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Concise Gazetteer


The World









Edinburgh t
Printed by W. & R. Chambers, Limited.


THE first question that naturally comes into one's mind when a place is
mentioned is : ' Where is it 1 ' * What is to be known about it ? ' is as
naturally the second. One cannot open a newspaper without lighting on some
reference to the railway bridge over the Zambesi, the battle of Tsushima,
difficulties at Koweit, the naval base at Rosyth, or, it may be, to Masampho,
Skagway, Tchernavoda, Tuskegee, Zeebrugge ; or there will be an allusion
to the 'prisoner of Chillon,' the 'rector of Lutterworth,' the 'martyr of Erro-
mango,' the 'sage of Chelsea,' the 'Mantuan,' the 'Corsican,' the 'cure
of Meudon,' the 'victor of Barossa,' the 'hero of Khartoum,' the
' Chiltern Hundreds,' the ' monks of Medmenham,' or the ' Little Gidding
community. '

Not even Macaulay's schoolboy could carry the whereabouts of all these
places in his head, or could explain every one of the allusions. The present
work aims to supply the want indicated. It is largely based on the geo-
graphical matter of Chambers's E?icyclopwdia, but many of the articles are
new, and there are numerous additions to the list. It is a Gazetteer of the
World, comprehensive yet handy, containing the latest and most reliable
information about nameworthy places at home and abroad : the last census of
civilised countries, and the most authentic official figures, have, it need hardly
be said, been taken advantage of in every available case. The etymology of
the names, where it is significant and interesting, has not been neglected, and
an attempt has been made to do justice, however briefly, to history and literary
associations. This is probably the only Gazetteer of the World that explains
the interest of Craigenputtock and Somersby, Morwenstow and Chalfont St
Giles, Ramsbottom, Wem, and Tong. Yet, full though it is, it does not
profess to be exhaustive ; to give, for instance, every one of (at least) 275 cities,
counties, towns, townships, villages, hamlets, and post-offices of the name of
Washington in the United States, or every one of the 90 Newtons on both sides
of the Atlantic. To have attempted this would, by the curtailment of the
longer articles, have involved the sacrifice of much space now put to a better
use. Instead, the aim of the work has been to tell everything that may be
reasonably wanted about every place likely to be looked for, and to tell it with
the utmost conciseness consistent with clearness and readableness. References
to standard books have been added to the articles on the more important and
interesting countries, towns, and even villages.



' The pronunciation has been indicated in all cases where doubt could arise —
by accent when this suffices, or by re-spelling in full, in the way most likely
to be intelligible to the average reader ; although it must be remembered that
in many cases the pronunciation can only be approximately suggested in
English spelling. The g in the re-spellings is always hard, as in get; ay or a
is the English a in fate ; i is the sound in mine; ow is always the sound in
how, now ; uh is the obscure sound between eh and ah ; hh here represents the
guttural ch of German and Scotch words ; and recourse had sometimes to be
had to 6 to represent the German 6 and the French oen, and to ii to indicate
the German it and the ordinary French u. Many readers will be glad to
know that the instinctive English way of accenting Altona, Potomac, Potosi,
and Cordilleras is not that customary in those parts ; that English people do
not pronounce Godmanchester, Belvoir, or Hughenden as the spelling sug-
gests ; that Scotsmen do not defer to Southron expectations in such names as
Culloden and Oban, Kirkcudbright and Milngavie ; that the Welsh do not say
Merioneth, and that Amlwch is easier to utter than it looks at first sight ;
that British sailors who have been on the spot are not safe guides for the true
pronunciation of names like Callao and Iquique, Monte Video and Buenos
Ayres, Setubal and Santander.

In this revised reissue facts, figures, and statistics have as far as possible been
brought down to the early years of the new century ; many articles have been
entirely rewritten, and hundreds have been inserted for the first time. Since
the first issue Rhodesia and Nigeria have changed beyond recognition ; the
Commonwealth of Australia has been constituted ; Canada has made un-
paralleled progress ; British South Africa has gone through more than one crisis ;
Indian provinces have been reconstituted, divided, renamed ; the republic of
the United States has increased vastly in population and wealth at home, and
entered on a significant policy of expansion abroad; the sister kingdoms of
Norway and Sweden no longer live under the same roof; Spain has lost its
colonies, and Panama become a nation ; Port Arthur and Dalny, Korea and
Manchuria, Russia and Japan, have 'made history;' Vesuvius has been in
disastrous eruption, and San Francisco been destroyed. These are but instances
of thousands of new landmarks of the world's progress and of the changes time
brings with it. In the revision of this work a strenuous effort has been made
to take account of all new developments and to make the Gazetteer a still
more valuable companion to the general reader.




