Hebrides thus alluded to by Walter
Scott : —

" And Ulva dark, and Colonsay,
And all the group of islets gay
That guard famed Stafifa round."*

Our grandfather was intimately acquainted with all the
traditionary legends which that great writer has since
made use of in the "Tales of a Grandfather " and other
works. As a boy I remember listening to him with de-

* Lord of the Isles, canto iv.



4 THE AUTnOR'S ANCESTORS.

light, for his memory -was stored with a ncver-emlin^
Btock of stories, many of which were wonderfull}^ like
those I have since heard while sitting by the African even-
ing fires. Our grandmother, too, used to sing Gaelic
Bongs, some of which, as she believed, had been composed
by captive islanders languishing hopelessly among the
Turks.

Grandfather could give particulars of the lives of his
ancestors for six generations of the family before him;
and the only point of the tradition I feel proud of is this :
One of these poor hardy islanders was renowned in the
district for great wisdom and lirudencc; and it is related
that, Avhen he was on his death-bed, he called all his chil-
dren around him and said, " ]S"ow, in my lifetime I have
searched most cai'cfully through all the traditions I could
find of our family, and I never could discover that there
was a dishonest man among our forefathers. If, therefore,
any of you or any of your children should take to dis-
honest ways, it will not be because it runs in our blood ;
it does not belong to you. I leave this precept with you :
Be honest." If, therefore, in the following pages I fall
into any errors, I hope they will be dealt with as honesi
mistakes, and not as indicating that I have forgotten our
ancient motto. This event took ]jlacc- at a time wlien the
Highlanders, according to Macaulay, were much like the
Cape Caffi'cs, and an}^ one, it was said, could escape punish-
ment for cattle-stealing by presenting a share of the
plunder to his chieftain. Our ancestors were Eoman Catho-
lics : they were made Protestants by the laird coming



Online LibraryDavid LivingstoneLivingstone's Africa: perilous adventures and extensive discoveries in the interior of Africa → online text (page 1 of 48)