Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

. (page 13 of 48)
Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 13 of 48)
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side, general staples, marts, as Antwerp, Venice, Bergen of
old, London, &c., cities most part shall be situated upon nav-
igable rivers or lakes, creeks, havens ; and for their form,
regular, round, square, or long square, * with fair, broad, and
straight ^streets, houses uniform, built of brick and stone,
like Bruges, Brusseb, Rhegium Lepidi, Berne in Switzer-
land, Milan, Mantua, Crema, Cambalu in Tartary, described
by M. Polus, or that Venetian palma. I will admit very few
or no suburbs, and those of baser building, walls only to keep
out man and horse, except it be in some frontier towns, or by
the seaside, and those to be fortified * after the latest manner of
fortification, and situated upon convenient havens, or opportune
places. In every so built city, I will have convenient churches,
and separate places to bury the dead in, not in churchyards ;
a citadeUa (in some, not all) to command it, prisons for offend-
ers, opportune market-places of all sorts, for com, meat, cattle,
fuel, fish, commodious courts of justice, public halls for all
societies, bourses, meeting-places, armouries, * in which shall
be kept engines for quenching of fire, artillery gardens, pub-
lic walks, theatres, and spacious fields allotted for all gymnastic
sports, and honest recreations, hospitals of all kinds, for chil-
dren, orphans, old folks, sick men, mad men, soldiers, pest-
houses, &C., not built precario, or by gouty benefactors, who,
when by fraud and rapine they" have extorted all their lives,
expressed whole provinces, societies, &c., give something to
pious uses, build a satisfactory almshouse, school or bridge,
&c^ at their last end or before perhaps,, which is no other-
wise than to steal a goose, and stick down a feather, rob a
thousand to relieve ten; and those hospitals so built and
maintained, not by collections, benevolences, donaries, for a
set number, (as in ours,) just so many and no more at such

1 Vide Patrithnn, lib. 8, tit. 10, de In- 1. 1, e. nit; > With walls of eartli, &o.
■tit. Reipub. * Sic olim IBppodaxnus < Be hit PUn. epist. 42, Ub. 2, et Taeii
Ifikdna irist. pdUt. cap. U, et VitruTius Annal. 18 Ub.



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134 Democritus to the Reader^

a rate, but for all those who stand in need, be they more or
less, and that ex publico cercario, and so still maintained, non
nobis solum nati sumus, S^c. I will have conduits of sweet
and good water, aptlj disposed in each town, eommon ^ gran-
aries, as at Dresden in Misnia, Stetein in Pomerland, Nop-
emberg, <&c. Colleges of mathematicians, musician^;, and
actors, as of old at Labedum in Ionia, ^alchemists, physi-
cians, artists, and philosophers ; that all arts and sciences may
sooner be perfected and better learned ; and public historiog-
raphers, as amongst those ancient • Persians, qui in comment
tarios referebant qua memoratu digna gerebantur, informed
and appointed by the state to register all famous acts, and not
by ea(;h insufficient scribbler, partial or parasitical pedant, as
in our times. I will provide public schools of all kinds, sing-
ings dancing, fencing, &c., especially of grammar and lan-
guages, not to be taught by those tedious precepts ordinarily
used, but by use, example, conversation,* as travellers learn
abroad, and nurses teach their children ; as I will have all
such places, so will I ordain • public governors, fit officers to
each place, treasurers, sediles, questors, overseers of pupils,
widows' goods, and all public houses, &c., and those once a
year to make strict accounts of all receipts, expenses, to
avoid confusion, et sic fiet ut non ajbsumant (as I^iny to Tra*
jan,) quodpudecU dicere. They shall be subordinate to those
higher officers and governors of each city, which shall not
be poor tradesmen, and mean artificers, but noblemen and
gentlemen, which shall be tied to residence in those towns
they dwell next, at such set times and seasons ; for I see no
reason (which •Hippolitus complains of) "that it should bo
more dishonourable for noblemen to govern the city than the
country, or unseemly to dwfeU there now, than of old." ^ I

I Vide Briranium de regno Perse alia proeurent. Tide Isaactun Pontanam

lib. 8, de his et Vegetium, lib. 2, cap. 8, de cIt. Amstel. base omnia, &e., Gotar-

de Annona. * Not to make gold, but dum et alios. * De Incretn. nrb. cap. 18.

for matten of physic. s Bresonias Ingenif^ fateor me non intelUgece car ig>>

Josephus, lib. 21, antiqait. Jud. cap. 6. nobilins sit urbes bene munitas colere

Herod, lib. 3. * So Lod. Vives thinka nunc qukm oliro, aut casao rusticaB pras-

t>eet, Oommineus, and others. ft Plato esse qulm urbi. Idem Ubertus Foliot..

