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which the country is now passing have brought about a complete
change in the order of nearly all the pueblos; and I have noticed
with profound regret that sacking, robbery, sequestrations, and
other crimes highly dishonourable to our noble cause, are of daily
occurrence. With a view to preventing such conduct in the future,
and in order to guarantee to the inhabitants of the military district
under my command the most complete tranquillity, I hereby decree:

"1. That any person or persons who commit acts of brigandage,
sequestration, incendiarism, rape, or other disturbances of a public
nature calculated to excite the public, or which infringe individual
or property rights, shall be severely punished in accordance with
military law.

"2. That all offenders who present themselves to the Local or Military
Authorities within the 30 days immediately following this date, and
who turn over their arms and join our forces and help to fight other
outlaws and to defend the nation, will be pardoned for the crimes
they have committed.

"3. That when the period of 30 days above mentioned has passed, any
person taken in the act of committing robbery, or who attempts to rob
with an organized band of outlaws, or who steals, rapes, or performs
acts of incendiarism, or any other criminal act, will be summarily
condemned to death by a military tribunal.

"The Local Juntas of the various towns in conjunction with citizens
of standing and the military authorities will organize a vigilance
service to maintain public order and the authority of the law.

"_M. Delgado_."

- P.I.R., Books B 4.

[403] "February 13, 1899.

(In the margin: A stamp which says:) "Philippine Republic - Headquarters
of operations of the provinces of Southern Luzón.

"It is with great regret that I have learned that robberies, assaults,
kidnapping, and other crimes which are committed only by barbarous
and savage tribes, are taking place in our towns, without taking
into consideration that the purpose of the insurrection which has
given origin to our social regeneration is true justice, for the
reëstablishment of which the lives and property are being sacrificed
of all who are proud of being called Filipinos. These acts are being
committed without restriction by civilians as well as soldiers perhaps
with the coöperation of their respective chiefs, to the shame of
the authority vested in them and to the prejudice of the society to
which they unworthily belong, and even to the integrity itself of
the Republic. And in order that these barbarous and savage acts may
disappear and that rigorous and exemplary punishment be meted out,
I have deemed it proper to forward to you for general information
the proclamation of these Headquarters of February 12th last, which
is as follows":

(Signed) "_Mariano Trias_.


"_To the Politico-Military Chief of Infanta_." - P.I.R., 896-9.

[404] "There does not seem to have been the faintest conception that
there was any reason for not using the white flag to deceive people
who were foolish enough to believe that Aguinaldo was going to adhere
to the rules prescribed for its use. The writer in the early spring
of 1899 once watched an insurgent party advance under a white flag
upon an American line of trenches. When an officer and a bugler went
forward to receive them they threw down the flag and immediately
opened fire with the rifles which they were then seen to be dragging
behind them." - _Taylor_, 48 HS.

[405] "Such ammunition was not effective unless fired from very
close quarters, but even its possession made the guerrillas stronger
than the people of the country and undoubtedly had much to do with
securing their coöperation, not only as bolomen but also in the
digging of the pits which were placed in the trails and also set
about the towns. These were required to be constructed by the local
authorities. In the bottom was set a sharp spike of bamboo, sometimes
poisoned; and the pit was covered with leaves and soil upon a fragile
framework; so that if a man stood upon it he would fall through upon
the spike. Bows were set in the jungle with a string set across the
trail so that any one stumbling over it would discharge a sharp bamboo
shaft with a poisoned head. On September 18, 1900, Lukban congratulated
the people of the town of Katubig upon the efficient use they had made
of arrows with the heads dipped in 'dita,' a native poison. (P.I.R.,
502. 8.)"

- _Taylor_, 83 HS.

[406] See also the chapter entitled "Murder as a Governmental

[407] See p. 313.

[408] The following newspaper supplement printed in Tagálog for the
benefit of the common people, is typical of this class of literature,
with which the country was kept flooded:

(Circular printed in Tagálog. P.I.R., 17-6. Supplement to _Heraldo

"Friday, 24th February, 1899.


"We must consider ourselves fortunate that the bad intentions of
North America were found out early. If we had not found them out by
this time we should have been entrapped. And we should thank God that
they commenced the war.

"You ought to know by this time that these people can teach us
nothing good. What we can learn from them is all evil. You must
admit the truth of what they are reported to do to our brothers in
Manila where they rob the houses when the dwellers in them are out
or busy. Their evil inclinations prevail over them to such an extent
that the houses most worthy of consideration are not safe. They are
worse than the wild people who live in the woods, they have not the
slightest idea of looking at things from the point of view of a man
of honour nor have they the slightest respect for reason, for this
does not control their actions in the least. Without the slightest
attention to civility they rush into houses and if they find the
people eating, without saying a word, they take what they want from
the table, put it into their mouths and go as they came.

