David Philip Lindsley.

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Ebb, egg, ed. Deck, neck, peg. Separate, section, deceptive.

Not, non, what, do, to, to-day. Among, men, when, ten, den. Bone,
known, alone, done, son, one. Fatal, fadeless, family, seminary, assidu-


REMARK. The student must review every day. In this art nothing
should be considered gained until it is perfectly familiar. We give a mis-
cellaneous exercise to facilitate review.


Long. A, I, 0, be, he, me, we, so, go, may.

Short. At, am, an, in, it, on, up, us, odd, man.

Irregular. The, she, is, has, have, are, was, you, do, does.

I am. He is. It is. She is. We are. You are I was. He was..
It was. She was. I do. You do. I have. You have. She has. It
has. I go. You go.

She is up. She is on. He is in. It is in. He is up. We are up.
We are on. We are in. It was in. It was up. It was on. She was up.
I do it. You do it. I have it. You have it. She has it. I go up. You
go up. I go on. I go in. You go in.

I am a man. He is a man. You are a man. She was in it. I was in
it. ! do go in. ! do have it. Are you the man ? I go at it. She
was at you. Do you go in it ? Has the man an ear ? Does he go in ?
Does he go up ? Does the man have it ? We are upon it. We go in it.

REMARK. We add a few more suggestions for practice.


Rewrite the preceding lesson. To facilitate this review, the student may
omit every other line, when making the first copy, and rewrite on the line
left open. We ask pupils who take private lessons to leave two lines ; we
correct their writing on the second line ; they rewrite on the third.

REMARK. The pupil will now proceed with reading and writing alter-
nately, adding a little to his exercise each day. He should be sure that he
can read all he writes as well as the printed exercises; and, to make it sure,
he must actually read each day the writing exercise of the preceding day.

SECTION 4. Short Vowels.

Were the pupil supposed to understand the sounds of the letters accu-
rately, further illustrations might be spared. The distinction between the
long and short sounds of the vowels will need some attention b*y most per-

In learning -the short vowels, the pupil will do well to pronounce and
write the following exercises :


Ib, eb, ab, oob, ub, ob. A_p, ep, ip, op, up, oop. It, et, at, oot, ut, ot.
Ad, ed, id, od, ud, ood. If, ef, af, off, uf, oof. Is (s, not z), es, us, oos.
In, en, an, on, un, oon. Im, em, am, oom, um, om. Ill, ell, al, ool, ol, ul.
Ir, er, ar, oor, ur, or.

Said, head, led, wed, bed. Peg, leg, beg, deck, neck, wreck. Add, bad,
Bad, lad, had, mad. Mat, hat, rat, fat. Cap, rop, map. It, hit, lit, bit, pit,
Bit. Odd, dot, sot, got, hot. Us, thus, much, judge. Soon, nook, took,
rook, look.

SECTION 5. Position of Outlines.

The first perpendicular or inclined consonant in a word must rest on the
line of writing. Those that follow, take their own proper directions on the
line, above, or below it, as the case may be. It will be observed that the
consonant sign forms the proper limb for the outline to rest on. In the


word bay, for instance, the Be would come down to the line, and the A be
low it ; in came, Ka rests on the line, A is just below, and Em is struck
downward ; in come, Ka is written as before, u is disjoined and Em struck
upward ; in him, Ha commences on the line, and the whole outline is above
the line. See Illustration K.


Car, jar, bar, arm, farm, mar, tar, far, cart, barn, park, or$ for, cork, fork,
cord, lord, sort, form, corn, horn, morn, her, herd, jerk, clerk, serf, err.
cur, fur, bur, burn, urn, lurk, Turk, curb, turf, surf, curd, curl, furl,
hurl, curt, fir, sir, firm, dirk, erk, kirk, quirk, gird, bird, girl, work,
word, world, worm, worst, wort, girt, birth, first, dirt, hurt.
^ His farm has a barn on it. He rode in the park in a cart. I put a fork
in the cork. The lord put a cord on his neck. He had a bur for his spur.
Do not put a blur on the paper. A Turk may lurk in the dark, and take
your urn. He did curb him on the turf. The surf came in a wave on the
turf. The girl had a bird, and did gird on a belt. He epoke not a word in
the world.

