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presented to the
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SAN DIEGO

by

MRS. THOMAS E. PIPER



TUB CORONATION OF THE





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WITH

^ILLUSTRATIVE TEXTS N
FROM MASTERPIECES OF X
'EGYPTIAN, HEBREW GREEKS
'LATIN, MODERN EUROPEAN 1
AND AMERICAN
LITERATURE

FULLY ILLUSTRATED,



EDITORIAL STAFF



VERY REV. J. K. BRENNAN ..... Missouri
GISLE BOTHNE, M.A. ... University of Minnesota

CHAS. H. CAFFIN New York

JAMES A. CRAIG, M.A., B.D., PH.D., University of Michigan
MRS. SARAH PLATT DECKER .... Colorado
ALCE'E FORTIER, D.I/r. . Tulane University

ROSWELL FIELD Chicago

BRUCE G. KINGSLEY - Royal College of Organists, England

D. D. LUCKENBILL, A.B., PH.D. - University of Chicago

KENNETH McKENZiE, PH.D. -

FRANK B. MARSH, PH.D.

DR. HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE

W. A. MERRILL. PH.D., I..H.D.

T. M. PARROTT, PH.D.

GRANT SHOWERMAN, Ph.D >

H. C. TOLMAN, PH.D., D.D.

I. E. WING, M.A. - - -



Yale University
University of Texas
... New York
University of California
Princeton University
University of Wisconsin
Vanderbilt University
- Michigan



VOL. II



THE DELPHIAN SOCIETY



COPYRIGHT 1913

BY

THE DELPHIAN SOCIETY
CHICAGO



COMPOSITION, ELECTROTYPINO, PRINTING
AND BINDING BT THE

W. B. CONKEY COMPANY
HAMMOND, INDIANA



TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART II.




CHAPTER XIII.

PAGE
From the Captivity to the Final Disposition of the Jews 1

CHAPTER XIV.
Industries and Arts among the Israelites 7

CHAPTER XV.
Hebrew Literature; Poetry 12

CHAPTER XVI.
Hebrew Drama; The Book of Job. Hebrew Fiction .* -23

CHAPTER XVII.
Wisdom Literature; The Prophets . 39

CHAPTER XVIII.
Explorations in Palestine 45

HEBREW LITERATURE.

The Book of Ruth 48

The Praise of Famous Men 54

King Solomon's Betrothal 55

Palestine of Today 58



GREEK MYTHOLOGY.



69



Prefatory Chapter

CHAPTER I.

The Meaning of Mythology and Why We Study it 78

CHAPTER II.

Greek Explanation of the Origin of the World 86

CHAPTER III.

Titans and Battle of the Giants. Prometheus 91

CHAPTER IV.
Hera; Narcissus; Iris; Hebe 100

CHAPTER V.
Athena lie

III



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS PART II.

CHAPTER VI. PAGE
Apollo 123

CHAPTER VII.
Artemis 130

CHAPTER VIII.
Ares 135

CHAPTER IX.

Aphrodite; Cupid; Psyche; The Marriage of Cupid and Psyche 140

CHAPTER X.
Hermes 148

CHAPTER XI.
Hestia ; The Muses ; The Fates 154

CHAPTER XII.
Demeter; Persephone; Bacchus; Dionysus 158

CHAPTER XIII.
Pan ; Oreads 169

CHAPTER XIV.
Poseidon ; The Syrens ; The Gorgons ; Atlas ; Medusa 173

CHAPTER XV.
Aeolus ; The Harpies . , 182

CHAPTER XVI.
Pluto; Tantalus; Isles of the Blest 188

CHAPTER XVII.
Orpheus ; Cave of Sleep ; Morpheus 195

CHAPTER XVIII.
Hecate ; Nemesis 202

CHAPTER XIX.
Hercules; His Labors 206

CHAPTER XX.
The Remaining Labors 217

THE STORY OF GREECE.

