Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

. (page 22 of 48)
Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 22 of 48)
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spirits is so made, and becomes sour and sharp ; and from the
sharpness of this humour proceeds much waking, troublesome
thoughts and dreams, &c., so that I conclude as before. If
the humour be cold, it is, saith * Faventinus, " a cause of
dotage, and produceth milder symptoms ; if hot, they are
rash, raving mad, or inclining to it.'* If the brain be hot,
the animal spirits are hot ; much madness follows, with vio-
lent actions ; if cold, fatuity and sottishness, • Cappivaccius.
*"The colour of this mixture varies likewise according to
the mixture, be it hot or cold ; 'tis sometimes black, some-
times not, Altomarus. The same * Melanelius proves out of
Galen ; and Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy (if at
least it be his), giving instance in a burning coal, " which,
when it is hot, shines ; when it is cold, looks black ; and so
doth the humour." This diversity of melancholy matter pro-
duceth • diversity of effects. If it be within the 'body, and
not putrefied, it causeth black jaundice ; if putrefied, a quar-
tan ague ; if it break out to the skin, leprosy ; if to parts,
several maladies, as scurvy, &c J£ it trouble the mind, as
it is diversely mixed, it produceth several kinds of madness
and dotage ; of which in their place.

SuBSECT. rV. — Of the species or kinds of Melancholy,

When the matter is divers and confused, how should it
otherwise be, but that the species should be divers and con-
fused ? Many new and old writers have spoken confusedly

iVsrie adnritur, et miscetar, nnde pneter modum calefactns, et alias refHge-

▼ariie amentiam speciefi, Melanct. ^ Ha- ratos evadit : nam recentibus carbonibtui

mor iHgidus delirit causa, furoris calidas, ei quid simile accidit, qui durante flam-

&;o. 3 Lib. 1, cap. 10, de affect, cap. ma pellucidissime oandent, e& eztincta

* Nigrescit hie humor, aliquando super- prorsus nigrescunt. Hippocrates,

eal^hctus. aliquando superfirigefistctus, a Quianerius, diff. 2, cap 7
Oft. 7. •Humor hio niger aliquando -<^



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232 Species of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 1

of it, confounding melancholy and madness, as * Heurnius,
Guianerius, Gordonius, Salustius, Salvianus, Jason Praten-
sis, Savanarola, that will have madness no other than melan-
choly in extent, differing (as I have said) in degrees. Some
make two distinct species, as Ruffus Ephesius, an old writer,
Constantinus Africanus, Aretseus, ^ Aurelianus, * Paulus iEgi-
neta ; others acknowledge a multitude of kinds, and leave
them indefinite, as -^tius in his Tetrabiblos, * Avicenna, lib.
8, Fen, 1, Tract, 4, cap, 18. Arculanus, cop. 16, in 9. Basis,
Montanus, med, part, 1. * " If natural melancholy be adust,
it maketh one kind ; if blood, another ; if choler, a third, dif-
fering from the first ; and so many several opinions there are
about the kinds, as there be men themselves." * Hercules
de Saxoni^ sets down two kinds, " material and immaterial ;
one from spirits alone, the other from humours and spirits.*'
Savanarola, Rub, 11, Tract 6, cap, 1, de cegritud, capitis^
will have the kinds to be infinite ; one from the myrach,
called myrachialis of the Arabians ; another stomachalls,
from the stomach ; another from the liver, heart, womb,
hemrods ; ® " one beginning, another consummate." Melanc-
thon seconds him, ' " as the humour is diversely adust and
mixed, so are the species divers ; " but what these men speak
of species I think ought to be understood of symptoms, and so
doth * Arculanus interpret himself; infinite species, id est,
symptoms ; and in that sense, as Jo. Gorrheus acknowledgetb
in his medicinal definitions, the species are infinite, but they
may be reduced to three kinds by reason of their seat ; head,
body, and hypochondries. This threefold division is approved
by Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy, (if it be his, which
some suspect,) by Galen, lib. 3, de he, affectis^ cap, 6, by
Alexander, lib, 1, cap, 16, Rasis, lib, 1, ContinerU, Tract, 9,
Ub, 1, cap, 16, Avicenna, and most of our new writers. Th.

