Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

. (page 11 of 48)
Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 11 of 48)
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litigious generation of men. * Orumenimulga natio, S^c. A
purse-milking nation, a clamorous company, gowned vultures,
* qui ex injuria vivent et sanguine ctvium, thieves and semi-
naries of discord; worse than any pollers by the highway
side, auri acctpitres, auri exterebronideSy pecuniarum hamioloi,

1 Sallust. Semper in dvitate qnibus jaris. Maltiplicantur ntmo in terris nt

opes nuU» sunt, bonis invident, Tetera locustsB non patriae parentes. sed pestes,

odere. nova exoptant, odio suarum pessimi homines, majore ex parte super-

rerom mutari omnia petunt SDe ciliosi, contention, &c., licitum latrocini-

legibus. Profligatse in repnb. disciplinao um exercent. * Dousa epid. loquieleia

est indicium jurisperitorum numerus, et tvahtk^ Tultures togatL • Bare. Argen.
nediconun oopia. *In prsef. stud.

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qHodruplatores, curi<B harpagones, fori tintinahuUt^ monstra
hominum, mangones, S^c, that take upon them to make peace,
but are indeed the very disturbers of our peace, a company
of irreligious harpies, scraping, griping catchpoles, (I mean
our common hungry pettifoggers, ^ rahtdas forenses, love and
honour in the mean time all good laws, and worthy lawyers,
that are so many * oracles and pilots of a well-governed com-
monwealth.) Without art, without judgment, that do more
harm, as 'Livy said, quam heUa externa, fames, morhive, than
sickness, wars, hunger, diseases ; ^ and cause a most incredi-
ble destruction of a commonwealth," saith ^ Sesellius, a
famous civilian sometimes in Paris, as ivy doth by an oak,
embrace it so long, until it hath got the heart out of it, so do
they by such places they inhabit; no counsel at all, no
justice, no speech to be had, nisi eum premulseris, he must
be fed still, or else he is as mute as a fish, better open an
oyster without a knife. Experto crede (saith * Salisburiensis)
in mantis eorum miUies incidi, et Oharon immitis, qui nvUi
pepercit unquam, his longh clementior est ; "I speak out of
experience, I have been a thousand times amongst them, and
Charon himself is more gentle than they ; * he is contented
with his single pay, but they multiply still, they are never
satisfied," besides they have damniflcas linguas, as he terms
it, nisi fanilus argenteis vincias, they must be fed to say
nothing, and ♦ get more to hold their peace than we can to
«ay our best. They will speak their clients fair, and invite
them to their tables, but as he follows it, ' " of all injustice
there is none so pernicious as that of theirs, which when they
deceive most, will seem to be honest men." They take upon
them to be peacemakers, et fovere causas humilium, to help
them to their right, patrocinantur ajffUctiSy 'but all is for
their own good, vt loculos pleniorum exhauriant, they plead

' Jurisconsalti domns oractamn civl- nos loqni. ^ Totitia ii^astitiaB nnlla

Utis. Tully. « lib. 8. « Lib. 8. capitalior, quim cerum qui cum maxime

♦lib. 1, de rep. Gallorum, incred- decipiunt, id agunt, ut boni nri esse

IbHem reipub. pemiciem aflferunt. — Tideaatur. 8 Nam quocunque modo

» Polyerat. iib. • Is stipe contentus, causa procedat, hoc semper agitur, ut

et hi asses iategros sibi multiplicari ju- loculi impleantur, etd avaritia uequit

bent. * Plus aocipiuni tacere, quam satiarl.