CHAPTER I.
Relative Importance of Greek History; Physical Geography of Greece 227

CHAPTER II.
Discovery Made by Dr. Schliemann; Mycenaean Life and Culture... 236



TABIE OF CONTENTS PART II. V

CHAPTER III.

PAGE
Homeric Poems ; Homeric Life 247

CHAPTER IV.
Sources of Greek History 263

CHAPTER V.
Early History of Sparta 269

CHAPTER VI.
Athens ; Reforms of Solon 275

CHAPTER VII.
From Age of Solon to Persian Wars 284

CHAPTER VIII.
Struggle with Persia 292

CHAPTER IX.
Athenian Empire ; Pericles 302

CHAPTER X.
Athenian Statesmen ; Aristides ; Themistocles 309

CHAPTER XI.
Prosperity of Athens 318

CHAPTER XII.

Causes of the Peloponnesian War 322

.

CHAPTER XIII.

Peloponnesian War to Death of Pericles 331

CHAPTER XIV.
To the Fall of Athens. The Sicilian Expedition 337

CHAPTER XV.

Supremacy of Sparta; Ascendency of Thebes; The Founding of
Thebes 345

CHAPTER XVI.

R
Rise of Macedonia ; Philip of Macedon 354



/f^pi^V



CHAPTER XVII.



-.'



Alexander the Great ; Effects of His Conquests. '. 366

SOCIAL LIFE IN GREECE.

CHAPTER I.

Q
Hellenic Cities ; The Agora ; Houses 375



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS PART II.



CHAPTER II.

PAGE
Wearing Apparel of the Hellenes 382

, CHAPTER III.

Food in Ancient Greece 387

CHAPTER IV.
,- ., Women in Ancient Greece 394

CHAPTER V.
Childhood and Early Education 401

CHAPTER VI.
The Citizen's Career 406

CHAPTER VII.

Amusements and Pastimes 410

CHAPTER VIII.
Labor and Trade 414

CHAPTER IX.
Worship and Religious Festivals 421

CHAPTER X.
Spartan Life 426

GREEK LITERATURE.
CHAPTER XL

Beginnings of Greek Literature 429

The Greek Epic 437

The Odyssey 454

Hesiod 464,

CHAPTER XII.

The Greek Lyric 469

Description of Illustrations 481




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Boundary Lines of Egypt and Ethiopia Bed

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FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

PART II

PAGE

ILLUMINATED MISSAL Frontispiece

JOPPA GATE, JERUSALEM 24

CHRISTIAN STREET, JERUSALEM (BAZAAR DISTRICT) 40

JERUSALEM FROM THE MOUNT OF OLIVES 56

SEA OF GALILEE 72

DEAD SEA 104

HERA 136

POSEIDON 184

ATHENA 232

NIOBE 272

VENUS DE MILO 328

ACROPOLIS AND TEMPLE OF JUPITER 408

NERO AT THE CIRCUS (Photogravure) 412

MAP OF THE FIRST GREAT EMPIRES . . vi



VII



PALESTINE.

Blest land of Judaea! thrice hallowed of song,
Where the holiest of memories pilgrimlike throng;
In the shade of thy palms, by the shores of thy sea,
On the hills of thy beauty, my heart is with thee.

With the eye of a spirit I look on that shore,
Where pilgrim and prophet have lingered before ;
With the glide of a spirit I traverse the sod
Made bright by the steps of the angels of God.

Blue sea of the hills! in my spirit I hear

Thy waters, Genesaret, chime on my ear;

Where the Lowly and Just with the people sat down,

And thy spray on the dust of his sandals was thrown.



I tread where the TWELVE in their way-faring trod;
I stand where they stood with the Chosen of God
Where his blessing was heard, and his lessons were taught,
Where the blind were restored and the healing was wrought.

