Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

. (page 14 of 48)
Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 14 of 48)
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prsecidantur. Alfred! lex. En leges ipsi i^ Bux. Synag. Jud. Sic Judaei. Jjeo Afer

Veneri Martique timcndas. * Pauperes Africse descript. ne sint aliter inconti-

non peccant, quum extreme necessitate nentes ob reipub. bonum. Ut August,

eoactl, rem alienam capiunt. Maldonat. Caesar, orat. ad caelibes Romanos oUm

summula quaest. 8) art. 8. Ego cum edocuit. i^ Morbo laborans, qui in

illis sentio qui licere putant k divite clam prolem Ikcile di£funditur. ne genus ha-

accipere, qui tenetur pauperi subvenire. manum fteda contagione laedatur, juven-

Emmanuel Sa. Aphor. confess. ^ Lib. tute castratur, mulieres tales procul 4

2, de reg. Persarum. s Lib. 24. consortio virorum abl^^ntur, &c. Heo-

' Aliter Aristoteles, a man at twenty-five, tor Boethius hist. lib. 1, de yet. ScotiK

a woman at twenty, polit. * Lex olim rum moribua. i* Speciosissimi ju-

Lieurgi, hodie Chinensium; Tide Plu- venesliberisdabuntoperam. Plato 5, d«

tarehum, Riooium, Hemmingium, Ar- l^bus.

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Democntus to the jRectder, 143

firm, or visited with some enormous hereditary disease, in
body or mind ; in such cases upon a great pain, or mulct,
* man or woman shall not marry, other order shall be taken
for them to their content. If people overabound, they shall
be eased by ^ colonies.

•No man shall wear weapons in any city. The same
attire shall be kept, and that proper to several callings, by
which they shall be distinguished. ^ Luxus funerum shall be
taken away, that intempestive expense moderated, and many
others. Brokers, takers of pawns, biting usurers, I will not
admit ; yet because hie cum hominibus mm cum diis agitur,
we converse here with men, not with gods, and for the hard-
ness of men's hearts, I will tolerate some kind of usury.*
If we were honest, I confess, si probi essemus, we should
have no use of it, but being as it is, we must necessarily
admit it. Howsoever most divines contradict it, dicimiis
inficiaSy sed vox ea sola reperta est, it must be winked at by
politicians. And yet some great doctors approve of it, Cal-
vin, Bucer, Zanchius, P. Martyr, because by so many grand
lawyers, decrees of emperors, princes' statutes, customs of
commonwealths, churches' approbations, it is permitted, &c,
I will therefore allow it' But to no private persons, nor to
every man that will, to orphans only, maids, widows, or such as
by reason of their age, sex, education, ignorance of trading,
know not otherwise how to employ it ; and those so approved,
not to let it out apart, but to bring their money to a ® common
bank which shall be allowed in every city, as in Genoa,
Geneva, Nuremberg, Venice, at ' five, six, seven, not above
eight per centum, as the supervisors, or eerarii prcefecti shall

1 The Saxons exclude dumb, blind, Seas, thoueh with some refbrmation,
leproiis, and such like persons from all mons pietat^, or bank of charity, as Ma-
Inheritance, as we do fools, sutolim lines terms it, cap. 83,, Lex mercat.
Romani, Hispani hodie, &o. > Riccius part 2, that lend money upon easy
lib. 11, cap. 5, de Sinianim expedit. sic pawns, or take money upon adventure
ffispani co^nt Mauros arma deponere. for men's livefl. 7 'i hat proportion
So it ifi in most Italian cities. ^Idem will make merchandise increase, land
Plato 12, de legifous, it hath ever been dearer, and better improved, as he hath
hnmoderate, vide Guil. Stuckium antiq. judicially proved in his tract of usury,
Bonvival. lib. 1, cap. 26. ^ Plato 9, de exhibited to the Parliament anno 1621.
•tgEbm • As those Lombards beyond

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144 Democritus to the Becuier,

think fit. * And as it shall not be lawful for each man to lie an
usurer that will, so shall it not be lawful for all to take up
money at use, not to prodigals and spendthrifts, but to mer-
chants, young tradesmen, such as stand in need, or know hon-
estly how to employ it, whose necessity, cause and condition
the said supervisors shall approve of.

