Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

. (page 19 of 48)
Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 19 of 48)
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the body and the soul, as some will have it ; or as ^ Paracel-

mero. 8Qoeo8, shie qtdbns animal gnstentari non potest. i Morboeos humorea.
• Splritalif anirna.



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198 Similar Parts. [Part L see. L

BUS, a fourth soul of itself. Melancthon holds the fountain of
these spirits to be the heart begotten there, and afterward
eonvejed to the brain, thej take another nature to them.
Of these spirits there be three kinds, according to the three
principal parts, brain, heart, liver; natural, vital, animal.
The natural are begotten in the liver, and thence dispersed
through the veins, to perform those natural actions. The
vital spirits are made in the heart ci the natural, which bj
the arteries are transported to all the other parts; if the
spirits cease, then life ceaseth, as in a syncope or swooning!.
The animal spirits formed of the vital, brought up to the
brain, and difiused by the nerves, to the subordinate mem-
bers, give sense and motion to them all.

SuBSECT. III. — Simtlar Parts.

Similar PartsJ] Containing parts, by reason of thear
more solid substance, are either homogeneal or heterogeneal,
similar or dissimilar; so Aristotle divides them, lib. 1, cap.
1, de £Rst, AnimaL ; Zaurentitts, cap. 20, lib. 1. Similar,
or homogeneal, are such as, if they be divided, are still
severed into parts of the same nature, as water into water.
Of these some be spermatical, some fleshy or carnal. ^ Sper-
miatical are such as are immediately begottai of the seed,
which are bones, gristles, ligaments, membranes, nerves^
arteries, veins, skins, fibres or strings, fat

Bones.'] The bones are dry and hard, begotten of the
thickest of the seed, to strengthen and sustain other parts ;
some say there be 304, some 807, or 313 in man's body.
They hare no nerves in them, and are therefore without
sense.

A gristle is a substance softer than bone, and harder than
the rest, flexible, and serves to maintain the parts of motion.

Ligaments are they that tie the bones together, and other
parts to the bones, with their subserving tendons; menir
branes' office is to cover the rest

1 LaurentiaB, cap. 20, lib. 1. Anat -



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Mem. 2, subs. 8.] Similar Parts. 199

Nerves, or sinews, are membranes without, and full of
marrow within ; they proceed from the brain, and carry the
animal spirits for sense and motion. Of these some be
harder, some softer; the softer serve the senses, and there
be seven pair of them. The first be the optic nerves, by
which we see; the second move the eyes; the third pair
serve for the tongue to taste; the fourth pair for the
taste in the palate; the fifth belong to the ears; the sixth
pair is most ample, and runs almost over all the bowels ; the
seventh pair moves the tongue. The harder sinews serve
for the motion of the inner parts, proceeding from the mar-
row in the back, of whom there be thirty combinations, seven
of the neck, twelve of the breast, &c

Arteries.'] Arteries are long and hollow, with a double skm
to convey the vital spirits ; to discern which the better, they
say that Yesalius the anatomist was wont to cut up men
alive. * They arise in the left side of the heart, and are
principally two, from which the rest are derived, aorta and
venosa ; aorta is the root of all the other, which serve the
whole body ; the other goes to the lungs, to fetch air to re*
fngerate the heart

Veins.] Veins are hollow and round, like pipes, arising
from the liver, carrying blood and natural spirits ; they feed
all the parts. Of these there be two chief. Vena porta and
Vena cava, from which the rest are corrivated. That Vena
porta is a vein coming from the concave of the liver, and
receiving those meseraical veins, by whom he takes the
chylus from the stomach and guts, and conveys it to the'
liver. The other derives blood from the liver to nourish all
the other dispersed members. The branches of that Vena
porta are the meseraical and haemorrhoides. The branches
of the Cava are inward or outward. Inward, seminal or
emulgent Outward, in the head, arms, feet, &c, and have
several names.

FibrcB, Fat, Fleslu] Fibrae are strings, white and solid,

t In these they observe the beating of the pnlie^



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200 Dissimilar Parts. [Part. I. sec l

dispersed through the whole member, and right, obliquCi
transverse, all which have their several uses. Fat is a
similar part, moist, without blood, composed of the most thick
and unctuous matter of the blood. The ^ skin covers the
rest, and hath CuticiUum, or a little skin under it. Flesh is
soft and ruddy, composed of the congealing of blood, &c

SuBSECT. IV. — Dissimilar Paris.