VOL. I. 8

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114 Democritus to the Reader,

for poor men gratis, but tliej are but as a stale to catdi
others. If there be no jar, ' they can make a jar, out of the
law itself find still some quirk or other, to set them at odds,
and continue causes so long, lustra aliquot, I know not how
many years before the cause is heard, and when 'tis judged
and determined by reason of some tricks and errors, it is as
fresh to begin, after twice seven years some times, as it was
at first ; and so they prolong time, delay suits till they have
enriched themselves, and beggared their clients. And, as
^ Cato inveighed against Isocrates's scholars, we may justly
tax our wrangling lawyers, they do consenescere in litibus, are
so litigious and busy here on earth, that I think they will
plead their client's causes hereafter, some of them in helL

* Simlerus complains amongst the Suissers of the advocates
in his time, that when they should make an end, tiiey began
controversies, and " protract their causes many years, per*
suading them their title is good, till their patrimonies be con-
sumed, and that they have spent more in seeking than the
thing is worth, or they shall get by the recovery." So that
he that goes to law, as the proverb is, * holds a wolf by the
ears, or as a sheep in a storm runs for shelter to a brier, if
he prosecute his cause he is consumed, if he surcease his suit
he loseth all ; * what difference ? They had wont hereto-
fore, saith Austin, to end matters, per communes arbitros;
and so in Switzerland (we are informed by • Simlerus),
"they had some common arbitrators or daysmen in every
town, that made a ftiendly composition betwixt man and man,
and he much wonders at their honest simplicity, that could
keep peace so well, and end such great causes by that means.
At ' Fez in Africa, they have neither lawyers nor advocates ;

1 Camden in Norfolk : qui b! nihil fA% * Bor. • Lib. de Helvet. repnlK JadioM

litium h juris apicibus lites tamen serere quocunque pago constituunt qui amioft

Calient. > Plutarch. Tit. Cat. causas aliqufttransaetione, si fieri po«it,lite8tol-

apud inferos quas in suam fidem re- lant. Ego majoruni nostrorum simplici-

ceRerunt, patrocinio suo tuebuntur. tatem admiror, qui nio causas grayisdmaa

* Lib. 2, de Helret. repub. non explican- composuerint ; &c. ' Clenard 1. 1, ep.
dis, sed moliendis coutroversiis operam Si quae controverslos utraque pars ju<
dant, ita ut lites in multos annos extra- dicem adit, is semel et simul rem transit
hantiir summ9L cum molestii utrisque ; ^t, audit : neo quid sit appellatio, laoh
partis et dum interea patrimonia exliauri- rymosaeque morse nosonnt.

aatur * Lupum auribns tenent

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but if there be any controversies amongst them, both parties
plaintiff and defendant come to their Alfakins or chief judge,

* and at once, without any farther appeals or pitiful delays,
^e cause is heard and ended." Our forefathers, as * a worthy
chorographer of OBrs observes, had wont pauculis crticulu
auretSy with a few golden crosses, and lines in verse, make all
conveyances, assurances. And such was the candour and
integrity of succeeding ages, that a deed (as I have often
seen) to convey a whole manor, was impUctte contained in
some twenty lines or 'thereabouts ; Hke that scede or Sytala
Laconica^ so much renowned of old in all contracts, which

• Tully so earnestly commends to Atticus, Plutarch in his
Lysander, Aristotle polit : Thucydides, Uh. 1. • Diodorus
and Suidasr approve and magnify, for that laconic brevity in
this kind ; and well they might, for, according to * TertuUian;
berta sunt paucis, there is much more certainty in fewer
words. And so was it of old throughout; but now many
skins of parchment will scarce serve turn ; he that buys* and
sells a house, must have a house full of writings, there be so
many circumstances, so many words, such tautological repeti-
tions of all particulars, (to avoid cavillation they say ;) but
we find by our woful experience, that to subtle wits it is a
cause of much more contention and variance, and scarce any
conveyance so accurately penned by one, which another will
not find a crack in, or cavil at ; if any one word be mis-
placed, any little error, all is disannulled. That which is a
law to-day, is none to-morrow ; that which is sound* in one
man's opinion, is most faulty to another ; that in conclusion,
here is nothing amongst us but contention and confusion, we
bandy one against another. Arid that which long since

• Plutarch complained of them in Asia, may be verified in
our times. *^ These men here assembled, come not to sacri-
fice to their gods, to offer Jupiter their first-fruits, or merri-