And what if my feet may not tread where He stood,
Nor my ears hear the dashing of Galilee's flood,
Nor my eyes see the cross which He bowed him to bear,
Nor my knees press Gethsemane's garden of prayer.

Yet, Loved of the Father, thy Spirit is near
To the meek and the lowly, and penitent here ;
And the voice of thy love is the same even now
As at Bethany's tomb or on Olivet's brow.

O, the outward hath gone! but in glory and power,
The SPIRIT surviveth the things of an hour;
Unchanged, undecaying, its Pentecost flame
On the heart's secret altar is burning the same!

Whittier.

VIII



THE STORY OF THE
HEBREWS




FROM THE CAPTIVITY TO THE FINAL DISPOSITION OF
THE JEWS.

Many of the Hebrews had fallen in the wars with Nebuch-
adnezzar ; the humblest were left to cultivate the desolate land,
some were sold into slavery, others drifted about and were
engulfed in foreign populations. The greater portion, however,
settled on one of the canals of the Euphrates. Here they were
kindly treated and allowed to observe their own customs. At
first the exiles, coming from the hills of Palestine, were stupe-
fied by the glories of Babylon at that time the most attractive
city of the ancient world. Its spacious palaces and hanging
gardens surpassed anything they had known. Gradually they
regained possession of their faculties and adapted themselves
to their new home.

" Many a people had been swallowed up in the advance
of Assyrian and Babylonian power and forever lost. Even
empires once distinguished for power and civilization had so
thoroughly disappeared in the vortex as to leave scarcely a
distinguishable sign of their former existence. This was not
to be true in the case of Judah. The Hebrew had ideas that
could not be quenched, and these carried his person into a life
that would not die among men. The Chaldean had destroyed
the state, but the people lived on in activity. The songs of
Zion might not be sung, but the words of Zion might be
spoken. The Hebrew would not now pay tribute in the land
of Judah, but would take tribute even of his captors, as he
passed successfully forward into business in his new home.
His wise leader, Jeremiah, had counselled him to make the new
land his home in the fullest sense : ' Build ye houses, and dwell
in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them; take



2 THE WORIvT/S PROGRESS.

ye wives, and beget sons and daughters; and take wives for
your sons, and give your daughters to husbands, that they
may bear sons and daughters; and multiply ye there, and be
not diminished. And seek the peace of the city whither I
have caused you to be carried away in captivity, and pray unto
the Lord for it : for in the peace thereof shall ye have peace.'
The advice was followed. Nebuchadnezzar had gained a new
factor in his composite population, though he had lost a rich
province." 1

Loss of their temple seemed most deplorable to the Hebrews.
Having no established place of worship, they congregated on
the banks of the river for prayer and readings from their
sacred books. Ezekial was the prophet of the captivity. He
exhorted his brethren to be strong under misfortune and cour-
ageous in their exile. He was a writer as well as a priest and
prophet. The years spent in Babylon were marked by diligent
effort to collect and give permanent form to existing Hebrew
literature.

Ezekial foretold a return to Jerusalem, and disappointment
grew into despondency as time elapsed and brought no prospect
of such good fortune. Finally the startling successes of Cyrus
came as welcome news to the ears of the captives, inspiring
hope that he might prove the long-awaited deliverer. It is
probable that the Hebrews were among the factions within
Babylon that assisted Cyrus to gain possession of the city.
Either in gratitude for such aid, or because he wished to have
a nation friendly to him in the west, Cyrus gave the captives
permission to return to their own land and to rebuild their
temple. Some forty-two thousand set out at once and it is
likely that others joined their kinsmen for several years after.
Certain it is that Ezra came to their aid with sixteen hundred
followers, and Nehemiah journeyed to them later.

Temporary homes were constructed and then attention
turned to the building of a temple which should replace the
more elaborate one built by Solomon and destroyed in the
siege of Jerusalem. After some delays, the second temple was
finished in 515 B. c v and was dedicated by religious worship
and festival.