A (pron. Ah), the name of several Euro-
pean rivers — in Westphalia, Switzer-
land, and North France — all small.

Aachen (Ah'hen), the German name
of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Aalborg (Awl-borg; 'Eel-town'), a
seaport of Jutland and seat of a bishopric, on the
Limfiord. Pop. (1890) 19,503 ; (1901) 31,462.

Aalen (Ah'leri), a town of Wiirtemberg, on the
Kocher, 46 miles E. of Stuttgart. Pop. 8805.

Aalesund (Awl-e-soond), a Norwegian town,
with an excellent harbour, built on three small
islands of the province of Romsdal. Pop. 11,700.

Aalst. See Alost.

Aalten, a Netherlands town, on the Aa, 30 miles
E. of Arnhein. Pop. 7000.

A'an, or Avon, a small Banffshire lake, lying
2250 feet above sea-level among the Cairngorms,
which sends off the Avon, 29 miles, to the Spey.

Aar (Ahr), next to the Rhine and Rhone the
largest river in Switzerland, rises in the Bernese
Oberland, flows through Lakes Brienz and Thun,
and passing Interlaken, Thun, Berne, Soleure,
and Aarau, joins the Rhine above Waldshut after
a course of nearly 200 miles.

Aarau (Ahr'ow). See Aargau.

Aargau (Ahr'gow; Fr. Argovie), the least
mountainous canton of Switzerland, on the lower
course of the Aar, with the Rhine for its north
boundary. Area, 548 sq. m. ; pop. (1900) 206,500,
mainly Protestant and German-speaking. The
chief town is Aarau, on the Aar. Pop. 7500.

Aarhuus (Aivr-hoos), a seaport on the east
coast of Jutland, the second of Danish cities,
with a fine Gothic cathedral of the 13th century.
Pop. (1870) 15,025 ; (1890) 33,306 ; (1901) 51,850.

Ab'aco. See Bahamas.

Abakansk, a fortified Siberian town, near the
Abakan's junction with the Yenisei. Pop. 3000.

Ab'ana and Pharpar are identified generally,
the former with the Barada, flowing through
Damascus ; the latter with the Awaj, which rises
on the SE. slopes of Hermon, passes 8 miles from
Damascus, and falls into a lake to the south.


Abancay (Aban'ki), chief town of the Peruvian
province of Apurimac, 65 miles WSW. of Cuzco.
Pop. 5000.

Abbazia (Abbatzee'a), a health-resort on the bay
of Fiume, at the head of the Quarnero gulf of the
Adriatic, 5 miles NW. of Fiume by rail. The
'Nice of the Adriatic' has since about 1880
become famous for its fine climate, beautiful
situation, and luxuriant vegetation. Pop. 3000.

Abbeoku'ta, an African city, or rather collec-
tion of small towns or villages, capital of the
territory of Egba, in the Yoruba country, 80
miles N. of Lagos. Pop. 150,000.

Abbeville (Abb-veeV), a prosperous manufac-
turing town in the French dep. of Somme, on
the river Somme, 12 miles from its mouth, and
49 miles S. of Boulogne. The west front of the
church of St Wolfram, commenced in the reign
of Louis XII., is a splendid example of Flamboy-
ant, with noble portals and rich tracery. The
chief manufactures are woollen cloths, carpets,
linens, sacking, and sugar. Near Abbeville were
found, in 1841, many prehistoric flint imple-
ments. Pop. (1872) 18,108 ; (1901) 21,100.

Abbey Craig, an abrupt eminence (362 feet),
1£ mile ENE. of Stirling. It is crowned by the
Wallace monument (1869), a baronial tower 220
feet high.

Abbeydorney, a Kerry village, 5£ miles N.
of Tralee, with a ruined abbey (1154).