1 Camden. s Lib. 10, epiafc. ad At- JotI primitias offerant, knt Baccho com-

tfemn, episfr. 11. » Biblioth. 1. 8. messationes, sed anniTorsarias morbol

* lib. de Anim. 6 Lib. major morb. ezasperans Asiam huo ecs co^t, ut con-
eorp. an ai^ni. m non conveniunt ut tentionee hie peragant

liiB more mi^'^ram sacra fiiciant, non nt

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116 Democritus to the Reader.

ments to Bacchus ; but an yearly disease, exasperating Asia,
hath brought them hither, to make an end of their contro-
versies and lawsuits." *Tis mtdtitudo perdentium et pereun-
ttum, a destructive rout that seek one another's ruin. Such
most part are our ordinary suitors, termers, clients, new stirs
every day, mistakes, errors, cavils, and at this present, as I
have heard in some one court, I know not how many thou-
sand causes ; no person free, no title almost good, with such
bitterness in following, so many slights, procrastinations,
delays, forgery, such cost (for infinite feums are inconsider-
ately spent), violence and malice, I know not by whose fault,
lawyers, clients, laws, both or all ; but as Paul reprehended
the ^ Corinthians long since, I may more positively infer now :
" There is a fault amongst you, and I speak it to your shame,
Is there not a ^ wise man amongst you, to judge between his
brethren ? but that a brother goes to law with a brother.**
And ♦ Christ's counsel concerning lawsuits, was never so fit
to be inculcated as in this age : • " Agree with thine adver-
sary quickly," &c Matth. v. 25.

I could repeat many such particular grievances, which
must disturb a body politic. To shut up all in brief, where
good government is, prudent and wise princes, there all
things thrive and prosper, peace and happiness is in that
land ; where it is otherwise, all things are ugly to behold,
incult, barbarous, uncivil, a paradise is turned to a wilder-
ness. This island amongst the rest, our next neighbours
the Frfench and Germans, may be a sufficient witness, that
in a short time by that prudent policy of the Romans, was
brought from barbarism ; see but what Caesar reports of us,
and Tacitus of those old Germans, they were once as uncivil
as they in Virginia, yet by planting of colonies and good laws,
they became from barbarous outlaws, * to be full of rich and

1 1 Cor. t1. 6, 6. < Stnlti qnando mons. * Sflspius bona materia ceesat

demum sapietis? Ps. xlix. 8. * So sine artifice. Sabellicus de Germania.

intituled, and preached by our Re< Si quis videret Qermaniam urbibus hodie

(lus Professor, D. Prideanx; printed excoltam, non diceret ut olim tristem

at London by Foelix Kingston, 1621. cultu, asperam coelo, terrain infoimem
•Of which Text read twc learned Ser-

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populous cities, as now they are, and most flourishing king-
doms. Even so might Virginia, and those wild Irish have
been civilized long since, if that order had been heretofore
taken, which now begins, of planting colonies, &c I havje
read a * discourse, printed anno 1612. " Discovering the
true causes why Ireland was never entirely subdued, or
brought under obedience to the crown of England, until the
beginning of his Majesty's happy reign." Yet if his reasons
were thoroughly scanned by a judicious politician, I am afraid
he would not altogether be approved, but that it would turn
to the tiishonour of our nation, to suflfer it to lie so long waste.
Yea, and if some travellers should see (to come nearer home)
those rich, united provinces of Holland, Zealand, &c, over
against us*; those neat cities and populous towns, full of most
industrious artificers, * so much land recovered from the sea,
and so painfully preserved by those artificial inventions, so
wonderfully approved, as that of Bemster in Holland, tU nihil
huic par avt simile invenias in toio orbe, saith Bertius the
geographer, all the world cannot match it, 'so many navi-
gable channels from place to place, made by men's hands,
&C., and on the other side so many thousand acres of our fens
lie drowned, our cities thin, and those vile, poor, and ugly to
behold in respect of theirs, our trades decayed, our still run-
ning rivers stopped, and that beneficial use of transportation,
wholly neglected, so many havens void of ships and towns,
60 many parks and forests for pleasure, barren heaths, so
many villages depopulated, &c, I think sure he would find
some fault.