SECTION 6. The Union of Letters without Angles.

Both consonants and vocal signs may often unite without an angle. This
adds to the facility of the writing ; both letters should be struck as though
they were one. But all angles are determined by strict geometrical laws,
and the student should be as careful to make an angle when it is required,
as to avoid it when it is not required. Observe that the consonant curves
are quarter-circles, and the vocal curves semi-circles, and you will easily de-
termine the angle.

NOTE. It will be remembered that a vowel before a consonant, or joined
to it at the point of commencement, must make an angle ; but on the end,
the semi-circles (except A) may form hooks. This is a species of contrac
tion, since it saves one stroke. See Illustration L. \

Double letters, so called, in the common orthography, do not occur in
Tachygraphy ; but the same letter is often repeated, with an intervening
vocal sound. When this sound is represented by a dot or disjoined vowel,
we have forms seen in Illustration M.


Key, debt, mated, bubble, public, dead, favor, memory, unending, asses-
sor, accessory, sustenance. Judge, edged, etched, judged, latched, error,
rarer, horror.

Move, method, mother, meditate, met. Gun, ken, government, court,
color, bend, ribbon, ebon, depend. Doth, death, eight. Sun, sung, good-
ness, business, lemon, melon, multitude, multitudinously, luminously.
Hazel, Joseph, several, safe. Antedated, indebted, undoubted, misrnated.

NOTE. The student should bear in mind that a ready use of the alpha-
betic characters in all their possible combinations is the basis of good and
rapid writing. The preceding exercises should be written and corrected by
a competent instructor ; and then rewritten many times until the pupil can
write them with no hesitation. When this is accomplished, it will be safe
to proceed to the next chapter.




Bla, bl in blow and able.
Flu, pi in plow and people.
Gla, gl in glow and eagle.



f Spe, sp in spy.
\ Ske, sk in sky.
c_ Ste, st in stay.

Cla, cl in clay and fickle. <) S fe, sph in sphere.





o Sme, sm in smite.
c_x Sue, sn in snow,
a/ Sle, si in slow.

ex' Swe, sw in swell.


^ Wha, wh in when.

wa, thw in thwack.

Dl, dl in idle.

Tl, tl in settle.

VI, vl in oval.

Fla, fl in fly and awful.


Bra, br in brow and number.

Pra, pr in prow and uppe*.

Gra, gr in grow and eager. V- Gwa; so also Kwa, Dwa, and

Cra, cr in crow and meeker. THE ^^ CJRCLE>

Dra, dr in draw and wonder, I Eps, ps in hopes.

Tra, tr in try and utter. b Ebz, bs in hubs ; so also Eks,

Egs, &c.
V_P Ence, nc in hence.

vj> Ens, ns in tens.

-^ Els, Is in else.
J Elz, Is in ills.
s? Ers, rs in worse.

f Erz, rs in wars.

Vr, vr in ever.

Fra, fr in free and safer.

Zhr, sure in measure.

Shra, shr in shred and usher.

Thr, th in either.

Tlira, th in three and anther.

Nr, nr in owner.

th in thev -
Tha, th in birth.


SECTION 1. Compound Sounds and Signs.

THE vocal diphthongs I, Ew, Oi, and Ow are represented by compound
Bigns. These signs have a relation to the signs of the simple sounds. In
analogy with this, we use signs for certain combinations of consonant
sounds. These sounds, when so represented, are considered and treated as
diphthongal sounds, and consequently this mode of representing them is in
accordance with phonic science, as well as convenient in practice.

The combinations recognized as compounds belong to the Wa, El, Ra, and
Es Series.