I will have no private monopolies, to enrich one man, and
beggar a multitude, * multiplicity of oflSces, of supplying by
deputies, weights and measures, the same throughout, and
those rectified by the Primum mobile, and sun's motion,
threescore miles to a degree according to observation, 1,000
geometrical paces to a mile, five foot to a pace, twelve inches
to a foot, &c., and from measures known it is an easy matter
to rectify weights, &c, to cast up all, and resolve bodies by
algebra, stereometry. I hate wars if they be not ad poptdi
salutem, upon urgent occasion, * " odimus accipitrem, quia
semper vivit in armis^ •offensive wars, except the cause be
very just, I will not allow of For I do highly magnify that
saying of Hannibal to Scipio, in *Livy, "It had been a
blessed thing for you and us, if Grod had given that mind
to our predecessors, that you had been content with Italy,
we with Africa. For neither Sicily nor Sardinia are worth
such cost and pains, so many fleets and armies, or so many
famous Captains' lives." Omnia prtus tentanda, fair means
shall first be tried. ^ Peragit tranquiUa potestas. Quod vio^
lenta nequit I will have them proceed with all moderation ;
but hear you, Fabius my general, not Mlnutius, nam f qui
Oonsilio nititur plus hosUhus nocet, quam qui sine animi
ratione, viribus ; And in such wars to abstain as mucli as
is possible from • depopulations, burning of towns, massacring

1 Hoc fere Zanchius com. tn 4 cap. ad the hawk, because he always Hves in bat«

Ephes. sequisffbnam vocat luuram, et tie." > Idem Plato de legibus. * lib.

charitati ChristianaB consentaneam, modo 80. Opttmum quidem fUerat earn patrihus

non exigant, &c., nee omnes dent ad nostris mentem a diis datam es8e, ut ros

fcenus. sed ii qui in pecuniis bona habent, Italite, nos Africae imperio content! esse-

et ob aetatem, sexum, artis alici^jus \g- mus. Neque enim Sicilia aut Sardinia

norantiam, non possunt utl. Nee omi^- satis ^goB, precio sunt pro tot classlbiia,

bus sed mercatoribus et lis qui honeste &c. s ClaucUan. f Thncydidea.

Impendent, &c. * Idem apud Persas * A depopulatione, agromm inoendiiB, «t

olim, lege Brisonium *^^ We hate ^usmodi fiustis immanibiu. Plato.

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Democntus to the Header, 145

of infants, &c. For defensive wars, I will have forces still
ready at a small warning, by land and sea, a prepared navy,
soldiers in prodnctu^ et quam * Bonfinius apud Himgaros
suos vtdt, virgam ferream, and money, which is nervus helliy
still in a readiness, and a sufficient revenue, a third part as
in old ^ Rome and Egypt, reserved for the commonwealth ;
to avoid those heavy taxes and impositions, as well to defray
this charge of wars, as also all other public defalcations, ex-
penses, fees, pensions, reparations, chaste sports, feasts, dona-
ries, rewards, and entertainments. All things in this nature
especially I will have maturely done, and with great ^ delib-
eration : ne quid ^temere ne quid remisse ac timide fiat; Sed
qiio feror hospes ? To prosecute the rest would require a
volume. Manum de tdbeUa^ I have been over tedious in
this subject ; I could have here willingly ranged, but these
* ' " ;d will not permit

i cities, I will descend to families,
1^% and molestations, as frequent
rreat affinity there is betwixt a
ly ; they differ only in magnitude
so Scaliger * writes) as they have
as * Bodin and • Peucer hold, out
dred years, so many times they
leir vexation and overthrows ; as
1 of both, riot in building, riot in
tpparel, &c., be it in what kind
ime effects. A "^ corographer of
cient families, why they are so
inue so long, are so soon extin-
50 few, gives no other reason but
%t^ riot hath consumed all, fine
igs came into this island, as he

lis, lenta nequit. Claudian. ^ Bellam

ie- nee timendum nee provocandum. Plin.

ici- Panegyr. Trajano. * Lib. 3, poet. cap.