1 Non est mania, nisi eztonsa xnelan- et tot Doctorum sententise, quot ipsi nu-

sholia. « Cap. 6, lib. 1. 3 2 Ser. 2. mero sunt. • Tract, de mel. cap. 7.

cap. 9. Morbus hie est omnifkrius. ^ QuaKlam incipiens qusedam consum

4 Species indeflnitaB sunt. fi Si adura- mata. f Cap. de humor, lib. de anima.

tur naturalis melancholia, alia fit species, yari^ aduritur et miscetur ipsa melan.

si sanguis alia, si flavabilis alia, diversa k cholia, unde Tariaa amentium species,

primis : maxima est inter has differentia, ^ Cap. 16, in 9 Rads.



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Mem. 8 subs. 4.] Species of Melancholy. 233

Erastus makes two kinds ; one perpetual, which is head mel-
ancholy ; the other interrupt, which comes and goes by fits,
which he subdivides into the other two kinds, so that all
comes to the same pass. Some again make four or fiYQ kinds,
with Roder:cus k Castro, de morbis mvUer, lib. 2, cap. 3, and
Lod. Mercatus, who, in his second book de mulier. affect,
cap. 4, will have that melancholy of nuns, widows, and more
ancient maids, to be a peculiar species of melancholy differing
from the rest ; some will reduce enthusiasts, ecstatical and
demoniacal persons to this rank, adding ^ love melancholy to
the first, and lycanthropia. The most received division is
into three kinds. The first proceeds from the sole fault of
the brain, and is called head melancholy ; the second sympa-
thetically proceeds from the whole body, when the whole tem-
perature is melancholy; the third ariseth from the bowels,
liver, spleen, or membrane, called mesenterium, named hypo-
chondriacal or windy melancholy, which ^ Laurentius sub-
divides into three parts, from those three members, hepatic,
splenetic, meseraic Love melancholy, which Avicenna calls
Ilisha ; and Lycanthropia, which he calls cucubuthe, are com-
monly included in head melancholy ; but of this last, which
G^rardus de Solo calls amoreus, and most knight melancholy,
with that of religious melancholy, virginum et viduarum, main-
tained by Rod. k Castro and Mercatus, and the other kinds
of love melancholy, I will speak of apart by themselves in
my third partition. The three precedent species are the
subject of my present discourse, which I will anatomize and
treat of through all their causes, symptoms, cures, together
and apart ; that every man that is in any measure affected
with this malady, may know how to examine it in himself,
and apply remedies unto it

It is a hard matter, I confess, to distinguish these three
species one from the other, to express their several causes,
symptoms, cures, being that they are so often confounded
amoQgst themselves, having such affinity, that they can

1 lAareDtliu, cap. 4, de mel. * Gap. 18



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234 Species of Melancholy, [Part. 1. sec. 1.

scarce be discerned by the moat accurate physicians; and
so often intermixed with other diseases that the best ex-
perienced have been plunged. Montanus constl. 26, names a
patient that had this disease of melancholy and caninus appe-
titus both together ; and consiL 23, \igith vertigo, ^ Julius Cae-
sar Gaudinus, with stone; gout, jaundice. Trincavellius with
an ague, jaundice, caninus appetitus, &c * Paulus Regoline,
a great doctor in his time, consulted in this case, was so con-
founded with a confusion of symptoms, that he knew not to
what kind of melancholy to refer it * Trincavellius, Fallo-
pius, and Francanzanus, famous doctors in Italy, all three
conferred with about one party, at the same time, gave three
different opinions. And in another place, Trincavellius being
demanded what he thought of a melancholy young man to
whom he was sent for, ingenuously confessed that he was
indeed melancholy, but he knew not to what kind to reduce
it In his seventeenth consultation there is the like disagree-
ment about a melancholy monk. Those symptoms, which
others ascribe to misaffected parts and humours, * Here, de
Saxoni^ attributes wholly to distempered spirits, and those
immaterial, as I have said. Sometimes they cannot well dis-
cern this disease from others. In Reinenis Solinander^s
counsels, (Sect, constl. 5,) he and Dr. Brande both agreed,
that the patient's disease was hypochondriacal melancholy.
Dr. Matholdus said it was asthma, and nothing else. * Soli-
nander and Guarionius, lately sent for to the melancholy
Duke of Cleve, with others, could not define what species it
was, or agree amongst themselves. The species are so con-
founded, as in Caesar Gaudinus, his forty-fourth consultation
for a Polonian Count, in his judgment * " he laboured of head
melancholy, and that which proceeds from the whole temper-
ature both at once." I could give instance of some that have
had all three kinds semel et simvl, and some successively. So
that I conclude of our melancholy species, as t many politicians

