David Philip Lindsley.

The hand-book of takigrafy. Giving briefly the principles of the contracted style, and designed for the use of amanuenses and verbatim reporters. With an introductory chapter on the simple style online

. (page 1 of 11)
Online LibraryDavid Philip LindsleyThe hand-book of takigrafy. Giving briefly the principles of the contracted style, and designed for the use of amanuenses and verbatim reporters. With an introductory chapter on the simple style → online text (page 1 of 11)
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Author of " The Elements^ " The Manual," " The NotetaJcr," etc.




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, 1). C.


The following work is the first complete treatise on the new
short-hand, Takigrafy. In its simpler form Takigrafy has been
widely known, and is widely used ; and the Contracted Style,
though previously but partially published, is used in all parts
of the country. The Note-Taker was published hi 1873 and
Part I of the Reporter in 1880. The plates of both these works
were destroyed in the Park Row fire of January 1882, so that
t the Hand-Book is now the only work on the Contracted Style
^ of Takigrafy. The principles of the entire system have been
>- condensed into this work ; but as the Simple Style is treated
very briefly, the student is advised to master that style prac-
tically by a study of either the Elements or Manual, as a prep-
aration for the study of this work.

o Commencing with the Contracted Style, the system is given

in detail, and will be found a complete and sufficient guide to

z reporting practice. Ample illustrations of the principles are
given, (engraved in the Takgrafic character,) and the writing
exercises, to which the student is especially referred, furnish

Jjj more complete instruction for forming the outlines.

No one can feel more keenly than the author, the inadequacy

** of even the best of text-books in an art of such wide and widen-
ing influence. The uses of short-hand writing are becoming
so varied that it is no longer possible to treat of them fully
in a single volume. The different branches of strictly profes-
sional work require a special treatise. Very much time
has been squandered by young writers in learning outlines for
words and phrases that they were quite sure never to meet
again after their course of study was completed. Perhaps


this cannot be avoided altogether, but the author has thought
it advisable in this work to avoid technical and scientific terms,
leaving them to be taken up as an after course, when the pupil
has settled down upon some special line of reporting practice.

Many of the contractions used in the Reporting Style of
Takigrafy are taken from the Phonography of Isaac Pitman,
Esq., of Bath, England, as enlarged and improved by the
experience of many writers. Takigrafy having added many
forms of contraction peculiarly its own, has also been greatly
enriched by those who have used it professionally during the
last fifteen years, and has aimed to incorporate everything of
excellence that the combined experience of both Takigrafers
and Phonographers have furnished during a period of more
than forty years.

Among those who have contributed to the perfection of the
Reporting Style of Takigrafy, are Mr. D. Kimball, Chicago,
HI., who gave his personal services to the art for many
years, and who introduced it extensively in the Western States ;
Adley H. Cummings, Law Reporter, San Francisco, Cal. ;
C. H. Herrick, Galveston, Texas ; Arthur M. May, Waukon,
Iowa, and E. B. Goodrich, Ypsilanti, Mich., (Official Court
Reporter) ; Rev. W. A. Yingling, Findlay, Ohio ; Rev. J. H.
Cliilds, Wenham, Mass. ; and many others.

The author cannot, however, agree with those who suppose
that the art has reached its fullest measure of perfection.
It is doubtless capable of still further advances ; but these
advances must be made by conserving the excellences already
made practical. The authors of systems on other bases, differ-
ing from the Phonographic and Takigrafic, have contributed
nothing, and, from the nature of the case, can hardly con-
tribute anything to the general result.