8, de legg. iEditos ereari mlt, qui Ibra, de Neapoli. ^ Ke tantillam quidem aoli

^ntea, Tiaa, portua, plateaa, et id fenus inooltum relinqoitor, ut retvm sit na



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Democritus to the Beacter. 185

will have no bogs, fens, marshes, vast woods, deserts, heaths,
commons, but all inclosed ; (yet not depopulated, and there-
fore take heed you mistake me not ;) for that which is common,
and every man^s, is no man's ; the richest countries are still
inclosed, as Essex, Kent, with us, <&c., Spain, Italy; and
where indosures are least in quantity, they are best * hus-
banded, as about Florence in Italy, Damascus in Syria, &c.,
which are liker gardens than fields. I will not have a bar-
ren acre in all my territories, not so much as the tops of
mountains ; where nature fails, it shall be supplied by art ;
"lakes and rivers shall not be left desolate. All common
highways, bridges, banks, corrivations of waters, aqueducts,
channels, publip works, building, <&c, out of a ' common stock,
curiously maintained and kept in repair; no depopulationa^
engrossing.*?, alterations of wood, arable, but by the consent
of some supervisors that shall be appointed for that purpose,
to see what reformation ought to be had in all places, what is
amiss, how to help it, et quid qucequefercU regio^ et quid quce^
que recuiet^ what ground is aptest for wood, what for com,
what for cattle, gardens, orchards, fishponds, &c, with a char-
itable division in every village, (not one domineering house
greedily to swallow up all, which is too common with us)
what for lords, * what for tenants ; and because they shall be
better encouraged to improve such lands they hold, manure,
plant trees, drain, fence, &C., they shall have long leases, a
known rent, and known fine to free them from those intoler-
able exactions of tyrannizing landlords. These supervisors
shall likewise appoint what quantity of land in each manor

polHcem qnidein agri In his regionibus CotRwoI, and their soil much mended,

tterilem aut infiiecnndum reperiri. Mar^ Tuaser, cap. 62, of his husbandry, is of

eus Hemingius Augustanus de regno his opinion, one acre inclosed^ is worth

Chlnse, 1. 1, c. 8. i M. Carew, in Ids three common. The country inclosed I

survey of Cornwall, saith that before that praise ; the other delighteth not me, for

6cmntsj was inclosed, the husbandmen nothing of wealth it doth raise, &c.

drank water, did eat little or no bread, ^ Incredibilis navigiorum copia, nihilo

Ibl. 66, lib. 1, their apparel was coarse, pauciores in aquis, quim in eontinenti

they went barelegged, their dwelling was commorantur. M. Ricceus expedit in

torrespondent; but since inclosure, they Sinas, 1. 1, c. 8 ' To this purpose

9re decently, and have money to spend Arist. polit. 2, c. 6, allows a third part of

(Ibl. 28) ; when thdr fields were common, their revenues. Hippodamus half. « ItA

tMr wool was coarse, Cornish hair; but lex Agraria olim Eom«.
rinoa inokMmte, it Is almost as good as



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136 Democritus to the Reader,

13 fit for the lord's demesnes, * what for holding of tenant^
how it ought to be husbanded, ul ^mcignetis equis, Minyce gems
cognita remis, how to be manured, tilled, rectified, * hie
segetes veniunt, iUic fcelicius uvce, arhorei foetus alibi, atque
iiyussa virescunt Gramina^ and what proportion is fit for all
callings, because private professors are many times idiots, ill
husbands, oppressors, covetous, and know not how to improve
their own, or else wholly respect their own, and not public
good.