I may not deny but that this nation of ours, doth bene
audire apud exteros, is a most noble, a most flourishing king
dom, by common consent of all * geographers, historians,
politicians, 'tis unica velut aroc,* and which Quintius in Livy
said of the inhabitants of Peloponnesus, may be well applied
to us, we are testvdines testd sua inclusi, like so many tor«

t By his llajesty^t Attorney-OeDeral Bruges to the sea, &o. * Ortelim,
thare. * As Zeipland, Bemster ia Hoi- Boteros, Mercator, Meteranus, fro —
land, &e. * From Qaunt to Slace, firom * '• The citadel par ezcellenoe.''

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118 Democntus to the Reader.

toises in our sbelb, safelj defended by an angry sea, as a wall
on all sides. Our island hath many such honourable eulogi-
ums ; and as a learned oountryman of ours right well hath it,
J "Ever since the Normans first coming into England, this
country both for miUtary matters, and aU other of civility,
hath been paralleled with the most fiourishing kingdoms ^
Europe and our Christian world," a blessed, a rich country,
and one of the fortunate isles ; and for some thhigs * preferred
before other countries, for expert seamen, our laboiious dis-
coveries, art of navigation, true merchants, they carry the
bell away from all other nations, even the Portugals and
Hollanders themselves ; * " without all fear," eaith Boterus,
" furrowing the ocean winter and summer, and two of their
captains, with no less valour than fortune, have sailed round
about the world." * We have besides many particular bless-
ings, which our neighbours want, the Gospel truly preached,
church discipline established, long peace and quietness free
from exactions, foreign fears, invasions, domestical seditions,
well manured, * fortified by art, and nature, and now most
happy in that fortunate union of England and Scotland,
which our forefathers have laboured to effect, and desired
to see. But in which we excel all others, a wise, learned,
religious king, another Numa, a second Augustus, a true
Josiah ; most worthy senators, a learned clergy, an obedient
commonalty, &c Yet amongst many roses, some thistles
grow, some bad weeds and enormities, which much disturb
the peace of this body politic, eclipse the honour and glory
of it, fit to be rooted out, and with all speed to be reformed.

The first is idleness, by reason of which we have many
swarms of rogues, and beggars, thieves, drunkards, and dis-
contented persons (whom Lycurgus in Plutarch calls morbon
reipubliciB, the boils of the commonwealth), many poor people
in all our towns. Oivitates tgnobiles as ^ Polydore calls them,

1 Jam inde non miniii belli gloria, duo illorum duces non mtnore audadft

auSun humanitatls oultu inter tlorentia- qujim fortune totios orbem terra cir>

tmas orbis Cbristiani gentes imprimis cnmnavigirunt. Amphitheatre Boterus.

floruit. Camden Brit, de Normannis. * A fertile soil, ffood air, &o. Tin, Lead,

I Geog. Keeker. * Tarn taieme quJim Wool, SaflBrou, &c. > Tota Britannia

■state intrepid* aoloant Oceanum. et unica velut arx. Boter. • Lib. 1, hM.

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Democritus to the Reader, 119