Dissimilar parts are those which we call organical, or
instrumental, and they be inward or outward. The chiefest
outward parts are situate forward or backward; — ^forward,
the crown and foretop of the head, skull, face, forehead,
temples, chin, eyes, ears, nose, &c, neck, breast, chest, upper
and lower part of the belly, hypochondries, navel, groin,
flank, &c. ; backward, the hinder part of the head, back,
shoulders, sides, loins, hipbones, os sacrum^ buttocks, &c Or
joints, arms, hands, feet, legs, thighs, knees, &c Or com-
mon to both, which, because they are obvious and well
known, I have carelessly repeated, eaque prcecipua et
grandiora tantum ; quod reliquum ex lihris de animd qui
volet, accipiat.

Inward organical parts, which cannot be seen, are divers
in number, and have several names, functions, and divisions ;
but that of ^ Laurentius is most notable, into noble or ignoble
parts. Of the noble there be three principal parts, to which
all the rest belong, and whom they serve — ^brain, heart,
liver ; according to whose site, three regions, or a threefold
division, is made of the whole body. As first of the head, in
which the animal organs are contained^ and brain itself, which
by his nerves give sense and motion to the rest, and is, as it
were, a privy counsellor and chancellor to the heart The
second region is the chest, or middle belly, in which the heart
as king keeps his court, and by his arteries communicates
life to the whole body. The third region is the lower belly,

1 Cv^vLB est pan sbnularln a tI outi- ris est et perynlgata partimn divkto In
flea ut interiora mnniat. CapiTao. Anat. priacipes et ignobiles partes.
pag.262. t Anat. Ub. 1, 0. 19. Celeb-



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Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Anatomy of the Body. 201

in which the liver resides as a Leyat a latere^ with the rest of
those natural organs, serving for concoction, nourishment,
expelling of excrements. This lower region is distinguisheo
from the upper by the midriff, or diaphragma, and is sub-
divided again by *some into three concavities or regions,
upper, middle, and lower. The upper of the hypochondries,
in whose right side is the liver, the left the spleen ; from
which is denominated hypochondriacal melancholy. The
second of the navel and flanks, divided from the first by the
rim. The last of the water course, which is again subdivided
into three other parts. The Arabians make two parts of this
region, Epigastrium and Hypogastrium^ upper or lower.
Epigastrium they call Mirach, from whence comes Mirachi-
alls Melancholia, sometimes mentioned of them. Of these
several regions I will treat in brief apart ; and first of the
third region, in which the natural organs are contained.

De Animd, — The Lower Region, Natural Organs."] But
you that are readers in the mean time, " Suppose you were
now brought into some sacred temple, or majestical palace
(as^Melancthon saith), to behold not the matter only, but
the singular art, workmanship, and counsel of this our great
Creator. And it is a pleasant and profitable speculation, if it
be considered aright." The parts of this region, which pre-
sent themselves to your consideration and view, are such as
serve to nutrition or generation. Those of nutrition serve to
the first or second concoction ; as the oesophagus or gullet,
which brings meat and drink into the stomach. The ventricle
or stomach, which is seated in the midst of that part of the
belly beneath the midriff, the kitchen, as it were, of the first
concoction, and which turns our meat into chylus. It hath
two mouths, one above, another beneath. The upper is
sometimes taken for the stomach itself; the lower and nether
door (as Wecker calls it) is named Pylorus. This stomach
is sustained by a large kell or kaull, called omentum ; which

1 D. Orook out of Galen and others, nm quoddam tos duo! pntetis, &c. 8q»-
Vo8 T6iT> velutl in templum ao saorarl- Tis et utilis cognitio.



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202 AnaUmy of the Body, [Part L 8«e. 1

some will have the same with peritoneum, or rim of ^he belly.
From the stomach to the very fundament are produced the
guts, or intestina, which serve a little to alter and distribute
the chylus, and convey away the excrements. They are
divided into small and great, by i*eason of their site and sub-
stance, slender or thicker; the slender is duodenum, or
whole gut, which is next to the stomach, some twelve inches
long, sailh ^ Fuschius. Jejunum, or empty gut continuate to
the other, which hath many meseraic veins annexed to it^
which take part of the chylus to the liver from it. Dion the
third, which consists of many crinkles, which serves with the
rest to receive, keep, and distribute the chylus from the
stomach. The thick guts are three, the blind gut, (x^on, and
right gut The blind is a thick and short gut, having one
mouth, in which the ilion and colon meet ; it receives the
excrements, and conveys them to the colon. This colon hath
many windings, that the excrements pass not away too ^t ;
the right gut is straight, and conveys the excrements to the
fundament, whose lower part is bound up with certain
muscles called sphincters, that the excrements may be the
better contained, until such time as a man be willing to go to
the stool. In the midst of these guts is situated the mesea-
terium or midriff, composed of many veins, arteries, and
much fat, serving chiefly to sustain the guts. All these parts
serve the first concoction. To the second, which is busied
either in refining the good nourishment or expelling the bad,
is chiefly belon^ng the liver, like in colour to congealed
blood, the shop of blood, situate in the right hyperccHidry, in
figure like to a half-moon— (rcncroswrn Tnembrum^ Melancthoa
styles it, a generous part; it serves to turn the chylus to
blood, for the nourishment of the body. The excrements of
it are either choleric or watery, which the other subordinate
parts convey. The gall placed in the concave of the liver,
extracts choler to it ; Uie spleen, melancholy ; which is sit-
uate on the left side, over against the liver, a spongy mattet