So far as its government was concerned, Judah was now

1 Hist of Baby, and Assy. : Rogers, VoL II. 335.



THE; STORY OF THE; HEBREWS. 3

a Persian province, paying a yearly tax or tribute into the
Persian treasury. Then Syria grew strong enough to wrest
the land from Persian rule, and strife between the two coun-
tries, struggling for possession, continued ' some considerable
time. In 334 B. c. Alexander the Great set out from Greece
on his campaign of conquest. Western Asia was first invaded,
and the Hebrews, wearied with tumult and burdensome taxes,
opened their gates to the young general. His brilliant career
had an untimely end and the vast empire he had acquired was
divided among his generals. The one to whose share Palestine
fell failed to hold it long. Ptolomy, the general who inherited
Egypt, tried to increase his territory and marched against
Judah. The Hebrews refused to submit to his rule and he
waged a battle against them on the Sabbath, knowing that they
would not fight on that day. One hundred thousand were
taken captives to Alexandria, where already Hebrews had set-
tled, and where they were welcomed as citizens. Because they
might be depended upon to keep their word, to abide by con-
tracts and respect agreements, they were looked upon with
favor by the Greeks.

When Ptolomy II. succeeded as ruler, he sent to Jerusalem
for seventy wise men who should come to Alexandria for the
purpose of preparing a Greek translation of Hebrew literature.
The result was the first version of the Bible, and is known as
the Septuagint (from the word seventy) translation.

After a century of peace, a rising dynasty of Syria struggled
with Egypt for Palestine. These were troublous times indeed.
It is not possible to go into the combats that were waged back
and forth, nor to describe the oppressions that befell the Jews
known after the exile by the name of the kingdom last to fall.

At length, under the Maccabees, Judah rose from her deep
humiliation and succeeded in shaking herself free from foreign
rule. When division of opinion occurred within the state,
Rome was asked to mediate. Pompey was sent into the land
and in addition to acting as mediator, exacted tribute for
Rome. Crassus was subsequently sent thither as governor of
the Roman province, and hesitated not to desecrate the temple
by robbing it of its remaining treasure to swell the coffers of
Rome. Julius Caesar was friendly to the Hebrews and his
death was sincerely mourned by them. Herod the Great, at



4 THE WORLD'S PROGRESS.

first a provincial governor, declared his independence, and
made himself king. He shortly incurred the intense hatred
of the people, to atone for which he announced that he would
repair the temple, now practically destroyed. This was com-
pleted about the time that Christ was born.

Long years before, Hebrew prgphets had foretold the com-
ing of a great king who would restore this people to the
prosperity they had enjoyed during the united kingdom; one
who would rule them justly and make them comparable with
other nations around them. Burdensome taxes, cruel treat-
ment, and persecution led the nation to fix its hopes always
on the future, and to especially anticipate this coming king.
When Christ was born in Bethlehem, humble shepherds and
certain wise men hailed him as the one sent in fulfillment of
the prophecy. Herod, then ruler .of Palestine, naturally felt
keenly jealous of anyone who might endanger his administra-
tion, and ordered the massacre of young children so familiar
to us. When it was plain that Christ came not to establish
an earthly kingdom, the Hebrews saw, and saw with full
justice, that he was not the kind of deliverer which their
prophets had led them to expect. Therefore they repudiated
him as the one so long foretold, and continued to look for
another.

After some years of freedom from Roman tribute, taxes
were again exacted. When payment was refused, trouble with
Rome ensued. The legions sent to quell the rebellion were
roughly treated and war broke out in earnest. Vespasian was
the Roman general in command, and Josephus, the writer
and historian of later years, commanded the Hebrew defence.