8i 19. 6 Lib. 4, de repub. cap. 2. » Peu-

1. cer. lib. 1, de divinat. T Camden la

— Cheshire.


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146 Democritus to the Reader.

Qotes in his annals, not so many years since ; non sine dii
pendio hosptialitatts, to the decay of hospitality. Howbeit
many times that word is mistaken, and under the name g£
bounty and hospitality, is shrouded riot and prodigality, and
that which is commendable in itself well used, hath been mis-
taken heretofore, is become by his abuse, the bane and utter
ruin of many a noble family. For some men live like the
rich glutton, consuming themselves and their substance by
continual feasting and invitations, with ^Axilon in Homer,
keep open house for all comers, giving entertainment to such
as visit them, *^ keeping a table beyond their means, and a
company of idle servants (though not so frequent as of old)
are blown up on a sudden ; and as Actason was by his
hounds, devoured by their kinsmen, friends, and multitude
of followers. • It is a wonder that Paulus Jovius relates of
GUT northern countries, what an infinite deal of meat we c(Hi«
sume on our tables ; that I may truly say, 'tis not bounty,
not hospitality, as it is often abused, but riot and excess,
gluttony and prodigality ; a mere vice ; it brings in debt,
want, and beggary, hereditary diseases, consumes their for-
tunes, and overthrows the good temperature of their bodies.
To this I might here well add their inordinate expense in
building, those fantastical houses, turrets, walks, parks, iScc,
gaming^ excess of pleasure, and that prodigioiis riot in ap-
parol, by which means they are compelled to break up house,
and creep into holes. Sesellius in his commonwealth of
* France, gives three reasons why the French nobility were
so frequently bankrupts : " First, because they had so many
lawsuits and contentions one upon another, which were
tedious and costly ; by which means it came to pass, tl at
commonly lawyers bought them out of their possessions.

1 Iliad. 6 lib. * Vide Puteani Co- causae fbrenses, alia ferantor ex aliis, in

mnm, Ooclenium de portentoois coenis immensum producantur, et magnos

noetrorum tempomm. s Mirabile dicta sumptus requirant, unde fit ut jurbl

est, quantum opsoniorum una domus admlDistri plerumque nobilium poasM-

lingulis diebus absumat, stumuntur siones adquirant, turn quod sumptuosA

mensse in omnes pene horai, calentibua vivant. et k mercatoribus absorbentur el

Mmper eduliis. Descrip. Britan. * Lib. splendidissimi yentianturt &e.
1, d« lep. Gallorum; quod tot lites et

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Democritus to the Reader, 147

A second cause was their riot, they lived beyond their means,
and were therefore swallowed up by merchants." (La Nove,
a French writer, yields five reasons of his countrymen's pov-
erty, to the same effect almost, and thinks verily if the gentry
of France were divided into ten parts, eight of them would
be found much impaired, by sales, mortgages, and debtSj or
wholly sunk in their estates.) " The last was immoderate
excess in apparel, which consumed their revenues." How
this concerns and agrees with our present state, look you.
But of this elsewhere. As it is in a man's body, if either
head, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, or any one part be mis-
affected, all the rest suffer with it ; so is it with this econom-
ical body. If the head be naught, a spendthrift, a drunkard,
a whoremaster, a gamester, how shall the family live at ease ?

* Ipsa si capiat sahis servare prorstis, non potest^ hanc famil-
iam^ as Demea said in the comedy. Safety herself cannot
save it. A good, honest, painful man many times hath a
shrew to his wife ; a sickly, dishonest, slothful, foolish, careless
woman to his mate ; a proud, peevish flirt ; a liquorish, prodi-
gal quean, and by that means all goes to ruin ; or if they differ
in nature, he is thrifty, she spends all ; he wise, she sottish and
soft ; what agreement can there be ? what friendship ? Like
that of the thrush and swallow in -^sop, instead of mutual
Jove, kind compellations, whore and thief is heard, they fling
stools at one another's heads. ^ Qucb intemperies vexat hanc
famUiam ? All enforced marriages commonly produce such
effects, or if on their behalfs it be well, as to live and agree
lovingly together, they may have disobedient and unruly
children, that take ill courses to disquiet them, • " their son
is a thief a spendthrift;, their daughter a whore;" a step