base-built cities, inglorious, poor, small, rare in sight, ruinous,
and thin of inhabitants. Our land is fertile we may not deny,
full of all good things, and why doth it not then abound with
cities, as well as Italy, France, Grermany, the Low Countries ?
because their policy hath been otherwise, and we are not so
thrifty, circumspect, industrious. Idleness is the maltis genim
of our nation. For as i Boterus justly argues, fertility of a
country is not enough, except art and industry be joined unto
it; according to Aristotle, riches ai*e either natural or arti-
ficial ; natural, are good land, fair mines, &c., artificial, are
manufactures, coins, &c. Many kingdoms are fertile, but
thin of inhabitants, as that Duchy of Piedmont in Italy,
which Leander Albertus so much magnifies for com, wine,
fruits, &C., yet nothing near so populous as those which are
more barren. ^ " England," saith he, " London only ex-
cepted, hath never a populous city, and yet a fruitful coun-
try." I find 46 cities and walled towns in Alsatia, a small
province in Germany, 50 castles, an infinite number of vil-
lages, no ground idle ; no, not rocky places, or tops of hills
are untiUed, as 'Munster informeth us. In *Greichgea, a
small territory on the Necker, 24 Italian miles over, I read
of 20 walled towns, innumerable villages, each one containing
150 houses most part, besides castles and noblemen's palaces.
I observe in ^Turinge, in Dutchland (twelve miles over by
their scale), 12 counties, and in tiiem 144 cities, 2,000 vil-
lages, 144 towns, 250 castles. In • Bavaria, 34 cities, 46
towns, &c ''PorttigcMa interamnis, a small plot of ground,
hath 1,460 parishes, 130 monasteries, 200 bridges. Malta,
a barren island, yields 20,000 inhabitants. But of all the
rest, I admire Lues Guicdardine'a relations of the Low
Countries. Holland hath 26 cities, 400 great villages. Zea-
land, 10 cities, 102 parishes. Brabant, 26 cities, 102 parishes.
Flanders, 28 cities, 90 towns, 1,154 villages, besides abbeys,

1 Inoiement. orb. 1. 1, c. 9. < An- mems, nnllus locui otiosus aut incnltua.

gliflB, ezcepto Londino, nulla est civitas ^ Ohytreus orat. edit. Francof. 1588.

memorabilis, licet ea natio rerum om- 6 Maginns Geog. • Ortelius k Vaseo et

niom copii abundet. > Cosmog. Pet. de Medina. 7 An hundred &ini

Ub. 8, cop. 119. Tillarom non est nu- lies in each.

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120 Democrttut to the Reader,

castles, &c The Low Countries generally have three cities
at least for one of ours, and those far more populous and
rich ; and what is the cause, but their industry and excel-
lency in all manner of trades ? Their commerce, which is
maintained by a multitude of tradesmen, so many excellent
channels made by art and opportune havens, to which they
build their cities ; all which we have in like measure, or -at
least may have. But their chiefest loadstone which draws all
manner of commerce and merchandise, which maintains their
present estate, is not fertility of soil, but industry that en-
richeth them ; the gold mines of Peni, or Nova Hispania may
not compare with them. They have neither gold nor silver
of their own, wine nor oil, or scarce any com growing in
those united provinces ; little or no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk,
wool, any stuff almost, or metal ; and yet Hungary, Transyl-
vania, that brag of their mines, fertile England, cannot com-
pare with them. I dare boldly say, that neither France,
Tarentum, Apulia, Lombardy, or any part of Italy, Valence
in Spain, or that pleasant Andalusia, with their excellent
fruits, wine and oil, two harvests, no not any part of Europe
is 60 flourishing, so rich, so populous, so full of good ships, of
well-built cities, so abounding with all things necessary for
the use of man. 'Tis our Indies, an epitome of China, and
all by reason of their industry, good policy, and commerce.
Industry is a loadstone to draw all good things ; that alone
makes countries flourish, cities populous, ^and will enforce
by reason of much manure, which necessarily follows, a bar-
ren soil to be fertile and good, as sheep, saith * Dion, mend a
bad pasture.

Tell me, politicians, why is that fruitful Palestina, noble
Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, so much decayed, and (mere
carcasses now) fallen from that they were ? The ground ia
the same, but the government is altered; the people are
grown slothful, idle; their good husbandry, policy, and in-

1 Popnli mnltifeado diligente oultnrft t Orat. 86. Terra abi otm stebulamtiiv
tbacandat lolam Boter. L 8, o. 8 opttma agriooUs ob itexont.