1. The Wa Series consists of Wh (hw), gw, kw, dw, thw, and tw. The
first only is provided with a distinctive sign ; its use is invariable. The
gw, kw, dw, tw, thw, are written by joining the simple signs in the usual
way. 'See Illustration N.


Whay, why, while, where, wherein, wherever, whereabout, wherefore,
whereto, which, wharf, whale, wheel, whiff, whip, whittle, wheedle, Whig,
whey, whoa, whew, wheeze, wheezing, whelm, when, whence, whenever,
whensoever, wheresoever, whereas, whereat, whereinto, whereof, whereon.

Qui, guac, qua, quick, quiet, querl, quarrel, quench, quill, quail, quart,
query, quarry, quadraginta, quinquaginta, quintuple, quadruped, quaff,
qualify, quality, quandary, quantity, quarto, quib, quickness, quiesce, qui-
etism, quietly, quietness, quietude, quietus, quinque, quire, quiz, quizzical,
quizzing, quo ad hoc, quo animo, quota, quoth, quotidian, quo warranto.

Equal, aqueous, aquafortis, equality, equiforin, equiformity, equip, equi-
page, equipoise.

Acquire, acquiring, equity, acquiesce, aqueduct, Aquitanian.

2. The El Series is Bl, pi, gl, kl, and fl. The first four are represented
by the alphabetic signs for Be, Pe, Ga, and Ka, varied only by an initial
hook on the right side of these signs ; Fl by an initial hook on the El.
Reading Exercise 3, line 2.

3. The Ra Series is Br, pr, gr, kr, dr, tr, fr, thr, and shr. An initial
left-hand hook characterizes the first four, also/r and thr. A hook on the
under side of De and Te, dr and tr ; and a hook on the Ar, shr.

These compound signs are employed in all cases when the sounds coa-
lesce ; as in the words play, pray, blow, brow, try, reply, displace, etc.


PI, pr, bl, br, tr, dr, kl, kr, gl, gr. fl, fr, thr, shr.

Play, pray, dry, glow, grow, glee, bray, tray, dray, try, plow, prow, blew,
brew, clue, glue, grew, trouble, drabble, trapper, trooper, broker, platter,



prattle, clutter, battle, batter, flow, fro, oval, over, through, either, initial,
treason, pleasure, brother.

Place, blaze, brays, prays, bless, press, trace, grace, glows, grows, power-
ful, travel, gravel, clever, glover, thrive, shriek, display, destroy, distress,
prosper, express, describe, descry, subscribe, disgrace, disclaim, discreet,
testy, exclaim, disclaimer, discriminate, criminal, bridge, trial, glimpse, dis-

4. The Es Series is Sp, sk, st, sf, sm, sn, and sw, as initial compounds.
The compound sign is not used when the * is a first consonant in the word,
and is preceded by a vowel. The circle would be used, for instance, in spe-
cial, but not especial. It would be used in stem, state, scout, but not in
esteem, estate, sect. If preceded by a vowel in the beginning of a syllable,
it is employed when the two sounds are clearly diphthongal ; if not, not.
Exercise. E. g. : dispose is properly divided between the dis and pose,
and the s and p are clearly separated in pronunciation ; but the word de-
spair is divided de-spair, leaving sp as a compound. Restore, respond,
bespeak, bestow, are other examples of compounds ; distance, dispense,
discover, mistake, examples that do not contain compounds. It will be
observed that the Es circle is on the El hook side of the straight signs, and
on the inside of the curves.

SECTIOX 2. Compounds of the El and Ra Series in Final Syllables.

1. The final syllables of feeble, local, paper, rightful, leader, water, etc.,
contain no vocal sound ; yet the consonants do not unite as closely as they
do in initial syllables. The use of the compound signs in these cases is not
60 strictly phonetic, but no indefiniteness can result'; and their use will be
found of great service in many words. The full form will, however, some-
times make a better outline, and join more conveniently with a preceding

In final syllables, the initial compounds are used, together with the fol-
lowing : dl, tl, vl, vr, thr, zhr, and nr. Reading Exercise 3, lines 10 to 12.