The scene of warfare was one of the many heights of
Judah. When at last the Romans carried the hill, Josephus
was taken prisoner. Prophecying that his conqueror should
one day become emperor of Rome, the life of the crafty Jew
was spared. Difficulties at home prevented further subjuga-
tion of Palestine. In time Vespasian did become emperor,
and dispatched his son to complete the conquest of the sturdy
Hebrews. Carrying war into Palestine, Jerusalem was soon
besieged. This attack called forth great bravery and resource-
ful effort on the part of the Jews, who proved as formidable
enemies according to their strength as any with whom Rome
ever contended.



THE STORY OF THE HEBREWS. 5

Jerusalem was fortunate in her position, being protected
on three sides by deep gorges or ravines. The assault was
accordingly made on the fourth side, guarded by four suc-
cessive walls. The defense was so strong that several days
elapsed before the first wall was taken; the third fell on the
fifteenth day. Now the Romans made overtures of peace,
displaying their strength before the eyes of the stricken people.

" Resting for a few days from toil, and strengthened by
the distribution of an abundance of provisions, the Romans
marched before the first wall in magnificent review. First
went the infantry, clad in breastplates, and with arms un-
covered; the cavalry appeared with horses and splendidly
caparisoned ; the whole space near glittered with warlike pomp.
Josephus, now the friend of Titus, approached to advise his
countrymen to yield, declaring that the invaders would now
show mercy, but upon further resistance would become im-
placable. Many of the Jews began to regard their position as
desperate, and were moved by the words of Josephus. But
the leaders never wavered; they rejected all overtures, and
relentlessly slew all who could be suspected of entertaining
the design to submit.

" Very appalling was now the situation of the defenders.
The hot summer sun beat upon the crowds in the city, still
immense in number, though war had swept them off in troops.
From the Mount of Olives, across the narrow Kidron, hurled
day and night the projectiles which crushed houses and their
inmates. . . . Through the ravines surrounding the city
prowled the hostile parties, on the watch to secure any un-
guarded footpath, or to scale the precipices, if there was any
negligence in the watch. . . . But worse than these outer
dangers, a dreadful famine began to prevail. The fighting men,
ravenous, sought for food within the houses, and put to torture
the wretched inmates, to make them disclose their hidden
stores. . . . The battlements of the Antonia frowned,
the Temple front flashed white from Moriah far over the hills.
Beneath them what scenes of pain and death in the city like
an amphitheatre that had once been so proud! It was now
an arena for the rioting of terror."*

8 The Jews : Hosmer, 114.



6 THE WORLD'S PROGRESS.

When the fourth wall fell, it was found that the Jews had
constructed a fifth. A Roman soldier hurled a torch against
the temple, and fire raging within the city, added to the horrors.
When the final breach was made, 1,100,000 had either fallen
or were slain by the Roman soldiers. The remainder, about
97,000, were taken into captivity.

Very splendid was the triumphal march of Titus through
the streets of Rome. Great treasure of gold, silver and ivory
was shown ; numberless captives swelled his train ; huge struc-
tures, built several stories high, were covered with pictures
depicting the campaign and rolled along on wheels in the pro-
cession. The golden appointments of the temple and the tablets
upon which were inscribed the Hebrew laws, always guarded
in the innermost part of the temple, were now paraded before
the eyes of the multitude. A triumphal arch was erected above
the Via Sacra in honor of Titus, the conquering hero, and
still it stands today in silent testimony of the final destruction
of Jerusalem. Well has the occasion been called one of the
most momentous events in the world's history, since it resulted
in driving forever from its home an entire race.

Here we reach the end of the political history of the Hebrew
state, yet the destruction of Jerusalem did not end the history
of the Jews. Henceforth their history was to be interwoven
with that of Europe. During the Middle Ages and in modern
times the Hebrews have played an important role in the af-
fairs of men, but through these centuries their influence has
been exerted individually or by detached groups never since
the fall of their city in the hills of Judah, in 70 A. D., have
they been united as a nation, having their own distinct political
ufe.




^EVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK
FROM THE TEMPLE.