The Value and Use of Shorthand 5

The Peculiar Advantages of Takigrafy 6

Previous Works on Takigrafy 7

Preparation for the Study of this Work 9

Length of Time Required to Master the Art 11

The Scope of the Present Work 11

The Magnitude of the Reporter's Profession 12


The Consonant Letters, how written 1

The Joining of the Consonants, General Principles 2

The Vocal Signs, their Uses ; 3

General Principles of Joining Vocal Signs 4

Disjoined Vocals , 6

The use of the Variable Letters 6

Position of Outlines 7


Compounds of the El-and .Ar-Series 9, 10

The tf-Circle Series, 11

" " used Medially 12

" " before the Compounds of the El-and. -4r-Series 13

Long Sign Es " " " 13

The Terminations ion, ier, ure, &c 14

Shortened Forms used in the Simple Style 15

Reading Lesson in Simple Style, Sermon on the Mount 28


Classes of Word-Signs 16

Table of Word-Signs 80-36

Reading Lesson 1, Exercise on the Word-Signs 37

Key to Reading Lesson 1 38

Writing Exercise 1 38-39


.Ar-HoOK SIGNS. 40

Additional Signs of the J^-hook Series 17

Large Initial Hooks on the Straight Stems 18

" " Hook on Ve and Ef 19

Zhe and ZMr used for Ja and Jer 20


Miscellaneous Compounds, Emp, El-r, Hel, Arch, Arj 21

Use of the Compound Signs, General Principles 22

'1 he Tick vised for Ha, Who, and Final y 23

Reading Lesson 2, 45

Writing Exercise 2 and 3 40-48


The Circle before Ha, Wa and Ha 24

Es before the Compounds of the El Series, and Ja and Cha 25

Circle before the Compounds of the Ar Series 26

The Circle used f or Ze 27

Vocalization of words containing the Circle, &c 28

The Circle used on the Vocal Signs 29

The Double sized Circle 30

The Circle and Long Sign 31

Reading Lesson 3, 56

Writing Exercises 4 and 5 57-59


The St Loop 32, 33

The Str Loop 34

Circles and Lo' ps 35

Reading Lesson 4, 63

Writing Exercise 6 64-65


The -EVi-Hook 36, 37

The Sfion-Hook. 38

Special Use of the SAon-Hook 39

The Fe-Hook 40

Reading Lesson 5, 70

Writing Exercises 7 and 8 71-72


Half-Length Letters 41, 42

Shortened Stems having Final Hooks 43

Reading Lesson 6, Gold 76

Writing Exercises 9 and 10 77-79


Double-Length Curves 44

Lengthened Up-strokes 45

Double-Lengths, and other forms of Contraction 46

Treble- Length Curves 47

Treble-Length Ea, Wa, Ha and Wa 48

Reading Lesson 7, Execution of John Brown, &c 84

Writing Exercise 11 85-86



Simple Prefix Signs 49

Contra, Counter, Magna-i, Self, Trans, With 50

Extra-i-u, Ex and Exter, &c 51

Im, In, Intra-e-i-o-u and Intraiu 52

Other Prefixes and Prefix-Syllables 53

The Prefix Ad before Ve and Ja, 91

The Compound Prefixes 54

Heading Lesson 8, Modern Republics 92

Writing Exercises 12, 13 and 14 93-96


Table of Affix Signs 55

The use of the Affixes 56

Other Affix SyUables 57

Repeated Letters in Initial Syllables 58

Reading Lesson 9, National Character, 102

Writing Exercise 15 103-1 "4


General Directions for Phrase Writing 59-60

Table of Simple Phrase-Signs, with Key 106-107

Regularly Contracted Phrases, with Key 108-109

Phrases Irregularly Contracted, with Key 110-111

Miscellaneous Phrase-Signs, with Key 112-113

Reading Lesson 10, Labor Carlyle 114

Writing Exercises 16 and 17 115-117

" 18 Motion of the Heavenly Bodies, Dick 118


The Laws of Analogy 63

Syllabication 64

Eugraphy 65

Requirements of Speed 66

The Nature of the Angles 67

The Homogeneousness of the Curves '. 68

Lineality and Phrasing 69

Requirements of Legibility 70

Reading Lesson 11, Mystery 128

Writing Exercises 19 and 20 129-131

" 21 A Universal Alphabet 132


Consonant Letters Omitted 71

Additional and Duplicate Word-Signs 134-135

Derivative Word-Signs with Key 136-137

Words Distinguished by Difference of Outline, with Key 138-141

Special Methods of Abbreviation, Initial Letters 74

Transcription 75


Punctuation 76

Aids 77

Concluding Instructions 78

Reading Lesson 12, The Launching of the Ship 146

_" " Our Countries Future 147

~" " The Love of Power 148

Writing Exercise 22, Writing Writ ing Well 149

" " 23 The Armor of Eric 151

" " 24 Freedom and Patriotism 153

Reading Lesson. Psalms, Chap. 19 154

" " Isaiah, Chap. 64 155

Specimens of Business Letters, with Key 156-157

Law Reporting. Testimony, with Key 158-159

" " Lawyers Plea 160-161

" " Indian Picture Writing, Hiawatha, 162

" " Expression of Thought, Channing 163

" " Declaration of Independence, with Key 164-167