It will be observed that initial 1 and r are never represented by the hook ;
that the hooked character is seldom used when the two sounds are not
closely united ; that the remaining part of the word often determines
whether it is best to use it or not. A little care and experience will obviate
all difficulty.


Treble, terrible, traitor, Tartar, frame, farm, odor, adore, utter, attire,
seeker, secure, idle, dull, glow, goal, clay, coal, flow, follow, evil, volley,
fritter, ferreter, turtle, tortoise, break, bark, breath, birth, frail, furl, trade,
tardy, blubber, pilfer, gutter, guitar, crier, currier, boulder, bladder, plaid,
pallid, peal, plea, pale, play, Saturday, stride, purpose, propose, torpor,
trapper, brawl, barrel, crave, carve, curves.

2. When Es in the end of a syllable unites with a preceding consonant,
the circle may be employed ; and, since Es only can be sounded after the
aspirates, Pe, Te, etc., and Ze only after the sub-vowels, Be, De, etc., the
circles may be employed in the end of syllables for either Es or Ze. After
El, Ra, and En, either Es or Ze may be pronounced ; BO, after these letters,


we make one side of the circle heavy for Ze, while the Es circle is made

3. "When a syllable is added to a word ending with the circle, if the
added syllable begin with a vowel, the circle is changed into Es ; if it begin
with a consonant, the circle is retained. It would be retained in thence-
forth, henceforward, ratsbane, boxwood, etc. Note, however, that ing, as
a participial termination, may be added after the circle, as the vowel is sel-
dom written with it, and the plural termination es in like manner


Hopes, hats, hooks, hubs, heads, hogs, heaves, leaves, laughs, wills, else,
ills, worse, wars, purse, first.

Of two evils, choose the least. Such as boast much usually fail much.
We hope to be able to leave on the day you name. It is easy to demolish,
but far less easy to raise up. What is requisite to secure readiness and ex-
quisite nicencss in the appearance of such an exercise? 1 may answer, first
study the peculiarities of each form till the reason and science of every part
of it is fully understood. Then write it over several times with much care
till you are able to make the forms accurately. To make the most of the
exercise, you should write and rewrite it till you can pen forty to sixty words
in a minute. Then read it over and over again till you can read it as easily
as printing, even backwards.

What a huge ball is this earth on which we live ! How multiform its
varied features ! How marvellous its destiny ! His exquisite taste leads
him to test things nicely. Is this %e reason that he is caljed testy ? It is
not best to boast at random or ever rashly.

At the last ball of the season the hall was very magnificently decorated*
Lost hours never come back. Time once passed never returns. Haste some-
times embarrasses success, and seldom leads to more despatch. He missed
it at last. Most may secure all that would be best for them to possess.
You must seek in earnest, if you hope to secure such a bonus.

The boy has an easy task, and should be required to perform it well, or
give reason for his recklessness in the discharge of duty. An unjust judge
may be led to seek for justice. Will rust corrode the polished steel ? The
storm still rages, but the helmsman steers the vessel with the skill of a
statesman. The stoic laughs in the face of danger. You must go fast, if
you would overtake him.

SECTION 3. Triphthongal Combinations.

In the triphthongal combinations, spr, str, skr, and spl, * is written with
the long sign, and pr, tr, kr, and pi are treated as compounds.

REMARK. These and other compound signs should not be considered con-
tractions ; their use is strictly phonetic, and tends to make the writing
more legible and beautiful. They can give the student no trouble when
once he comprehends the principle ; their use is seldom in any degree equiv-
ocal. See Illustration O.