Utopian parity is a kind of government, to be wished for,

• rather than effected, Eespub. Christianopolitana, Campanel-
la*s city of the Sun, and that new Atlantis, witty fictions, but
mere chimeras and Plato's community in many things is im-
pious, absurd and ridiculous, it takes away all splendour and
magnificence. I will have several orders, degrees of nobility,
and those hereditary, not rejecting younger brothers in the
mean time, for they shall be sufllciently provided for by pen-
sions, or so qualified, brought up in some honest calling, they
shall be able to live of themselves. I will have such a pnn
portion of ground belonging to every barony, he that buys
the land shall buy the barony, he that by riot consumes his
patrimony, and ancient demesnes, shall forfeit his honours.*
As some dignities shall be hereditary, so some again by elec-
tion, or by gift, (besides free offices, pensions, annuities,) like
our bishoprics, prebends, the Basso's palaces in Turkey, the

* procurator's houses and offices in Venice, which, like the
golden apple, shall be given to the worthiest, and best de-
serving both in war and peace, as a reward of their worth
and good service, as so many goals for all to aim at (honos
alit arfes), and encouragements to others. For I hate these
severe, unnatural, harsh, German, French, and Venetian de-
crees, which exclude plebeians from honours, be they never
so wise, rich, virtuous,^ valiant, and well qualified, they must

1 Hie segetes, illicTeniuntfiDeliciiisiiTie, Andreas, Lord Venilam. < So is tl

Arborei ftetus alibi, atque injassa Tires- in the kingdom of Naples and France,

sunt Gramina. Virg. 1 Oeorg. * La- & See Contaxentn and Osorliu dm rebm

oanus, 1. & • VIzg. > Joh. Valent. gestb Bm&noeUi.



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Democritus to the Reader. 137

not be patricians, but keep their own rank, this is Kotura

heUum inferre, odious to God and men, I abhor it. My form

of government shall be monarchical.

* ** nunqnam libertas gratior extat,
Qnam sub Rege pio,*' &c.

Few laws, but those severely kept, plainly put down, and in
the mother tongue, that every man may understand. Every
city shall have a peculiar trade or privilege, by which it shall
be chiefly maintained ; ^ and parents shall teach their chil-
dren one of three at least, bring up and instruct them in the
mysteries of their own trade. In each town these several
tradesmen shall be so aptly disposed, as they shall free the
rest from danger or oflfence ; fire-trades, as smiths, forge-men,
brewers, bakers, metal-men, &c, shall dwell apart by them-
selves ; dyers, tanners, felmongers, and such as use water in
convenient places by themselves ; noisome or fulsome for bad
smells, as butchers' slaughter-houses, chandlers, curriers, in
remote places, and some back lanes. Fraternities and com-
panies, I approve of, as merchants* bourses, colleges of drug-
rAa*a T^K<<rQ.*o;or.o rrxM^c.\a\*^i^^^ ^q^^ ^ut all tradcs to bc rated in
jlerks of the market do bakers and
t scarcity soever shall come, not to
such wares as are transported or
ecessary, commodious, and such as
, as com, wood, coal, &c., and such
t, I will have little or no custom
ich things as are for pleasure, de-
le, spice, tobacco, silk, velvet, cloth
A greater impost I will have cer-
r discoveries every year, * and some
3 travel into all neighbouring king-

'er is Smanuele reg^ Lusitano. Riccins de

Ing.*' Sinis. 2 Hippol. i collibus de increin.

yptiis nrb. c. 20. Plato idem 7, de legibus,

quod qase ad vitam necessaria, et quibua ca-

reli- rere non possunius, nullum dependi vec-

ucce- tigal, &c. 3 Plato 12, de legibua, 40

ir, et anuos natoa vult, ut si quid memorabil«

arcus viderent apud exterofl,lioc ipsum iu ran-

la de pub. recipiatur.