Abbeyfeale, a market-town, 37 miles SW. of
Limerick. Pop. 896.

Abbeyleix (Abbey-leece'), a town of Queen's
County, 61 miles SW. of Dublin. Pop. 987.

Abbiate-Grasso (Abbiah'tay), a town of Italy,
14 miles WSW. of Milan. Pop. 7025.

Abbotabad, in the NW. Frontier Province of
India, 180 miles NNW. of Lahore. Pop. 5000.

Abbotsbury, a Dorset village, at the head of
the Fleet tidal inlet, 8 miles NW. of Weymouth.

Abbotsford, built in 1811-24 by Sir Walter
Scott, on the Tweed's south bank, 2 miles W. of

Aber, a Carnarvonshire coast-village, at the


mouth of a lovely little glen, 4f miles E. of

Aberavon, or Port Talbot, a seaport of Gla-
morganshire, on the Avon, near its mouth in
Swansea Bay, 32 miles W. of Cardiff. The valley
of the Avon is shut in by lofty hills, while every
available space is occupied by tinplate, copper,
and iron works. It is one of the 'Swansea
boroughs.' Pop. (1861) 2916 ; (1901) 7560.

Aberayron, a Cardiganshire watering-place, 14
miles SSW. of Aberystwith. Pop. 1340.

Aberbrothock. See Arbroath.

Abercam, a coal-mining municipality, pros-
perous and progressive, of Monmouthshire, 8
miles NW. of Newport. Pop. 12,600.

Abercorn, a Linlithgowshire hamlet, near the
Firth of Forth, 3| miles W. of South Queensferry.
From 681 to 685 it was the seat of a bishopric.

Aberdare, a town of Glamorganshire, 4 miles
SW. of Merthyr-Tydvil, and within its parlia-
mentary boundary. Coal and iron are found in
abundance in the vicinity, and Aberdare is a
flourishing centre of iron and tin works. Pop.
(1841) 6471 ; (1861) 32,299 ; (1901) 43,400.

Aberdeen, the chief city and seaport in the
north of Scotland, lies in the SE. angle of Aber-
deenshire, at the mouth and on the north side
of the Dee, 111 miles N. of Edinburgh. William
the Lion confirmed its privileges in 1179; the
English burned it in 1336, but it was soon rebuilt,
and called New Aberdeen. Old Aberdeen, within
the same parliamentary boundary, is a small
town a mile to the N., near the mouth of the
Don, and is the seat of St Machar's Cathedral
(1357-1527), now represented by the granite nave.
King's College and University, founded by Bishop
Elphinstone in Old Aberdeen in 1494, and Maris-
chal College and University, founded by the Earl
Marischal in New Aberdeen in 1593, were in 1860
united into one institution, the University of
Aberdeen. It has 25 professors and from 800 to
900 students in its four faculties of arts, divinity,
law, and medicine ; with Glasgow University it
sends one member to parliament. Marischal
College was rebuilt in 1841, and greatly enlarged
in 1892-95; whilst King's College is a stately
fabric, dating from 1500, its chapel adorned
with exquisite wood carvings. Aberdeen has
a flourishing trade and thriving manufactures ;
and having been largely rebuilt and extended
since the formation of Union Street in 1800,
the 'Granite City* now offers a handsome
and regular aspect. Among the chief public
edifices are the County Buildings (1867-73), the
Post-office (1876), the Market-hall (1842 ; rebuilt
after the fire of 1882), the Trades-hall (1847), the
Royal Infirmary (1740 ; rebuilt 1840), the Lunatic
Asylum (1819), the Grammar-school (1863), the
Art Gallery and Art School (1882-83), and Gor-
don's College (1739-1834). The last has been
much extended as a technical school, the founda-
tioners being no longer resident; whilst the
Infirmary was reconstructed and modernised to
celebrate the Queen's Jubilee (1887). St Nicholas
now divided into the East and West churches'
has a fine new spire (1880), 190 feet high. A
carillon of 37 bells was placed here in 1887. One
may also notice the market-cross (1686); the
Wallace, Gordon Pasha, and three other statues •
and the Duthie Public Park of 47 acres (1883).'
Since 1810, when the debt upon the harbour was
£29,614, the expenditure on harbour improve-
ments has exceeded £1,000,000, the works havin°-
included the formation of the Victoria Dock