* mother, or a daughter-in-law, distempers all; * or else for
want of means, many torturers arise, debts, dues, fees, dowries,
jointures, legacies to be paid, annuities issuing out, by means
of which, they have not wherewithal to maintain themselves

iTto. s Amphlt. Plant. spaling. nnnquam yiyunt sine lite. SReeaai
IBtiw ant Ua. * Gatus cum mure, gosta don^.

teo fRlU dmul in aediB, Et glotes bina

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148 Democrttus to the Header.

in that pomp as their predecessors have done, bring up or
bestow their children to their callings, to their birth and
quality, *and will not descend to their present fortunes.
Oftentimes, too, to aggravate the rest, concur many other
inconveniences, unthankful friends, decayed friends, bad
neighbours, negligent servants, * servi furaceSf versipeUes, col-
Udi, occlusa sibi miUe clavihus reserant^ furtimque ; raptant^
consumunt^ liguriurtt ; casualties, taxes, mulcts, chargeable
offices, vain expenses, entertainments, loss of stock, enmities,
emulations, frequent invitations, losses, suretyship, sickness,
death of friends, and that which is the gulf of all, improvi-
dence, ill husbandry, disorder and confusion, by which means
they are drenched on a sudden in their estates, and at un-
awares precipitated insensibly into an inextricable labyrinth
of debts, cares, woes, want, grief, discontent, and melancholy

I have done with families, and will now briefly run over
some few sorts and conditions of men. The most secure,
happy, jovial, and merry in the world's esteem are princes and
great men, free from melancholy ; but for their cares, mis-
eries, suspicions, jealousies, discontents, folly, and madness, I
refer you to Xenophon's Tyrannus, where king Hieron dis-
courseth at large with Simonides the poet, of this subject.
Of all others they are most troubled with perpetual fears,
anxieties, insomuch that, as he said in * Valerius, if thou
knewest with what cares and miseries this robe were stufl^d,
thou wouldst not stoop to take it up. Or put case they be
secure and free from fears^ and discontents, yet they are void
* of reason too oft;, and precipitate in their actions, read all
our histories, quos de stuUis prodidere stultiy Iliades, ^neidea,
Annales, and what is the subject ?

" Stultorum regam, et populorum continet SBstus.**

1 When pride and beggary meet in a claps in the skies. « Plauttis Anhilar

flunily, they roar and howl, and cause as > Lib. 7, cap. 6. * Pellitur in bellis sa

many flashes of discontents, as fire and pientia,Tigeriturres. Vetus proverbium.

watei, when they concvur, make thunder- aut regem ant fotuum nasei opMten

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Democritus to the Reader. 149

The giddy tumults and the foolish ra^e
Of kings and people.

How mad they are, how furious, and upon small occasions,
rash and inconsiderate in their proceedings, how they dote,
every page almost will witness,'

** delirant reges, plectunttur AchivL"

When doting monarchs urge

Unsound resolves, their subjects feel the scourge.

Next in place, next in miseries and discontents, in all man-
ner of hairbrain actions, are great men, proctil d Jove, proctd
a fulmine, the nearer the worse. If they live in court, they
are up and down, ebb and flow with their princes' favours,
Ingenium vtdtu statque caditque suo, now aloft, to-morrow
down, as ^Polybius describes them, "like so many casting
counters, now of gold, to-morrow of silver, that vary in
worth as the computant will ; now they stand for units, to-
morrow for thousands ; now before all, and anon behind.**
Beside, they torment one another with mutual factions, emu-
lations ; one is ambitious, another enamoured, a third in debt,
a prodigal, overruns his fortunes, a fourth solicitous with
cares, gets nothing, &c. But for these men's discontents,
anxieties, I refer you to Lucian's Tract, de mercede con-
duetts, ^^iEnecis SylvitLS (lihidinis et stultitice servos, he calls
them), Agrippa, and many others.

Of philosophers and scholars priscce sapientice dictatores, I
have already spoken in general terms, those superintendents
of wit and learning, men above men, those refined men, min-
ions of ths muses,

«" mentemque habere qu§is bonam
Et esse *corculis datum est."