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138 Democritus to the Reader.

doms by land, which shall observe what artifidal inveutioiu
and good laws are in other countries, customs, alterations, or
aught else, concerning war or peace, which may taid to the
common good* Ecclesiastical discipline, ^enee Episcopos^
subordinate as the other. No impropriations, no laj patrons
of church livings, or one private man, but common societies,
corporations, &c., and those rectors of benefices to be chosen
out of the Universities, examined and approved, as the literati
in China. No parish to contain above a thousand auditors.
If it were possible, I would have such priests as should imi*
tate Christ, charitable lawyers should love their neighbours
as themselves, temperate and modest physicians, politicians
contemn the world, philosophers should know themselves,
noblemen live honestly, tradesmen leave lying and cozening,
magistrates, corruption, &c., but this is impossible, I must get
such as I may. I will therefore have * of lawyers, judges,
advocates, physicians, chirurgeons, &c., a set number, ^ and
every man, if it be possible, to plead his own cause, to tell
that tale to the judge which he doth to his advocate, as
at Fez in Africa, Bantam, Aleppo, Ragusa, suam qiiisque
causam dicere tenetur. Those advocates, chirurgeons, and
• physicians, which are allowed to be maintained out of the
^ ^ common treasury, no fees to be given or taken upon pain
of losing their places ; or if they do, very small fees, and
when the * cause is fully ended. * He that sues any man
shall put in a pledge, which if it be proved he hath wrong-
fully sued his adversary, rashly or maliciously, he shall for-
feit, and lose. Or else before any suit begin, the plaintiff
shall have his complaint approved by a set delegacy to that
purpose ; if it be of moment he shall be suffered as before, to
proceed, if otherwise, they shall determine it All causes.

1 Simlerus in Helvetia. * Utopienses ik>; sio minvia erit ambe^um, et meritM
causidicos excladunt, qui causas callide fkcilios elicietur. Mor. Utop. 1. 2



et yafre tractent et cUsputent. Iniquissi- s Mediei ex publico Tictam sumani
mum censent hominem uUis obligari legi- Boter. 1. 1, c 5, de .figyptiis. < De liil
bus, quae aut numerosiores sunt, quim lege Patrit. I. 8, tit. 8, de rdp. Instit.



mum censent hominem ullis obligari legi- Boter. 1. 1, c 5, de .figyptiis. < De hil
bus, quae aut numerosiores sunt, quim lege Patrit. 1. 8, tit. 8, de rdp. Instit.
nt perl^ queant, aut obscuriores qudon ^ Nihil 4 cUentibus patroni aodpiant,



nt 4 quoTis possint intelligi. Volunt ut priunquam lis finita est. Barcl. Argea
0uara quisque causam agat, eamque refe- lib. 8. > It is so in most fic«e dtkt in
rat Judici quam narraturus fiierat patro> Germany.



I



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Democritvs to the Reader. 139

shall be pleaded suppresso nomine, the parties* names con-
cealed, if some circumstances do not otherwise require.
Judges and other officers shall be aptly disposed in each'
province, villages, cities, as common ai'bitrators to hear
causes, and end all' controversies, and those not single, but
three at least on the bench at once, to determine or give sen-
tence, and those again to sit bj turns or lots, and not to con-
tinue still in the same office. No controversy to depend
above a year, but without all delays and further appeals to
be speedily despatched, and finally concluded in that time
allotted. These and all other inferior magistrates to be
chosen ^ as the literati in China, or by those exact suffrages of
the ^ Venetians, and such again not to be eligible, or capable
of magistracies, honours, offices, except they be sufficiently
• qualified for learning, manners, and that by the strict appro-
bation of reputed examiners ; * first scholars to take place,
then soldiers ; for I am of Yigetius his opinion, a scholar de-^
serves better than a soldier, because Uhius cetatis ^Lnt qum
fortiter fiurd, quce vero pro utilitate Reipuh, scribuntur, cetera

nn . o c/\1r1iAi^a urrwi^lr leiafa fnv an agC, a Scholax's forCVCr. If

they shall be deposed, and ao-
ler their offices be annual *or
ball be called in question, and
e partial and passionate, mer-
ect to love, hate, fear, favour,

return ; like Solon's Areopa-
ps, some shall visit others, and
3S, * they shall oversee that no

of authority, shall insult over

mas habet, insigni per totam Titam dig-
nitafce insigni tur, marchioni similis, aut
duci apud nos. ^ Cedant arma togae.

fi As in Berne, Lucerne, Friburge, in
Switzerland, a vicious liver is uncapable
of any office ; if a Senator, instantly de>
posed. Simlerus. ^ Not above three

years, Arist. polit. 5, c. 8. 7 Nam quia
custodiet ipsos custodes? 8 Cytreus in
Oreisgeia. Qui non ex sublimi despiciant
inferiores, nee ut bestias conculcent sibl
subditos, auotoritatis nomini confisi, fro.