(1848), a breakwater, the southward diversion of
the Dee (1872), and a graving-dock (1886). The
trade of the port has largely increased since
1850 ; and the aggregate tonnage of vessels enter-
ing in good years exceeds 600,000 tons. Railway
communication has also been fully established
since 1848-54. The chief exports are woollens,
linens, cotton-yarns, paper, combs, granite (hewn
and polished), cattle, grain, preserved provisions,
and fish. Aberdeen has the largest comb and
granite-polishing works in the kingdom. There
are several large paper- works within a short dis-
tance of the town ; and soap, chemicals, whisky,
and agricultural implements are amongst the
manufactures. Wooden shipbuilding was for-
merly a prosperous industry, the Aberdeen clip-
pers being celebrated as fast sailers. Connected
with Aberdeen, which has always been a cele-
brated seat of learning, have been the names
of Barbour, Boece, Jameson, Gregory, Reid,
Beattie, Campbell, Byron, Skinner, Hill Burton,
W. Dyce, J. Phillip, and Sir A. Anderson, to
whose provostship (1859-66) belong the intro-
duction of a fine water-supply, and many other
improvements. Pop. of the parliamentary burgh,
which since 1885 has returned two members,
(1801)26,992; (1841)63,288; (1881)105,003; (1891)
121,623 ; (1901) 153,500.

Aberdeenshire, a large maritime county in
the extreme NE. of Scotland. The fifth in size of
the Scottish counties, it has a maximum length
of 85 and breadth of 47 miles, with 62 miles of
sea-coast, and an area of 1971 sq. m. It has
long been popularly divided into five districts
(proceeding from south-west to north-east)— Mar,
Strathbogie, Garioch, Formartine, and Buchan.
Aberdeenshire is generally hilly, and in the
south-west (Braemar) entirely mountainous, the
loftiest summits here being Ben Muich-Dhui
(second only to Ben Nevis), 4296 feet ; Cairntoul,
4241 ; Cairngorm, 4084 ; Benabourd, 3924 ; Loch-
nagar, 3786 : whilst northward rise Bennachie,
1698 ; the Buck of Cabrach, 2368 ; and Mormond
Hill, 769. The predominant rocks are granite
and gneiss. The granite is very durable, and is
much used for building and polishing. The chief
rivers are the Dee (87 miles long), Don (82), and
Ythan (35), which run eastward into the North
Sea; and the Deveron (61 miles), which runs
north-east into the North Sea. The Ythan yields
the pearl-mussel, but rarely pearls of any value.
The most fertile parts lie between the Don and
Ythan, and in the north-east angle of the county.
About 37 per cent, of the area of the county
is cultivated, the chief crops being oats, barley,
and turnips ; whilst nearly 8 per cent, is under
wood. Aberdeenshire is unsurpassed in breeding
and feeding stock. Its principal breed is the
Polled Angus. The fisheries on the coast are
very productive, and Peterhead is the East Coast
centre of this industry. Balmoral (q.v.) is the
principal mansion ; and amongst the antiquities
are the ruins of Kildrummie Castle and the
Abbey of Deer. The chief towns and villages
are Aberdeen, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Huntly,
Kintore, Inverurie, Turriff, Ballater, and Castle-
ton. The county returns two members to par-
liament; the city of Aberdeen, two; and the
burghs of Peterhead, Kintore, and Inverurie,
with Elgin, Cullen, and Banff, one. Pop. (1801)
121,065; (1841) 192,387; (1891) 2S4,036 ; (1901)
30,440. See the history by A. Smith (1875), the
Spalding Club publications, and Watt's Aberdeen
and Banff (1900).

Aberdour, (1) a Fife village, on the Firth of



Forth, 3 miles W. of Burntisland, with a ruined
castle of the Earls of Morton. Pop. 748. (2) An
Aberdeenshire village, 8 miles W. by S. of Fraser-
burgh. Richard Chancellor was lost in Aberdour
Bay (1556).