" Extract from Paradise Lost. . . . 168



Of the use of Short- Hand Writing in making verbatim re-
ports of speeches, conventions, law cases, &c., little need, at
this late day, be said. Its great importance for such purposes
is universally conceded.

Quite recently a demand for the art has sprung up in busi-
ness circles. It has been introduced into our leading business
establishments of almost all kinds, railroad, telegraph, and
express offices, and bids fair at the present time to greatly
relieve and assist the labors of the pen in every department of

But there is a still wider field open for cultivation in which
short-hand writing has not, as generally taught, been success-
ful. Though great expectations were entertained thirty or
forty years ago of the success of the old English Phonography,
for these general purposes, and for all the uses of writing
purely literary and professional work is still mainly done in
the old way. Editors, authors, lawyers, and clergymen still
continue to use the common writing. The immense amount
of matter which finds its way into our books, magazines,
newspapers, &c. is still written in the common way, as well as
correspondence for business and social purposes, except as
dictated to amanuenses, which, taken hi the aggregate, forms
an amount of written matter entirely incalculable. It is ques-
tionable whether the millions of tons of freight that choke the
avenues of our internal trade that burden our rail-roads,
canals and coast lines is as extensive or as important, as the
mental products that need record and transportation in o ur
advancing civilization. It is quite impossible that a people
with the most magnificent opportunities, and the grandest
providential destiny, at this time, when moral forces are all-



controlling, can consent to have the avenues of thought clogged
up, while facilities for material development are abundant and
ever increasing. That the art of short-hand will enter into
and occupy this vast field is certain, and it will save at least
three-fourths the time and a much larger percentage of the
labor of writing.

One reason of the neglect of short-hand heretofore is that
most of the current systems are adapted only to the reporter
or amanuensis. If the experience of the past forty years has
demonstrated anything in reference to the art, it has shown that
a style cannot be adapted to universal use, and to reporting and
amanuensis purposes at the same time. If short-hand writing
is to be generally introduced it can only be by teaching a style
universally practical. It must be simple enough to be easily
acquired and perfectly legible in its simplest form, and yet
so flexible as to be easily contracted into a briefer form for
reporting purposes.

For all the uses mentioned above, Takigrafy is adapted. It
has a fully written style suitable for correspondence and for
recording business transactions, capable of taking the place of
long-hand for all purposes. Built on this style as a foundation,
is the Contracted Style, adapted to all the wants of the pro-
fessional short-hand writer. This Contracted Style is capable
of a greater or less degree of condensation. There is no as-
signable limit to the degree of brevity that may be secured,
though in every kind of writing there is a limit to the degree
of contraction practically useful. The Simple Style may also
be written with a greater or less degree of fullness. It may be
written with as much minuteness and accuracy as our com-
mon long-hand writing, (silent letters only being omitted, ) or
it may be written, as it generally is, by the introduction of a
few of the most frequently recurring word-signs, and an
omission of obscure and unaccented vowels, thus rendering
even the Simple Style capable of being written with great
rapidity. And yet it will be seen that these two styles, with
their variations, are so closely related as to form one and the
same system. In its adaptations then, to all of the uses of


writing, Takigrafy stands alone ; and yet, each style is as
perfectly adapted to the use for which it is intended as it
could possibly be, if there were, as in Phonography, but one



The Simple Style was first published in The Compendium
of Tachygraphy in 1864, and more fully elaborated in the Ele-
ments, published in 1869 ; but the Contracted Style was not
published until 1873 and then only partially as given in the