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140 Democritiu to the Reader,

his inferiors, as so many wild beasts, oppress, domineer, flea,
grind, or trample on, be partial or corrupt, but that there be
(Bguahile jtis, justice equally done, live as friends and breth-
ren together ; and which ^ Sesellius would have and so much
desires in his kingdom of France, " a diapason and sweet har-
mony of kings, princes, nobles, and plebeians so mutually tied
and involved in love, as well as laws and authority, as that
they never disagree, insult or encroach one upon another."
If any man deserve well in his office he shall be rewarded.

" quis enim virtutem amplectitar ipsam,
Proemia si tollas ? " *

He that invents anything for public good in any art or
science, writes a treatise, * or performs any noble exploit, at
home or abroad, * shall be accordingly enriched, * honoured,
and preferred. I say with Hannibal in £nnius, Hostem qui
feriet erit mihi CarthaginiensiSy let him be of what condition
he will, in all offices, actions, he that deserves best shall
have best.

Tilianus in Philonius, out of a charitable mind no doubt,
wished all his books were gold and silver, jewels and pre-
cious stones, t to redeem captives, set free prisoners, and
relieve all poor distressed souls that wanted means; relig-
iously done, I deny not, but to what purpose ? Suppose this
were so well done, within a little after, though a man had
Croesus's wealth to bestow, there would be as many more*
Wherefore I will suffer no ^ beggars, rogues, vagabonds, or
idle persons at all, that cannot give an account of their

1 Sewllius de rep. Oallorum, lib. 1 & 2. inter celeres celerrimo, non inter roboEtos

• " For who would cultivate virtue itself, robustissimo, &c. t Nullum yidtn^s

if you were to take away the reward? " vel in ha*j vel in vicinis r^onibus pau-

s Si ouis egregium aut bello aut pace per- perem, nullum ohseratumf sc. > Nul-

Ibcerit. Sesel. I. 1. ^ Ad r^endam lus mendicus apud Sinas, nemini ra.no,

rempub. soli literati admittuntur, nee ad quamvis oculis turbatus sit, mendicare

earn rem gratia magistratuuin aut regis permittitur, omnes pro viribus laborare

indigent, omnia exploratti cujusq ; scien- coguntur, cseci molis trusatilibus versan-

tia et virtu te pendent. Riccius, lib. 1. disaddiruntur, soli hospitiisgaudent, qui

cap. 5. ^ In defuncti locum eum jussit ad labores sunt inepti. Osor. 1. 11. dt

Bubrogari, qui inter majores virtute reli- reb. gest. Eman. Iteming, de r^. Chin,

quis prseiret; non fuit apud mortales 1. 1, o. 8. Qotard. Arth. Orient. Ind

ollum excellentius certamen, aut cujus descr.
fietoria magis esset expetenda, noa enim



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Democritus to the Reader, 141

Kves how they * maintain themselves. If they he impotent,
lame, blind, and single, they shall be sufficiently maintained
in several hospitals, built for that purpose ; if married and
infirm, past work, or by inevitable loss, or some such like
misfortune cast behind, by distribution of ^ com, house-rent
free, annual pensions or money, they shall be relieved, and
highly rewarded for their good service they have formerly
done ; if able, they shall be enforced to work. • " For I see
no reason (as * he said) why an epicure or idle drone, a rich
glutton, a usurer, should live at ease and do nothing, live
in honour, in all manner of pleasures, and oppress others,
when as in the mean time a poor labourer, a smith, a car-
penter, an husbandman that hath spent his time in continual
labour, as an ass to carry burdens to do the commonwealth
good, and without whom we cannot live, shall be left in his
old age to beg or starve, and lead a miserable life worse than
a jument." As * all conditions shall be tied to their task, so
none shall be overtired, but have their set times of recrea-
tions and holidays, indulgere genio, feasts and merrymeet-
ings, even to the meanest artificer, or basest servant, once a
week to sing or dance, (though not all at once,) or do what-
soever he shall please; like •that Saccarvm festum amongst
the Persians, those Satumals in Rome, as well as his master.
'If any be drunk, he shall drink no more wine or strong
drink in a twelvemonth after. A bankrupt shall be ® Oata"
demtatus in Amphitheatro, publicly shamed, and he that can-
not pay his debts, if by riot or negligence, he have been im-
poverished, shall be for a twelvemonth imprisoned, if in that