"If they find people sleeping or resting, taking the siesta, it makes
no difference to them; they go into the most private parts of the
house as though they were walking in the street.

"In the shops they take what pleases them and if the owner wants
payment they threaten him with their rifles.

"One can hardly believe and my pen refuses to write all of the
perversity, and evil and bad habits of these people.

"Their habits and manners are a disgrace to the country where they
were born. In no history have such customs and manners been described
even in that of the most ignorant people.

"They search women who pass, feeling all over their bodies, taking
from them money and whatever else they carry and if they come on them
in a lonely place they strip them naked after violating them and do
not leave a rag on them.

"Are these those honest men of whom we have heard? Are these the
people who were going to teach us good habits? Are these the people who
were going to guide us? The race which does these things is the most
hated one in the world, it is the race which commits most cruelties,
it is the race which does not treat its mother with respect; in this
race there is not the slightest idea of personal dignity, it is a
race which does not know what honour is, which does not possess the
slightest vestige of regard for good manners. Are these the people
who are going to protect us? It is better for us to die at once than
fall into the power of these unequalled malefactors.

"¡Down with the bad men!

"¡Kill the Americans!!

"¡Let the people of the United States be exterminated!!!

"¡Notice. - This sheet is distributed gratis."

[409] "A light upon the treatment of women by these people is given
by the fact that after an American detachment had captured Lukban's
papers and family on August 18, and came so close to taking him that
he was able to recognize their guide, one of his correspondents wrote
to him that to their surprise the women, who had fully expected to
be abused, had been treated with respect and given a house to live
in. (P.I.R., 1143.4.)" - _Taylor_, 84 HS.

[410] In a letter to General Ambrosio Moxica from - - - dated March 2,
1900, occurs the following: -

"The guerillas quartered in the neighbourhood must render mutual
assistance and keep up communication, so as to get the news as to where
the enemy comes or goes, and the time at which they will pass certain
points, endeavouring also to arrange that all the guerilla bands should
have regular couriers, with you or with general headquarters, giving
advice daily of any occurrence and carrying correspondence. They must
select trustworthy women to carry correspondence, charging them to
hide the letters underneath their skirts, bearing in mind that the
Americans do not search them; and in sending to the towns for arms
or food, the orders must be sent by women and for small quantities,
so as not to attract attention." - P.I.R., 2035. 3.

[411] Simeon Villa, who accompanied Aguinaldo on his long flight,
kept a somewhat detailed account of events in the form of a diary.

[412] P.I.R., 869.

[413] _Ibid._

[414] P.I.R., 2035. 3.

[415] P.I.R., 886. 13.

[416] Exhibit 1233

(Original in Spanish. Contemporary copy. P.I.R., Books B. 4.)

"_General Headquarters, Santa Barbara_, Feb. 28th, 1899."

(Literal copy of telegram.)

"Casualties, Americans, on 6th, 2000 Colonels dead, one General;
all churches converted into hospitals full American wounded; total
American casualties 7000 confirmed by General Fullón just arrived
from Malolos; says also Iloílo quiet and not taken.

"A true copy

"By order of Chief of Staff.

"_Juan Beloso_."

[417] (Supplement to the _Filipino Herald_.)

"Thursday, Feb. 23rd, 1899. - 4 P.M.

"The Filipino Army occupies the suburbs of Manila.

"The three columns commanded by Generals Pío del Pilar and Licerio
and Col. Hizon now occupy the suburbs of Sampaloc, San Miguel, San
Sebastian, Binondo, San Nicholas and Tondo.

"The Cavite battalion has possession of the Cuartel de Meisic and
our flag is now flying there.

"_Six Thousand Americans Besieged!!!_

"The American troops now in Caloocan and La Loma to the number of over
six thousand are besieged by the columns commanded by Generals Luna,
Llanera and García.

"_The Honourable President_

"This very moment the special train carrying the Honourable President
has left for Caloocan.

"Viva the independent Philippines!!!

"Viva the unconquerable Philippine Army!!!

"Notice. This sheet is distributed gratis." - P.I.R., 70-6.

[418] (News.) The American General, MacArthur, with his entire staff,
was taken prisoner by our troops in Northern Luzón. Another American
general died on the 5th of January last in the North, who was seriously
wounded in an ambush or fight. When shot he was a colonel, but on
account of said fight he was promoted to the rank of a general, so that
later when he died, he had the benefit of that rank." - P.I.R., 2035. 3.

[419] (Telegrams)

"_Washington_, January 15, 1900, 10 A.M.

"(Received, Cebú, January 16, 1900, 11 A.M.)

"Owing to a new disaster of the Union Army, MacKinley has tendered
his resignation as President, Mr. Bryan succeeding him.