•These acute and subtle sophisters, so much honoured, have

1 Lib. l.hist. Rom. Similes tot baccu- Epid. lib. 1, c. 13. * Hoc cognomento

tonun calculis, 8ecuTidi!im computantis cohonestati Romse, qui csetoros mortales

arbitrium, modd aerei sunt, modo au'rei; sapiential pnestarent, testis Plin. lib. 7,

ad natum regis nunc beati sunt nunc cap. 84. & Inwinire parant cerfa ration«

miseii. s iErumnosique Solones in Sa. modoque, mad by the book tliey, &c
8. De miser, curialium. < F. Doussb

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150 Democritus to the Reader.

as much need of hellebore as others. *0 medici medtam

pertundite venam. Read Lucian's Piscator, and tell how he
esteemed them ; Agrippa's Tract of the vanity of Sciences j
nay, read their own works, their absurd tenets, prodigious
paradoxes, et risum teneatis amid f You shall find that of
Aristotle true, nuUum magnum ingenium sine mixtura de-
tnenticB, they have a worm as well as others ; you shall find a
fantastical strain, a fustian, a bombast, a vainglorious humour,
an affected style, &c., like a prominent thread in an uneven
woven cloth, run parallel throughout their works. And they
that teach wisdom, patience, meekness, are the veriest diz-
zards, hairbrains, and most discontent ^ " In the multitude
of wisdom is grief, and he that increaseth wisdom, increaseth
sorrow." I need not quote mine author; they that laugh
and contemn others, condemn the world of folly, deserve to
be mocked, are as giddy-headed, and lie as open as any other.
•Democritus, that common flouter of folly, was ridiculous
himself, barking Menippus, scoffing Lucian, satirical Lucilius,
Petronius, Varro, Persius, &c., may be censured with the
rest, Loripedem rectus derideatj ^thiopem aUms. Bale^
Erasmus, Hospinian, Vives, Kemnisius, explode as a vast
ocean of obs and sols, school divinity. * A labyrinth of in-
tricable questions, unprofitable contentions, tncredibilem deK'
rationem, one calls it. If school divinity be so censured,
suhtilis * Scotus lima veriiatis, Occam irrefragalnlis, cujtis in-
genium Vetera omnia ingenia subvertit, SfC, Baconthrope, Dr
Re^olutus, and Corcidum Theologize, Thomas himself, Doctot
• Seraphicus, cui dictavit Angehis, SfC. What shall becomt
of humanity ? Ars sttdta, what can she plead ? What cap
her followers say for themselves? Much learning, ''cere
diminuit'hrum, hath cracked their sconce, and taken sucl
root, that tribus Anticyris caput insanabiley hellebore itself
can do no good, nor that renowned ' lantern of Epictetus, b^

1 Javeiial. " Physicians ! open the • Vit. cijus. » Ennius. • Lucian

middle Tein." * Solomon. » Com- Ter mille drachmis olim empta ; studtni

munia irrisor stnltitiae. « Wit whither inde sapientlam adipiieetur
irUt? & Scaliger ezercitat. 824.

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Democrttus to the Header, 151

nrhich if any man studied, he should be as wise as he was
But all will not serve ; rhetoricians, in ostentationem loquaci'
tails mtdta agitant, out of their volubility of tongue, will talk
much to no purpose, orators can persuade other men what
they will, qtu) volunt, unde volunt, move, pacify, &c, but can-
not settle their own brains, what saith Tully?, McUo indeser"
tarn pt-udenttam, quam loquacem stuUitiam ; and as ^ Seneca
seconds him, a wise man's oration should not be polite or
solicitous. ^ Fabius esteems no better of most of them, either
in speech, action, gesture, than as men beside themselves,
insanos declamatores ; so doth Gregory, Non mihi sapit qui
sermone, sed qui factis sapit. Make the best of him, a good
orator is a turncoat, an evil man, honv^ cyraior pesdmus vir^
his tongue is set to sale, he is a mere voice, as * he said of a
nightingale, dot sine mente sonuniy an hyperbolical liar, a
flatterer, a parasite, and as * Ammianus Marcellinus will, a
corrupting cozener, one that- doth more mischief by his fair
speeches, than he that bribes by money ; for a man may with
more facility avoid him that circumvents by money, than him
that deceives with glozing terms ; which made * Socrates so
much abhor and explode them. ® Fracastorius, a famous poet,
freely grants all poets to be mad ; so doth ' Scaliger ; and
who doth not ? Aut insanit homo^ aut versus facit (He's
mad or makingverses), Hor. Sat. vii. 1, 2, Insanire lubet, i. e,
versus componere. Virg. 3 Eel ; So Servius interprets it, all
poets are mad, a company of bitter satirists, detractors, or else
parasitical applauders ; and what is poetry itself, but as Aus-
tin holds, Vinum erroris ah ehriis doctoribus propinatumf
You may give that censure of them in general, which Sir
Thomas More once did of Germanus Brixius's poems in par-