Aberdovey, a watering-place of Merioneth-
shire, on the Dovey estuary, 10 miles N of

Aberfeldy, a pleasant Perthshire village, near
the Tay's south bank, 32£ miles NW. of Perth by
rail. The neighbouring Falls of Moness are cele-
brated in Burns's Birks of Aberfeldy. A monu-
ment (1887) commemorates the embodiment of
the Black Watch here in 1740. Pop. 1569.

Aberffraw, a seaport of Anglesey, 12 miles SE.
of Holyhead. Pop. 959.

Aberfoyle, a Perthshire hamlet, immortalised
through Scott's Rob Roy, 23 miles W. of Stirling
by rail.

Abergavenny (A bergen'ny; Rom. Gobannium),
a market-town of Monmouthshire, at the Gav-
enny's influx to the Usk, 13 miles W. of Mon-
mouth. It has remains of an old castle and of a
priory, with collieries and ironworks near. Pop.
of municipal borough (1901) 7800.

Abergeldie Castle, the Aberdeenshire seat of
the Prince of Wales, on the Dee's right bank, 6
miles W. of Ballater, and 2 ENE. of Balmoral.

Abergele, a Denbighshire market-town, 34
miles W. of Chester. The burning here in 1808
of the Irish limited mail cost 33 lives. Pop. 1981.

Aberlady, a Haddingtonshire coast village, 3
miles NE. of Longniddry. Pop. 505.

Abernethy, a small police-burgh of Perthshire,
near the Earn's influx to the Tay, 8£ miles SE. of
Perth. The ancient capital of the Picts, and
from 865 till 90S the seat of the sole Scottish
bishopric, it retains one of the two Round Towers
in Scotland, 73 feet high. Pop. 852.

Abersychan, an iron and coal mining town of
Monmouthshire, 11 miles N. of Newport. Pop.
(1901) 17,770.

Abertillery, a town of Monmouthshire, 16
miles NNW. of Newport. Pop. 21,945.

Aberystwith, a Avatering-place and municipal
borough of Cardiganshire, on the Ystwith, at its
mouth in Cardigan Bay, 242 miles NW. of London
by rail. It is the seat of the University College
of Wales (1872). There are remains of a castle
(1109). Till 1885 it was one of the Cardigan
parliamentary boroughs. Pop. (1851) 5231 ; (1891)
6725 ; (1901) 8015.

Abingdon, a municipal borough of Berkshire,
situated at the junction of the Ock and the
Thames, 6 miles S. of Oxford, and 60 WNW. of
London. 'Abbaddun' (Abbot's town) was an
important place in the 8th century, and its
Benedictine abbey, rebuilt in 955, was very rich.
Its school, founded in 1563, was rebuilt in 1870.
A large clothing manufactory employs many
hands. Till 1S85 Abingdon returned a member
to parliament. Pop. (1851) 5954 ; (1901) 6480.

Abington, a Lanarkshire village, on the Clyde,
14 miles SSE. of Lanark.

Abkhasia, or Abasia, a district of Asiatic
Russia, between the Caucasus and the Black Sea.
The inhabitants, who numbered at the outbreak
of the Turkish war of 1878 about 30,000, are
now, by emigration, less than half as numerous.
Russia gained possession of the fortresses of
Abkhasia in 1824, but finally subdued the people
only in 1864. See Caucasus.

Abo (pronounced Obo), the chief town of a
government in Finland, on the river Aurajoki,
near its embouchure in the Gulf of Bothnia, 170
miles WNW. of Helsingfors by rail. It has an
active trade, and exports timber, and bar and
cast iron. Its university was transferred to
Helsingfors after the great fire of 1827. A peace
between Sweden and Russia was signed here in
1743. Pop. (1890) 31,671; (1900) 37,700.

Abomey. See Dahomey.

Aboukir', a coast-village of Egypt, 13 miles
NE. of Alexandria. In Aboukir Bay Nelson won
the great ' Battle of the Nile ' over the French
fleet, August 1, 1798. Here Napoleon in 1799
defeated a Turkish army ; and here Sir Ralph
Abercromby's expedition landed in 1801.

Abousambul. See Abu-Simbel.

Aboyne', a Deeside village, 32£ miles W. by
S. of Aberdeen. Aboyne Castle is the seat of
the Marquis of Huntly. See his Records of
Aboyne (1894).