"Peace promulgated in the Philippines. Basis of the protectorate is
being discussed.

"Philippine independence will be proclaimed February the 4th.

"Remark. - The basis of a protectorate has been published in

"_Manila_, January 20, 1900, 10 A.M.

"(Received at Cebú on the same day, at 11 A.M.)

"Otis' successor, John Waterly, of the democratic party, has just
arrived. He brings with him papers and instructions in regard to
proclamation of the Philippine Republic.

"It is believed that Rev. Martin, Bishop of Cebú, will be transferred
to the Archbishopric of Manila, and Rev. Nozaleda to Spain." - P.I.R.,
Books B-10.

[420] P.I.R., 1193. 2.

[421] _Ibid.,_ 2025.

[422] Taylor, 47 HS.

[423] Beginning on page 730.

[424] Taylor, 36 GV, Exhibit 1017.

[425] Taylor, 28 HS.

[426] P.I.R., 1021.6.

[427] Unhusked rice.

[428] Village.

[429] 153, according to Blount himself.

[430] "Nor can the ultimate responsibility before the bar of history
for the awful fact that, according to the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey Atlas of the Philippines of 1899, the population of
Batangas province was 312,192, and according to the American Census
of the Philippines of 1903, it was 257,715, rest entirely on military
shoulders." - Blount, pp. 383-384.

[431] Blount, p. 597.

[432] See Chapters XI and XII.

[433] Taylor, 13 KK, E.

[434] Taylor, 15 and 16 KK, E.

[435] "Pope" Isio was the last of a series of bandit leaders, claiming
for themselves miraculous powers, who long infested the mountains
of Negros.

[436] P.I.R., 970. 7.

[437] P.I.R., 1134-1.

[438] P.I.R., 17. 9.

[439] For the full text of these instructions, see appendix.

[440] "Mr. McKinley sent Mr. Taft out, in the spring preceding
the election of 1900, to help General MacArthur run the
war." - _Blount_. The Taft Commission was sent out, to 'aid'
General MacArthur, as the Schurman Commission had 'aided' General
Otis." - Blount.

[441] "In February, 1899, the dogs of war being already let loose,
President McKinley had resumed his now wholly impossible Benevolent
Assimilation programme, by sending out the Schurman Commission,
which was the prototype of the Taft Commission, to yearningly
explain our intentions to the insurgents, and to make clear to them
how unqualifiedly benevolent those intentions were. The scheme was
like trying to put salt on a bird's tail after you have flushed
him." - Blount.

[442] P.I.R., 1300. 2.

[443] A brand of whiskey then much in use.

[444] For the text of this document see the Appendix, p. 977.

[445] In view of the alleged attitude of General Otis toward the work
of the Commission, the following statement by him as to the effect
of this proclamation is of interest: -

General Otis said: "It was unanimously decided to print, publish,
post, and disseminate as much as possible among the inhabitants under
insurgent domination this address, printing the same in the English,
Spanish, and Tagálog languages. This was done, but scarcely had it been
posted in Manila twenty-four hours before it was so torn and mutilated
as to be unrecognizable. It suffered the same fate as the proclamation
of January 4, set out in pages 113 and 114 of this report, but it
produced a marked beneficial influence on the people, especially those
outside our lines, as it carried with it a conviction of the United
States' intentions, on account of the source from which it emanated,
it being an expression from a committee of gentlemen especially
appointed to proclaim the policy which the United States would pursue."

- _Taylor_, 90 AJ.

Taylor adds: "The commander of one of the regiments of sandatahan in
Manila reported that he had forced the people of the city to destroy
the proclamations issued by the commission (P.I.R., 73. 9). As he
found this necessary, the action of the people could hardly have
reflected their real feelings in the matter."

[446] Taylor, 96 AJ.

[447] _Ibid._

[448] Taylor, 97 AJ.

[449] Taylor, 97 AJ.

[450] _Ibid._

[451] Nominally they were named by Aguinaldo.

[452] Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, Vol. I,
1900, p. 9.

[453] Now chief justice of the Philippine Supreme Court.

[454] Blount, p. 235.

[455] Blount, p. 105.

[456] Report Philippine Commission, Vol. I, p. 183.

[457] P. 981.

[458] September 15, 1913.

[459] The building where the executive offices of the insular
government have been located since the American occupation.

[460] Taylor, 18 HS.

[461] This name is applied to certain provinces organized
under special acts because the majority of their inhabitants are

[462] Tayabas, Romblon, Masbate, Iloilo, Antique, Capiz, Cebú, Bohol,
Occidental Negros, Oriental Negros, Leyte, Albay, Ambos, Camarines,
Sorsogon, Marinduque, Batangas, Surigao, and Misamis.