1 Lib. 1, cap. 12, Sect. 5.



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Mem. 2, subs. 4.1 Anatomy of the Body. 203

that draws this black choler to it by a secret virtue, and feeds
upon it, conveying the rest to the bottom of the stomach, to
stir up appetite, or else to the guts as an excrement. That
watery matter the two kidneys expurgate by those emulgent
veins and ureters. The emulgent draw this supei^uous
moisture from the blood; Uie two ureters convey it to the
bladder, which by reason of his site in the lower belly, is apt
to receive it, having two parts, neck and bottom ; the bottom
holds the water, the neck is constringed with a musde, which,
as a porter, keeps the water from running out against our
will

Members of generation are common to both sexes, or pe-
culiar to one ; which, because they are impertinent to my
purpose, I do voluntarily omit.

Middle RegionJ] Next in order is the middle region, or
chest, which comprehends the vital faculties and parts ; which
(as I have said) is separated from the lower belly by the
diaphragma or midriff, which is a skin consisting of many
nerves, membranes ; and amongst other uses it hath, is the
instrument of laughing. There is also a certain thin mem-
brane, fUll of sinews, which coveretii the whole chest within,
and is called pleura, the seat of the disease called pleurisy,
when it is inflamed ; some add a third skin, which is termed
Mediastinus, which divides the chest into two parts, right and
left ; of this region the principal part is the heart, which is
the seat and fountain of life, of heat, of spirits, of pulse and
respiration — the sun of our body, the king and sole com-
mander of it — ^the seat and organ of all passions and afffec-
tions. Primum vivens, uUimum moriens, it lives first, and
dies last in all creatures. Of a pyramidical form, and not
much unlike to a pineapple ; a part worthy of ^ admiration,
that can yield suet variety of affections, by whose motion it
is dilated or contracted, to stir and command Uie humours in
the body. As in sorrow, melancholy ; in anger, choler ; in

1 H»e res est pnMlpti« digna admira- tnr, cor, quod omnes res tristos «t l»t«
^Qe,quodtaiiwalfeetuamTsrietateGie- itatim oorda fuciant ot BOtent. .



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204 Anatomy of the Body, f Part. I. sec. i

joy, to send the blood outwardly ; in sorrow, to call it in ;
moving the humours, as horses do a chariot. This heart,
though it be one sole member, yet it may be divided into two
creeks right and lefL The right is like the moon increasing,
bigger than the other part, and receives blood from Vena cava
distributing some of it to the lungs to nourish them ; the rest
to the left side, to engender spirits. The left creek hath the
form of a- cone, and is the seat of life, which, as a torch doth
oil, draws blood unto it, begetting of it spirits and fire ; and
as fire in a torch, so are spirits in the blood ; and by that
great artery called aorta, it sends vital spirits over the body,
and takes air from the lungs by that artery which is called
venosa ; so that both creeks have their vessels, the right two
veins, the left two arteries, besides those two common anfrac-
tuous ears, which serve them both ; the one to hold blood,
the other air, for several uses. The lungs is a thin spongy
part, like an ox hoof (saith * Fernelius), the town-clerk or
crier (^ one terms it), the instrument of voice, as an orator to
a king ; annexed to the heart, to express their thoughts by
voice. That it is the instrument of voice, is manifest, in that
no creature can speak, or utter any voice, which wanteth
these lights. It is besides the instrument of respiration, or
breathing ; and its ofiice is to cool the heart, by sending air
unto it, by the venosal artery, which vein comes to the lunga
by that aspera arteria, which consists of many gristles, mem-
branes, nerves, taking in air at the nose and mouth, and by
it likewise exhales the fumes of the heart