SOCIAL LIFE AMONG THE HEBREWS. 7

CHAPTER XIV.
INDUSTRIES AND ARTS.

Before the Hebrews spread over the rich plateaus to the
east of Jordan, their occupations had been merely herding and
grazing. On the eastern tablelands they first began to culti-
vate the soil, keeping still their herds and flocks, but depend-
ing less upon them.

When we find the Israelites settled in Canaan, they had
already become an agricultural people. Since farm implements
could nowhere be obtained, such primitive tools as were used
had to be made on the farms. Knowing nothing of metal, the
Hebrews were at first obliged to go to the Philistines for such
simple service as the sharpening of plough-shares, but as hos-
tilities between the two peoples increased, they no doubt learned
to perform such duties for themselves.

For protection, the farmers built their houses together in
little groups, while their lands reached away on every side.
Thus life among them was not isolated, as it so often is among
those dwelling in agricultural communities today, where
machines have replaced hand labor, and large areas compose
single farms. The families making up each clan would locate
near one another in small settlements; these grew at length
into villages, then into walled cities.

It is a mistake to suppose that contact with the Canaanites
was wholly injurious. On the contrary, these earlier dwellers
in Palestine had reached a higher stage of civilization than the
Israelites and unconsciously the invaders learned many useful
arts from them.

" The Hebrews learned many of the arts of life of the
Canaanites after they settled among them. The original
sources of the period mention manufactures of various kinds
which have to do, not alone with a nomadic and an agricultural
stage, but also with a social state considerably advanced. Men-
tion is made of bowstrings and war-horns, of shields and spears,
of shepherd's pipes and ox-goads, of doors and locks, of chairs
and tables, of razors or shears, of cords and ropes, of dyed



8 THE WORLD'S PROGRESS.

stuffs and embroidery, of the vine and barley, of wine and
strong drink. But one conclusion is possible; it is that the
Israelites were quick to learn of their neighbors, and that
they were for the most part on such friendly terms with them
that the civilization of the one people easily became, with
slight modifications, the civilization of the other people." 1

There were no efforts put forth for the maintenance of
good roads for trade and caravan, yet the nature of the land
was such that footpaths were easily worn down and early
travel was either on foot or on the backs of asses. Indeed
trade at first was mere barter and exchange, and even so, of
slight account. The spirit of hospitality was so strong that
travellers might find shelter in any community, with refresh-
ment for themselves and beasts of burden.

Notwithstanding the primitive condition of labor during
the years of settlement in Canaan, trade and industry of later
ages had then their beginnings. We cannot now estimate the
extent of progress made, but it is important to note that the
transition from nomadic to agricultural life was completed
before the dawn of the monarchy.

Affairs underwent great changes during the united king-
dom. Commerce sprang up with surrounding countries and
with others more remote, and current ideas of culture and
civilization permeated Palestine. Increase of wealth brought
new needs to be satisfied ; comfortable homes replaced the huts
of ruder times. As the requirements of a nation and a court
made taxes heavier, farming was abandoned by many who saw
in trade the possibility of more rapid accumulation of riches.
Solomon multiplied personal wealth by commercial dealings,
and later kings followed his example. The Hebrew as a rule
did not himself produce articles but acted rather as a middle-
man, or commission merchant, with the products of other
nations.

As trade became more extensive, so the interests of the
farm became diversified. In place of barley and corn, a wide
variety of produce was demanded. The wine-press and thresh-
ing-floor were needed on all large farms.

Fewer articles were produced at home. The caravan
brought dress stuffs to the very door of the house- wife, al-

Social Life of the Hebrews : Day, 71.



SOCIAIv UFE AMONG THE HEBREWS. 9

though coarse fabrics were still woven at home, as were all
materials used by the poorer classes. Food materials had still
to be prepared in the home. Even meal was ground in the
household. " Two shall be grinding at the mill ; one shall be
taken and the other left." In such figures and illustrations
the student of economic history finds valuable materials.



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