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Democrttus to the Header. 121

dustiy is decayed. Nb7i faiigata avi effceta humiis, as * Colu-
mella well informs Sylvinus, sed nostra Jit inertid, S^c. May
a man believe that which Aristotle in his politics, Pausanias,
Stepiianus, Sophianus, Gerbelius relate of old Greece ? I find
heretofore seventy cities in Epirus overthrown by Paulas
iBmilius, a goodly province in times past, ^ now left desolate
of good towns and almost inhabitants. Sixty-two cities in
Macedonia in Strabo's time. I find thirty in Laconia, but now
scarce so many villages, saith Gerbelius. If any man from
Mount Taygetus should view the country round about, and see
tot delicias, tot urbes per Peloponnesum dispersas, so many deli-
cate and brave built cities with such cost and exquisite cun-
ning, so neatly set out in Peloponnesus, ' he should perceive
them now ruinous and overthrown, burnt, waste, desolate,
and laid level with^ the ground. IncrediUh dictu, S^c. And
as he laments, Quis talia fandx> Temperet a lachrymts f Quu
tam durus avi ferreus f (so he prosecutes it)* Who is he
that can sufficiently condole and commiserate these ruins ?
Where are those 4,000 cities of Egypt, those 100 cities in
Crete? Are they now come to, two? What saith Pliny
and JBlian of old Italy ? There were in former ages 1,166
cities ; Blondus and Machiavel, both grant them now nothing
near so populous, and full of good towns as in the time of
Augustus (for now Leander Albertus can find but 300 at
most), and if we may give credit to * Livy, not then so strong
and puissant as of old : They mustered seventy Legions in for-
mer times, which now the known world will scarce yield. Al-
exander built seventy cities in a short space for his part, our
Sultans and Turks demolish twice as many, and leave all
desolate. Many will not believe but that our island of Great
Britain is now more populous than ever it was ; yet let them

I I>e re rust. 1. 2, cap. 1. The soil
Is not tiled or exhausted, but has * Not eren the hardest of oar fbes oooM
become barren through our sloth. hear,

I Uodie urbibus desolatnr, et ma^a ex Nor stem Ulysses tell without a tear,
n&rte incolis destituitur. Gerbelius desc.

GrsBciie, lib. 6. > Videbit eas fere om- * Lib. 7. Septuaginta olim legiones
nee aut erersas, ant solo aequataa, aut in scriptse dicuntur; quas vires hodie, &o.
rodera fbedissimi d^ecta^. Gerbelius

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122 DemocrituM to the deader

read Bede, Leiand, and others, they shall find it most flour*
ished in the Saxon Heptarchj, and in the CJonqueror's time
was far better inhabited than at this present See that
Domesdaj-Book, and show me those thousands of parishes,
which are now decayed, cities ruined, villages depopulated,
&C. The lesser the territory is, commonly, the richer it is.
Parvus sed bene culttis ager. As those Athenian, Lacede-
monian, Arcadian, Aelian, Sycionian, Messenian, &c, com-
monwealths of Greece make ample proof, as those imperial
cities and ^t^q states of Grermany may witness, those Cantons
of Switzers, Rheti, Grisons, Walloons, Territories of Tuscany,
Luke and Senes of old. Piedmont, Mantua, Venice in Italy,
Ragusa, &c.

That prince, therefore, as ^ Boterus adviseth, that will have
a rich country, and fair cities, let him get good trades, privi-
leges, painful inhabitants, artificers, and suffer no rude matter
unwrought, as tin, iron, wool, lead, &c, to be transported out
of his country, — ^ a thing in part seriously attempted amongst
us, but not effected. And because industry of men, and mul-
titude of trade so much avails to the ornament and enriching
of a kingdom ; those ancient * Massilians would admit no man
into their city that had not some trade. Selym, the first
Turkish emperor, procured a thousand good artificers to be
brought from Taurus to Constantinople. The Polanders in
dented with Henry, Duke of Anjou, their new-chosen king,
to bring with him an hundred families of artificers into Po-
land. James the First, in Scotland, (as ^ Buchanan writes,)
sent for the best artificers he could get in Europe, and gave
them great rewards to teach his subjects their several trades.
Edward the Third, our most renowned king, to his eternal
memory, brought clothing first into this island, transporting
some families of artificers from Gaunt hither. How many

Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 11 of 48)