Abraham, Plains or Heights of, close to the
city of Quebec, the scene of Wolfe's victory,
13th September 1759. They were so called from
a pilot, Abraham Martin.

Abrantes (A-bran'tes), a town of Portugal, on
the Tagus, 84 miles NE. of Lisbon. Pop. 6380.

Abruzzo (Abroot'so), or Abruzzi, a district of
Central Italy, was formerly the north-east corner
of the Kingdom of Naples, in the loftiest portion
of the Apennines. The jagged mountain groups
reach in the Gran Sasso d'ltalia 9600 feet.

Abu, a mountain (5650 feet) of India, in the
territory of Serohee, Rajputana, a detached
granite mass rising like an island from the plain
of Marwar, near the Aravalli ridge. It is a cele-
brated place of pilgrimage, especially for the
Jains, who have live temples at Delwara, about
the middle of the mountain, two of which are
the most superb of all Jain temples. Both are
built of white marble, finely carved, and date
from 1031 and 1197 a.d. The mountain contains
a beautiful lake 4000 feet above the sea ; and the
region is a summer-resort for Europeans.

Abu Klea, on the route across country between
Korti and Metammeh, both on the great bend of
the Nile below Khartoum. Here, on 17th January
1885, Sir Herbert Stewart defeated the Mahdi.

Abushehr. See Bushire.

Abu-Simbel (also Abousambul or Ipsambul), a
place on the left bank of the Nile, in Lower
Nubia, the site of two very remarkable rock-cut
temples, amongst the most perfect and noble
specimens of Egyptian architecture.

Aby'dos, (1) a town in Asia Minor, situated at
the narrowest part of the Hellespont, opposite
Sestos, was the place whence Xerxes and his
vast army passed into Europe in 480 b.c. ; and
in poetry is famous for the loves of Hero and
Leander.-— (2) A city of Upper Egypt, on the left
bank of the Nile, once second only to Thebes,
but even in Strabo's time a mere ruin. Here the
remains of the Memnonium and of a temple of
Osiris are still remarkable.

Ab'yla. See Ceuta.

Abyssinia (from the Arabic name Habesh,
'mixture,' given on account of the mixed popu-
lation), is a highland state of Eastern Africa,
jealous in defence of its independence, and lies
between the flats at the south end of the Red
Sea and the Blue Nile on the west, and extends
from Nubia southward to the Galla country.


Divisions are Tigre in the north, Amhara in the
centre, and Shoa in the south, besides outlying
territories in the S. and SB. (Harar, q.v.).
Abyssinia, with an area of 180,000 sq. m., mainly
consists of a huge tableland with a mean eleva-
tion of 7000 feet. The declivity to the bordering
tract on the Red Sea is abrupt ; towards the Nile
basin it is more gradual. The main mass has
been cut into a number of island-like sections by
the streams, which have worn their channels into
ravines of vast depth— as much sometimes as 4000
feet. The principal are the head-streams of the
Blue Nile, issuing from the great Lake Tzana,
Tana, or Dembea, and the Atbara, also a tribu-
tary of the Nile ; less important are the Mareb
and the Hawash. Isolated mountains, with
naked perpendicular sides, present the most
singular forms. The Samen Mountains have
summits rising to the height of 15,000 feet.
The climate, notwithstanding its tropical posi-
tion, is on the whole moderate and pleasant
owing to its elevation, though in the river
valleys and swamps the heat and moisture are
suffocating and pestilential. As a whole, the
country is exceedingly fruitful ; and its produc-
tions are of the most varied nature, from the
pines, heaths, and lichens of North Europe to
the choicest tropical plants. Two, and in some
places three, crops can be raised in one year.

The population numbers some four millions,
and consists of various elements, the chief being
the Abyssinians proper— a brown, well-formed
people, belonging to the Semitic stock. The
basis of the language is the ancient Ethiopic
(see Ethiopia) or Ge'ez, a Semitic tongue which
is now the sacred language. The modern dialect
of Amhara is the prevalent language of the
country. There are Gallas and Somalis in the
south and south-east. The Falashas are of
Jewish origin, and still retain many of their
racial peculiarities. The towns are small—

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