Supple, supper, sable, sabre, cider, settle, setter, sickle, sicker, sucker,
Buckley struggle, streamer, scraper, scribble, scruple, distress, prosper, ex-
press, expressive, extra, exclaim, disgrace, describe, disagreeable, describer,
strata, pastry, disclaim, disclose, sooner, suitor, suttle, sphere, suffer, safely,
safer, sever, swivel, sparrow, spray, spar, stratum, saturate, saddle, sadly,


eagely, ancestor, ancestry, imprest, impostor, imply, employ, impel, temple,
temper, tamper, tempter, trample.

Try to do right, and you will be quite likely to succeed. The flowing
waves please the hopeful angler. The gloomy clouds are full of awful fore-
bodings. She is an affable and amiable young lady, and nobly performs her
pleasing but tiresome duty.

Idleness is a plague to the scholar, for, unless he applies himself closely to
his books, he loses all claims to the applause of his family or his official su-

In order to excel in any business, it is necessary to persevere and avoid
frittering away our energies on too many pursuits.

They are in danger of losing the opportunity, and when will they have
one in all respects superior ? To acquire any science of real worth requires
much labor, care, and perseverance.

SECTION 4. The Circle between two Consonants.

When the circle comes between two consonants forming an angle, it is
written on the outside of the angle ; or, more explicitly, there are three cases :
first, when the circle comes between two straight strokes, it is then always
on the outside of the angle ; second, between a straight stroke and a curve
it is written on the inside of the curve ; third, between two curves it is
written, fiist on the inside of both when possible ; second on the inside of
that with which the sound is allied ; or third on the upper side when its
position is not otherwise determined. See Illustration P.


Spk, p-ks, st-m, t-m-z, m-ts, sn-d, sn-ch, sh-ns, sf-t, f-ts, sr-m-n r-m-ns,
Br-m-ns, sm-r-m-rz, sm-l-r, sk-l-r, sw-bz, sr-n-t, 1-k-cis, 1-n-s, 1-r-js, 1-gz, 1-jz,
sl-k, sh-dz, d-g-n-fz, sl-m-1, d-m-ns.

Bsk, bst, vst-1, bsch, fsn, psm, dzr, rsk, hsk, rsn, psl, psr, gsr-t, mzr,
nrsl, nsr, rsv, hst, hsl, nv-rs-n-r, ms-l-ns, ds, p-ch, dspzd, dsch-r-j, dsks,


Kst, ksch-n-j, gzbt, nst, ngst, kpsk, kspnsv, n-dsp-nsb-1, nst-n-t-ns, dsgzd,

Psp, tst t dsd, tskrs, kskss, fsf, lei, osr, rsr, msm, nsn, using, fsl, fsls, fsr,
nsm, msn, mknzn, tsm, mst, tsn, rtsn, stzn, spzm, mdst, psn, Isn, Isng.

Qhss, spsz, msz, gzst, nsst, nssr, pssz, ksrsz, pssv, n-f-r-nsz, n-kssb-1,

The sweetest meat may be encased in the hardest shell. Shell fish are
among the richest, rarest, and best. Pomposity may subserve some worthy
purpose, but ill becomes a solid theme.

There are blessings in store for all those who seek for goodness ; glory,
honor, and immortality for all who find the truth. There, in those heav-
enly climes, are joys that never fade ; there, shall sorrow be assuaged, and
darkness, fear, and doubt forever fly away ; there, the happy spirit shall re-
joice in glory hoped for long, and prayed for, oh, how fervently ! Their own
neglect of God shall curse the souls who sought him not ; their own desires
be given those who chose error instead of truth, who preferred darkness to
light, the praise of men to virtue's sure reward.



WE have given, in the preceding chapters, all the principles that are es-
sential in writing the common style of the art. ' Considerable increase of
speed may, however, be effected by observing the following principles, which,
while they are not strictly phonetic in their nature, are still so exceedingly
simple and natural as to present no difficulties to the practical writer :

SECTION 1. Contraction of Vowels.

1. Oo may be written for Ew after Ya, and En in words where Oo is
more convenient ; as in the words union, write, occupy, etc. Reading Ex-
ercise 4, line 1.