The Note-Taker was not designed to serve professional
reporters ; but, primarily, students in our colleges and semi-
naries who might wish a briefer style than that taught
in the Elements. The Note-Taker, supplemented by con-
tractions published from time to time in the Rapid Writer and
Takigrafer, was used by young men and young ladies am-
bitious to take positions as amanuenses, or verbatim reporters ;
but the Reporting Style of Takigrafy was taught only by means
of private instruction and manuscripts, and hundreds of pupils
acquired it in this way. Meantime it was held, as an article
of faith, by certain publishers and their friends that Takigrafy
had no reporting style. The fact that those using the art
professionally were found in nearly all our cities throughout
the Northern, Middle, and Western states, and on the Pacific
coast, was ignored by these men, who saw in the Simple Style
of Takigrafy a formidable rival. They sought to hinder the
progress of one of the most beneficent inventions of the age,
by pretending that it was deficient in its adaptation to the
wants of professional reporters.

The author of Takigrafy was not in haste to repel this injus-
tice. While not indifferent to the wants of the few who
wished to become professional writers, he regarded it as much
more important that the *Simple Style should be widely intro-
duced and practiced, and if, by the eclipse of the art for a time
in its adaptation to reporting, lie could make its use for liter-
ary and business purposes more apparent, he was willing to

*Some may wish to know the measure of success which the author has
met with in the introduction of the Simple Style of Takigrafy. It is impos-
sible to give full statistics on the subject ; but an approximate estimate may


wait for a vindication of the briefer style, a vindication
easily made when the proper time for it arrived. There were,
it is true, many who thought that the publication of the art
in its briefest form was essential to its introduction for general
uses. Perhaps they were right in this, as hundreds, possibly
thousands of persons, turned away from Takigraf y who were
attracted by its simplicity, bnt who were led to believe that, if
they found the art adapted to their use in its simple form,

be made, based on the number of text books sold. So far as we may judge
from this, ten persons have learned the Simple Style of Takigrafy for every
one that has learned the Contracted. This proportion in favor of the Simple
Style is much less than it should be ; for the Simple Style is adapted to
the wants of at least a hundred times as many as need a Reporting Style ;
and we have no doubt that, when its capabilities for usefulness are clearly
understood, literary and business men generally will avail themselves of
its use. There has been a protracted effort to prejudice the public mind
on this subject, by creating an impression that a style was of no value what-
ever that could be written only at the rate of a hundred words a minute.
The insincerity of this pretense will be seen from the following considerations.

1st. The Corresponding Style of Phonography, which some publishers even
yet attempt to make prominent, has never reached that rate of speed, and
seldom reaches a speed of more than fifty words a minute.

2nd. A speed of one hundred words a minute, or even a speed of eighty or
ninety words is a very great advance in labor-saving over the speed of
twenty to thirty words, which may be considered the maximum of ordinary
business writing.

3rd. If to treble the rate of speed in writing is of small account, why should
we boast of our ability to treble our rate of speed in travelling. The old
stage coaches ran on good roads at the rate of ten miles an hour, while our
modern railroads scarcely reach thirty miles an hour in their ordinary traffic.
To do three hours work in one will not be regarded by sensible men as an
unimportant advantage.

4th. But even this does not measure the full advantage of the Simple
Style of Takigrafy, for while it saves two-thirds of the time it saves a far
greater proportion of the labor of writing. This is also comparable to the
advantage gained by the rail-car over the stage-coach for we not only
travel with more rapidity but with more ease and comfort.

5th. But the most important consideration is the fact that, for all ordi-
nary purposes, the Simple Style of Takigraphy is as brief as is compatible
with legibility and simplicity.

No other system has ever approximated this rate of speed in any prac-
tical form. The same classes of pupils that in Takigrafy write from sixty
to one-hundred words in a minute, after three or four months of practice,
write in Phonography only half as fast or from thirty to fifty words ;
hence, the insincerity of objectors is apparent, and the enthusiasm of the
multitudes who regard this style as the great literary, business, and social


they might, at some future time, be embarrassed by not being
able to go on to the full perfection of a finished and elaborate
reporting style. This fear was entirely without foundation
as, Takigrafy was from the very first, able to appropriate all
the forms of contraction used by Phonographers, besides
having resources of its own, peculiar and important.
A thorough mastery of the Simple Style of Takigrafy as
taught in the Manual and Elements, is the best preparation