In the upper region serving the animal faculties, the chief
organ is the brain, which is a soft;, marrowish, and white sub-
stance, engendered of the purest part of seed and spirits, in-
cluded by many skins, and seated within the skull or brain-
pan ; and it is the most noble organ under heaven, the
dwelling-house and seat of the soul, the habitation of wisdom,
memory, judgment, reason, and in which man is most like

1 Physio. 1. 1, e. 8. * Ut orator i«gl : (do pulmo Tods iiMtrumentiim umeoUtnv
oordi, &e. Mebuioth.



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Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Anatomy of the Sotd, 205

unto God ; and therefore nature hath covered it with a skull
of hard bone, and two skins or membranes, whereof the one
is called dura mater, or meninx, the other pia mater. The
dura mater is next to the skull, above the other, which in*
dudes and protects the brain. When this is taken away, the
pia mater is to be seen, a thin membrane, the next and im-
mediate cover of the brain, and not covering only, but enter-
ing into it. The brain itself is divided into two parts, the
fore and hinder part ; the fore part is much bigger than the
other, which is called the little brain in respect of it. This
fore part hath many concavities distinguished by certain ven-
tricles, which are the receptacles of the spirits, brought
hither by the arteries fix)m the heart, and are there refined
to a more heavenly nature, to perform the actions of the soul.
Of these ventricles there are three — aright, left, and middle.
The right and left answer to their sight, and beget animal
spirits ; if they be any way hurt, sense and motion ceaseth.
These ventricles, moreover, are held to be the seat of the
common sense. The middle ventricle is a common concourse
and concavity of them both, and hath two passages — the one
to receive pituita, and the other extends itseirto the fourth
creek ; in this they place imagination and cogitation, and so
the three ventricles of the fore part of the brain are used.
The fourth creek behind the head is common to the cerebel
or little brain, and marrow of the backbone, the last and
most solid of all the rest, which receives the animal spirits
from the other ventricles, and conveys them to the marrow
in the back, and is the place where they say the memory is
seated.

SuBSECT. V. — Of the Sold and her Faculties,

AccoBDiNG to ^ Aristotle, the soul is defined to be tvreX^"
xua, perfectio et actus primus corporis organid, vitam hahentis
in potentia ; the perfection or first act of an organical body
having power of life, which most * philosophers approve^

1 ]l» aolm. e. 1. * BcaUg. enro. 807. Tolet. in lib. de anima. o^^ 1, &c



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206 Anatomy of the SouL [Part. i. sec t

But many doubts arise about the essence, subject, seat, dis-
tinction, and subordinate faculties of it For the essence and
particular knowledge, of all other things it is most hard (be it
of man or beast) to diBcem, as i Aristotle himself, *Tully,
^Picus Mirandula, *Tolet, and other Neoteric philosophers
confess : — '^ " We can understand all things by her, but what
she is we cannot apprehend." Some liierefore make one
soul, divided into three principal faculties ; others, three
distinct souls. Which question of late hath been much
controverted by Picolomineus and Zabarel. • Paracelsus will
have four souls, adding to the three grand faculties a spiritual
soul ; which opinion of his, Campanclla, in his book de $ensu
rerum,* much labours to demonstrate and provis, because car-
casses bleed at the sight of the murderer ; with many such
arguments : And ^ some again, one soul of all creatures what-
soever, differing only in organs ; and that beasts have reason
as well as men, though, for some defect of organs, not in sudi
measure. Others make a doubt whether it be all in all, and
all in every part; which is amply discussed in Zabarel
amongst the rest. The * common division of the soul is
into three prihcipal faculties — vegetal, sensitive, and rational,
which make three distinct kinds of living creatures — ^vegetal
plants, sensible beasts, rational men. How these three prin-
cipal faculties are distinguished and connected, Humano inr
genio inaccessum videtuTy is beyond human capacity, as
•Taurellus, Philip, Flavins, and others suppose. . The in-
ferior may be alone, but the superior cannot subsist without
the other ; so sensible includes v^etal, rational both ; which
are contained in it (saith Aristotle) ut trigonw in tetragonOf
as a triangle in a quadrangle.

Vegetal Soul'] Vegetal, the first of the three distinct fao-
ulties, is defined to be ** a substantial act of an organical body,

il^Deaiiims.cap.l. * Tiuotil. qnaest. f^OoeUiu. Itth 2, o. 81. PIutex«h. ttf

• Lib. 6, Doct. Ya. Oeutil. c. 18, pag. 1216. Grillo lips. Gen. 1, ep. 60. JoBsins d«

* Aristot. s Animft qnseque intelligi- Risu et Fletu, ATerroes, Gampftnena, &e.
mus, et tamen quae sit ipsa intelligero * Philip, de Aniraa. oa. 1. Ooelitu 20,
non Talemus. 8 Spiritoalem animam a antiq; cap. 8. * Plutaroh. de placit. phitos.
reliquis distinctam tuetor, etiam ia ca- * De vit. et mort. part. 2, c. 8, prop. 1, <!•
davert inhierentem poet mortem per ali- Tit. et mort. 2, c. 28.