[463] Obviously a misprint, perhaps, for "perusal of."

[464] Blount, p. 380.

[465] For further details see pp. 746; 753.

[466] A native surf boat.

[467] See Chapters XXI-XXIV.

[468] Chap. XV.

[469] Chap. XIV.

[470] Chap. XVI.

[471] Chap. XVII.

[472] Chap. XVIII.

[473] See Chapter XIX.

[474] Chap. XXX.

[475] Chap. XXX.

[476] Chap. XXXI.

[477] Chap. XXXII.

[478] Chapter XXVII.

[479] Chapters XIV, XXII, XXIII and XXIV.

[480] Reply to Jones, Pamphlet, Manila, 1913.

[481] See pp. 375-77.

[482] See pp. 357-77.

[483] Under the new regime these figures have been reversed.

[484] See Chapters XX-XXIV.

[485] "The merit system has received renewed support from President
Roosevelt in his administration, and by the extension of civil
service throughout the nation, as well as in our new possessions. The
Philippine service is reported to be very satisfactory, and efforts
are being made for the extension and larger development of regulations
in Porto Rico."

[486] "From the President down, every official charged with a
duty touching the government of our dependencies is imbued with a
profound sense of duty, and adequate realization of the situation
and the imperative necessity of an unselfish, patriotic execution of
the laws and regulations in the interest of the highest welfare of
the inhabitants of the dependencies. With this state of affairs, the
establishment of the merit system in them on an enduring basis should
follow as a matter of course. It will be the aim of this Committee to
aid in every possible way in extending and improving the system, and
to that end to give to the whole subject careful and detailed study."

[487] No data for 1906 available.

[488] Eight passed last year.

[489] He now receives $9000.

[490] Male servant.

[491] Two weeks at Christmas and ten weeks in April, May and June.

[492] Blount, p. 425.

[493] Blount, p.430.

[494] Native dugouts.

[495] See p. 998.

[496] Female servant.

[497] Men appointed to assist the judge in deciding questions of
fact. Their decision is not binding on him.

[498] Here [_i.e._ in me] you have a new servant.

[499] Malaria.

[500] A strong alcoholic drink commonly made by diluting low-grade
alcohol with water and flavouring it.

[501] There was one stray case in March.

[502] "To the Editor of El Soberanía Nacional, Manila, P.I.

"_Sir_: In your issue of the 7th of July there appeared a paragraph
embodying a shameful libel of the administration of the San Lazaro
Hospital, which reads as follows:

"'_Un cuadro verdaderamente aterrador es el que prezenta el patio del
Hospital de San Lazaro. Los fallecidos por la enfermedad del colera,
son expuestos desnudos en el atrio de dicho Hospital con un cartel
atado en los pies con la inscripción de sus respectivos nombres._'

"This statement was so grossly and ridiculously false and at the same
time so extremely harmful in its effect as to bring you fairly and
squarely within the reach of the law.

"Yesterday morning I sent you a courteous letter requesting you to
come to my office, purposing to discuss the affair with you in a
friendly manner, and hoping to find that the statement referred to
had been prepared by some irresponsible subordinate and published
through oversight.

"As, however, you have neither acceded to my request for a conference
nor had the courtesy to reply to my letter, I now have the honour
to forward you herewith a communication which embodies a reply to
the false statement above referred to and at the same time conveys
information as to what is actually being done at the San Lazaro
Hospital. I request that you give this letter immediate publicity
through your paper, and in the editorial columns or elsewhere in
some conspicuous place retract immediately and fully the libellous
statement relative to the exposure of the dead, above referred to.

"Kindly advise me of your intention in the matter. The bearer of
this communication has instructions to wait for your reply. I shall
interpret failure to hear from you by return messenger as refusal
to retract this slander and to publish the enclosed communication,
and shall act accordingly.

"Very respectfully,

"Dean C. Worcester,

"_Secretary of the Interior._"

[503] Just before I left Manila in October, 1913, cholera reappeared

[504] Sept. 15, 1913.

[505] The first organization of American physicians in the Philippines
was the Manila Medical Association, from which the Philippine Island
Medical Association ultimately developed.

[506] Now a major-general.

[507] About 28.7 miles.

[508] May 1, 1913.

[509] Captain Meade.

[510] He had the volunteer rank of colonel, but was a major in the
regular army.

[511] Report of the Philippine Commission, Part 1, 1903, p. 58.

[512] May 1, 1913.

[513] April 15, 1913.

[514] May 1, 1913.

[515] This rate, for the fiscal year 1913, was 3.33 per thousand for
Filipinos and 2.49 per thousand for Americans.

Online LibraryDean C. WorcesterThe Philippines: Past and Present (Volume 1 of 2) → online text (page 43 of 43)