" vehuntur
In rate sttiltitiss, sylvam habitant Fnriss/' ^

lEpist. 21, 1, lib. Non oportet ora- facere videtur qni oratione qu&m qui

tionem sapientis esse politam aut solid- prsetio quem-vis corrumpit: nam, &c.

lam. « Lib. 3. cap. 13, multo anhelitu & In Gorg. Platonis. « In nangerio.

Jactatione furentes pectus, frontem cae- 7 Si furor sit Lyseus, &c., quoties furit,

ientes, &e. > lipsius, voces sunt, furit, furit, amans, bibens, et Poeta, &o.

pneterea nihiL « Lib. 80, plus malt • '^ They are borne in the bark of folly

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152 Democritus to the Reader,

Budaeus, in an epistle of his to Lupsetus, will have civil
law to be the tower of wisdom ; another honours physic, the
quintessence of nature ; a third tumbles them both down, and
sets up the flag of his own peculiar science. Your super-
cilious critics, grammatical triflers, note-makers, curious anti-
quaries, find out all the ruins of wit, ineptiarum deltctas,
amongst the loibbish of old writere ; * Pro sttdtis hahent nisi
cdiquid sufficiant invenire, qtiod in cdiorum scriptis vertant
vitiOy all fools with them that cannot find fault ; they correct
others, and are hot in a cold cause, puzzle themselves to find
out how many streets in Rome, houses, gates, towers, Ho-
mer's country, JEneas's mother, Niobe's daughters, an Sap^
plio pvUica faerit f ovum ^prius extiterit an gaUina ! S^c,^
et alia qiue dediscenda essent scire, si scires, as 'Seneca
holds. What clothes the senators did wear in Rome, what
shoes, how they sat, where they went to the closestool, how
many dishes in a mess, what sauce, which for the present for
an historian to relate, * according to Lodovic Vives, is very
ridiculous, is to them most precious elaborate stuff, they
admired for it, and as proud, as triumphant in the mean
time for this discovery, as if they had won a city, or con-
quered a province ; as rich as if they had found a mine of
gold ore. Quosms auctores ahsurdis commentis suis per*
cacant et stercorant, one saith, they bewray and daub a com-
pany of books and good authors, with their absurd comments,
correctorum sterqvilinia * Scaliger calls them, and show their
wit in censuring others, a company of foolish note-makers,
bumblebees, dors, or beetles, inter stercora ut plurimum ver
santur, they rake over all those rubbish and dunghills, and
prefer a manuscript many times before the Grospel itself,
^thesaurum criticum, before any treasure, and with their
deleaturs, alii legunt sic, meus codex sic habet, with then
postrenuB editiones, annotations, castigations, &c, make books
dear, themselves ridiculous, and do nobody good, yet if any

and dw»ll in the groye of madness." cormp. artium. ^ Lib. 2, in Ansoniom,
1 Morus Utop. lib. II. * Macrob. Satur. cap. 19 et 82. < Edit 7, Tolom. Jaao
7,16. SEpiflt. 16. «Ub. decausis Gutero.

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Democritus to the Reader, 159

man dare oppose or contradict, they are mad, np in arms on
a sudden, how many sheets are written in defence, how bitter
invectiTes, whafc apologies ? ^EpiphiUedes hce sunt ut mera
mufit. But I dare say no more of, for, with, or against
them, because I am liable to their lash as well as others.
Of these and the rest of our artists and philosophers, I will

Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 14 of 48)