\viyt xnensefl. * Ub. 8, cap. 81.



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Mem. 2, sabs. 5.] Anatomy of the Soul. 207

by which it is nonrished, augmented, and begets an )thei like
unto itself." In which definition, three several operations are
specified — ^altrix, auctrix, procreatrix ; the first is * nutrition,
whose object is nourishment, meat, drink, and the like ; his
organ the liver in sensible creatures ; in plants, the root or
sap. His office is to turn the nutriment into the substance
of the body nourished, which he performs by natural heat
This nutritive operation hath four other subordinate functions
or powers belonging to it — attraction, retention, digestion,
expulsion.

Attraction.2 * Attraction is a ministering faculty, which,
as a loadstone doth iron, draws meat into the stomach, or as
a lamp doth oil ; and this attractive power is very necessary
in plants, which suck up moisture by the root, as another
mouth, into the sap, as a like stomach.

Retention,'] Retention keeps it, being attracted into the
stomach, until such time it be con(5octed ; for if it should pass
away straight, the body could not be nourished.

Digestion,'] Digestion is performed by natural heat ; for
as the flame of a torch consumes oil, wax, tallow, so doth it
alter and digest the nutritive matter. Indigestion is opposite
unto it, for want of natural heat Of this digestion there be
three differences — maturation, elixation, assation.

McUuration.] Maturation is especially observed in the
fruits of trees; which are then said to be ripe, when the
seeds are fit to be sown again. Crudity is opposed to it,
which gluttons, epicures, and idle persons are most subject
unto, that use no exercise to stir natural heat, or else choke
it, as too much wood puts out a fire.

Mixation,] Elixation is the seething of meat in the stom-
ach, by the said natural heat, as meat is boiled in a pot ; to
which corruption or putrefaction is opposite.

Assation,] Assation is a concoction of the inward moisture
by heat ; his opposite is a semiustulation.

Order of Concoction fdUrf old.] Besides these three sev-

> Nntritio est alimenti transmatatlo. Tiro natnraUs. Soal. ezeio. 101, ste. 17
Bm man of Attraction in Seal. ezer. 848.



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208 Anatomy of the SouL [Part I. sec l

eral operations of digestion, there is a fourfold order of oon«
coction : — ^mastication, or chewing in the mouth ; chilification
of this so chewed meat in the stomach ; the third is in the
liver, to turn this chylus into blood, called sanguification ; the
last is assimulation, which is in every part

ExptUsion.2 Expulsion is a power of nutrition, by which
it expels all superfluous excrements, and relics of meat and
drink, by the guts, bladder, pores ; as by purging, vomiting,
spitting, sweating, urine, hairs, nails, &c

Augmentation.^ As this nutritive faculty serves to nourish
the body, so doth the augmenting faculty (the second opera-
tion or power of the vegetal faculty) to the increasing of it
in quantity, according to all dimensions, long, broad, thick,
and to make it grow till it come to his due proportion and
perfect shape ; which hath his period of augmentation, as of
consumption ; and that most certain, as the poet observes : —

** Stat sua caique dies, breve et irreparabile tempus
Omnibus est vitae.'*

** A term of life is set to every man,
Which is but short, and pass it no one can.**

Generation,'] The last of these vegetal faculties is gener-
ation, which begets another by means of seed, like unto itself
to the perpetual preservation of the species. To this faculty
they ascribe three subordinate operations : — the first to turn
nourishment into seed, &c.

Life and Death concomitants of the Vegetal Faculties.']
Necessary concomitants or affections of this vegetal faculty
are life and his privation, death. To the preservation of life
the natural heat is most requisite, though siccity and humid-
ity, and those first qualities, be not excluded. This heat is
likewise in plants, as appears by their increasing, fructifying,
&c, though not so easily perceived. In all bodies it must
have radical * moisture to preserve it, that it be not con-
sumed ; to which preservation our clime, countiy, tempera-
ture, and the good or bad use of those six non-natural things
avail much. For as this natural heat and moisture decayss

1 Vita oondtttt In ealido «t hninido.



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Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Anatomy of the Sotd. 209

80 doth our life itself; and if not prevented before by some
violent accident, or interrupted through our own default, is



Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 19 of 48)