1 Alex, ab Alex. 8, c. 12. « Sic olim toribus, inanlum voluptatum artificlbtu

Romae Isaac. Pontan de bis optinie. generosis et otiosis tanta munera prodigit,

Amstel. 1. 2, c. 9. * Idem Aristot. at contr^ agricolis, carbonariis, aurigis,

pol. 5, c. 8. Vitiosum quum 8oli pau- fabris, &c., nihil prospicit, 8e I eorum

Eerum liberi educantur ad labores, no- abnsa labore florentia aetatis, fame penset

ilium et divitum in voluptatibus et et serumnis, Mor. Utop. 1. 2. <> In Se-

deliciis * Quae htec injustitiaut nob- govia nemo otiosus, nemo mendicus nisi

IUh quispiam, aut foenerator qui nihil per aetatem aut morbum opus facere non

^at, lautam et splendidam vitam agat, potest: null! deest unde victum quaorat,

otio et deliciis, quum interim auriga, aut quo se exerceat. Cypr. Echovius

&bei agricola, quo respub. carere non Delit. Hispan. NuUus Genevae otioaus, n«

potest, yitam adeo miseram ducat, ut ' septennis puer. Paulus Heuzner Itiner.

p^r quam j omentorum sit ejus conditio ? « Athenaeus, 1. 12. ' Simlerus de repub.

IniqQa reap qu» dat parasltis adula- Helvet. • Spartian. olim Booue lie.



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142 Democrituh to the Reader.

space his creditors be not satisfied, * he shall be hanged. He

* that commits sacrilege shall lose his hands ; he that b(^ars
false witness, or is of perjury convicted, shall have his tongue
cut out, except he redeem it with his head. Murder, * adul-
tery, shall be punished by death, * but not theft, except it be
some more grievous offence, or notorious offenders; other-
wise they shall be condemned to the galleys, mines, be his
slaves whom they have offended, during their lives. I hate
all hereditary, slaves, and that duram Persarum legem as

• Brisonius calls it ; or as * Ammtaniis, impendio fomddatas
et ahominandas leges, per quas ob noxam unitis, omnis pro^
fnnquitas perit, hard law that wife and children, friends and
allies, should suffer for the father's offence.

No man shall marry until he ^ be twenty-five, no woman till
she be twenty, ® nisi aliter dispensatum fuertt. If one • die, the
other party shall not marry till six months after ; and because
many families are compelled to live niggardly, exhaust and
undone by great dowers, *® none shall be given at all, or very
little, and that by supervisors rated, they that are foul shall
have a greater portion ; if fair, none at all, or very little ;
" howsoever not to exceed such a rate as those supervisors
shall think fit And when once they come to those years,
poverty shall hinder no man from marriage, or any other
respect, *^but all shall be rather enforced than hindered,
*• except they be " dismembered, or grievously deformed, in-

1 He that proyides not for his fiunily, niseum, NeTisanum, et alios de hao

is worse than a thief. Paul. 3 ai> qusBstione. > vUfi«dus. ^o Apud

firedi lex : utraq ; manus et linorua pnec- Lacones olim rirgines sine dote nubebant.

idatur, nisi earn capite redemerit. s Si Boter. 1. 3, o. 8. i^ Lege cautum non

quis nuptam stuprarit, yirga virilis ei ita pridem apud Venetos, ne quis Par

prsecidatur; dmulier, nasus et auricula tritius dotem excederet 1,500 coron.



Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 13 of 48)