desideratum of the times, is fully justified. This style, and this alone, is
capable of transforming the writing of our entire people. There is no
form of business to which it is not applicable, there are no social or li terary
purposes for which it cannot be used ; and if I am told that there is still one
impediment in the path of its progress, namely, that people generally do
not understand it, and therefore cannot read it, I reply that this impediment
can be removed with perfect ease, and within the space of less than ten
years, by united effort in that direction. Taught in our schools of every
grade from the infant class up, it can be reduced to practice in one-half of
the time required to master the common long hand. More than this, it can
be taught without impeding, in the slightest degree, any other branch of
study. It can be taught in such a way as to save, rather than consume time,
even in the process of imparting a knowledge of its rudiments. Pupils
must be taught the phonology of the language. They can be taught it by
this means in a small fraction of the time required by the usual method,
and by the time this important branch of an English education is under-
stood, the pupil is already a ready writer of Takigrafy, with command of
this wonderful art.

It would be easy, of course, to discover other difficulties. What line of
human progress have ever been without them ? Never was a beneficent
invention more free from real impediments in its introduction, while, per-
haps, none have been more thoroughly barricaded by fancied ones.

We have thought it necessary to make these remarks on the Simple Style
lest some should infer from our silence that we had abandoned the labor of
twenty years in despair, and sank down to the low level of Stenography,
Where the Phonographic writers arrived long ago. Having lost the inspira-
tion of its first introduction. Phonography aims only at an improved form
of Stenography ; and its professors, wrapping themselves up in professional
dignity, and perched upon a high and almost inaccessible crag, beckon
students upward to their own isolated position, well knowing that only
one in a hundred of the aspirants will succeed.

The author determined long ago to place the art of short-hand writing on
an honest basis, and it is with no little satisfaction that he has found among
his friends staunch defenders of every humane and moral movement.
That the good work will go forward to a speedy and glorious success he has
not a particle of doubt.


for a study of this work. It has been objected by some that
it is a disadvantage for those who desire to become reporters,
to use the longer forms of the Simple Style since they must
be unlearned as the student proceeds in the study of the art.

There is doubtless some truth in this suggestion, so far at
least as it applies to the words of most frequent occurrence ;
but the student should not overlook the very important fact
that the principles of contraction apply at most to only a few
thousand words, while a far greater number of words are of
very infrequent occurrence, and must be written in full
if they are to be made entirely legible. Now, if the student
has never learned the Simple style, or has passed over it
hastily, without reducing it to practice, these uncommon
words, technical terms, and proper names of persons and
places, which have no assignable limit in number, are con-
tinual sources of embarrassment. Words of frequent occur-
rence, for which the student has contracted forms, may be
mastered in time, anu successfully used ; but unusual, techni-
cal and proper names, can never be fully mastered, being
too numerous for special study and drill. On the other hand,
the student who has reduced the Simple Style of Takigrafy
thoroughly to practice, can write any word in the language
with ease and fluency. He is already master of the class of
words of which we have spoken, and when he has learned the
principles of the Contracted style, in their application to the
three or four thousand words of frequent occurrence, he be-
comes speedily a successful writer. This is not mere theory ;
experience in teaching hundreds of pupils confirms it. We
have never known a single instance in our experience in
teaching, nor has an instance been brought to our notice, in
which a student has found any marked advantage in the
neglect of the Simple Style ; while multitudes of persons have
expressed their regret for having neglected it, for the reasons
stated above. As a universal rule those students succeed
soonest, and become the best writers, who master the Simple
Style most perfectly before commencing the Contracted.
If any gentlemen are pleased to amuse themselves, and
those over whom they have influence, by decrying this
method of study, their objections are certainly based on no


sufficient grounds. We have said that, to a limited extent, the
unlearning of longer forms for words of frequent occurrence,
may be a disadvantage ; but this difficulty may be easily met
by introducing the pupil at an early stage of his progress to
the word signs, which he can use, in connection with the
Simple Style, until he is thoroughly grounded in the principles
of the art, and can write from seventy to one hundred words

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Online LibraryDavid Philip LindsleyThe hand-book of takigrafy. Giving briefly the principles of the contracted style, and designed for the use of amanuenses and verbatim reporters. With an introductory chapter on the simple style → online text (page 1 of 11)