2. After En, the connecting stroke may be written for i, and. the vowel
omitted, as in any, many, sunny, etc.

SECTION 2. Omission of Vowels.

1. The common style of the system may be written with perfect accu-
racy with the omission of no vowels ; but the adept will increase his speed
without sacrificing legibility, by omitting those vowels that do not connect.
This may be often done, but not always. If the vowel commences the word,
it should be written ; and when the omission would leave an equivocal out-
line, the vowel is required in one of the words to be distinguished ; thus,
omit the vowel of for, but insert it in fair ; omit it in her, and insert it in
hair, etc.

Vowels may be omitted as specified in the following cases : (a) In a few
short words of common occurrence, do, to, which, that, what, not, for,
from, was, one, once, where, there, done, could, would, should, when, unto,
were, of, but, etc.

(b) In long words they may be often omitted. This should always be done
in final unaccented syllables ending in en, er, on, ble, cle, and generally in
al, ar, an, etc.

(c) The terminations es, ed, ing, less, ness, when mere affixes, and the
prefix com, when unaccented, may omit the vowels; and generally in long
words an unaccented vowel may be omitted when it is unconnected, and
when its use is not needed to distinguish the outline from a similar outline.

2. Accented vowels should, as a rule, be written ; and all vowels that
are clearly sounded should be written in proper names of persons and
places, in foreign words, and all that are uncommon and liable to be misun-
derstood. 4F



REMARK. 1. We do not encourage the substitution of oo for U in
speaking the words contracted by the use of this briefer sign. Its use in
such words as tune, substitute, constitution, and a large number of words of
this class is a fault ; but the writer of short-hand will consult convenience
instead of perfect accuracy. For the instruction of children, a more per-
fectly written style than the Common may be desirable.

2. The omission o'f vowels may be carried safely to a greater extent than
indicated above ; and the writer who would secure any great rapidity must
at least avoid the use of all obscure and unimportant vowels.

3. The introduction of a vowel sometimes relieves the form, and, by
presenting a better angle, increases instead of lessens the rapidity. Back
is written more easily than beck ; pick than peck; tick and tack, Dick and dock,
than tuck and deck.

SECTIONS. Facilen ess of Form.

1. The doctrine of angles needs much attention. An acute angle ia
better than an obtuse. See Chapter IV. Section 6. By the proper use of the
vowels and vowel hooks, the compound signs and the forms for L, M, and
R, facile forms may always be secured.

2. The student must cultivate a knowledge of brief forms. He can gain
much by reading short-hand papers, but during the first two or three
months of practice should have his papers corrected by an expert in the art.


Deviation from, or omission of, or addition to, truth, is nothing more or
less than a lie. Be as slow in deliberation as the case will allow, but quick
in execution, unless weighty objections render an opposite course necessary.
Resolution and perseverance remove all obstructions to progression. Ambi-
tion ia the occasion of sedition, confusion, and dissolution, and arouses every
evil emotion and passion./^ Affectation will surely expose a man to derision
in proportion to his assumption. The acquisition of knowledge is greatly
facilitated by a disposition to understand whatever is obscure in common af-
fairs. As possessions of mental treasure are beyond compare with metal,
precious though it be, so the possession of moral worth transcends the sub-
limest acquisitions of the intellect.



1. A GREAT increase of speed in writing is effected by the use of connective
vocal signs. A similar advantage is gained by connecting several words into
the same outline. Such phrases as of the, on the, to the, to a, of it, with it,
it is, etc., may be written without taking the pen from the paper ; and, in
some cases, even longer phrases may be so treated, as, for instance, at this
time, in that way, at one time, in such a way.

They rather increase than lessen the legibility of the writing, when judi-
ciously employed.

2. Phrase signs should be employed for phrases only, or for words closely
connected in the sentence ; either a grammatical or rhetorical pause between
words should lead the writer to separate them in writing.

The following phrases are given as examples ; but if proper attention be

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