1 480 et 116, consult, ooni^. 12. 18, tract, posth. de melan. * GuarioD.
t Hildesheini, spicel. 2, fol. 166. 8 Trin- cons. med. 2. 6 Laboravit per essen-

carellius torn. 2, eonsil. 15 et 16. • Cap. tlam et a toto eorpore. t MachiaTel



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Mem. 1, subs. 1.] CaiLse& of MeUmcholy. 235

do of Ihdr pure forms of GommoDwealths, monarchies, aris*
tocracies, democracies, are most famous in contemplation, but
in practice they are temperate and usually mixed, (so * Po^
lybius informeth us,) as the Lacedemonian, the Boman of old,
Grerman now, and many others. What physicians say of dis-
tinct species in their books it much matters not, since that in
their patients' bodies they are commonly mixed. In such ob-
scurity, therefore, variety and confused mixture of symptomsj
causes, how difficult a thing is it to treat of several ^ds
apart ; to make any certainty or distinction among so many
casualties, distractions, when seldom two men shall be like
affected per omnia f 'Tis hard, I confess, yet nevertheless I
will adventure through the midst of these perplexities, and,
led by the clue or thread of the best writers, extricate my-
self out of a labyrinth of doubts and errors, and so proceed
to the causes.



SECT. n. MEMB. I.

SuBSECT. I. — Causes of Melancholy. God a cause.

"It is in vain to speak of cures, or think of remedies,
until such time as we have considered of the causes," so
* Galen prescribes Glauco ; and the common experience of
others confirms that those cures must be imperfect, lame,
and to no purpose, wherein the causes have not first been
searched, as ^ Prosper Calenius well observes in his tract de
atrd bile to Cardinal Caesius. Insomuch that ' " Femelius puts
a kind of necessity in the knowledge of the causes, and without
which it is impossible to cure or prevent any manner of dis-
ease.*' Eimpirics may ease, and sometimes help, but not thor-

&c., Smithris de rep. Angl. cap. 8, lib. 1. hortarl yidetur, nam alioqui earum cnra-

Buscoldus discur. polit. discurs. 6. cap. 7. tio manoa et inntilis esset. 3 Path. lib.

Arist. 1. 8, polit. cap. ult. Eeckerm. 1, cap. 11. Rernm cognoscere cansas,

alH, &e. * Lib. 6. ^ Primo artis medicis imprimis necessarium, sine qua

curatirsa. * Nostri primum sit propos- nee morbum curare, nee prsBcavere UmI
Iti affectionum causae indagare ; res ipsa



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236 Gaitses of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. a

Dughly root out ; suUatd causa toUitur effhcttis, as the saying
is, if the cause be removed, the effect is likewise vanquished.
It is a raost difficult thing (I confess) to be able to discern
these causes whence they are, and in such * variety to say
what the beginning was. ^ He is happy that can perform it
aright. I will adventure to guess as near as I can, and rip
them all up, from the first to the last, general and particular,
to every species, that so they may the better be descried.

General causes are either supernatural or natural. " Su-
pernatural are from Grod and his angels, or by Grod's per-
mission from the devil " and his ministers. That God him-
self is a cause for the punishment of sin, and satisfaction of
his justice, many examples and testimonies of holy Scriptures
make evident unto us, Ps. cvii. 17. "Foolish men are
plagued for their offence, and by reason of their wickedness."
Gehazi was strucken with leprosy, 2 Reg. v. 27. Jehoram
with dysentery and flux, and great diseases of the bowels, 2
Chron. xxi. 15 David plagued for numbering his people,
1 Par. 21. Sodom and Gomorrah swallowed up. And this
disease is peculiarly specified. Psalm cxxvii. 12. " He
brought down their heart through heaviness." Deut xxviiL
28. " He struck them with madness, blindness, and aston-
ishment of hearL" ***An evil spirit was sent by the Lord
upon Saul, to vex him." * Nebuchadnezzar did eat grass
like an ox, and his " heart was made like the beasts of the
field." Heathen stories are full of such punishments. Ly-
curgus, because he cut down the vines in the country, was
by Bacchus driven into madness ; so was Pentheus and his
mother Agave for neglecting their sacrifice. * Censor Fulvius
ran mad for untiling Juno's temple, to cover a new one of his
own, which he had dedicated to Fortune, * " and was con-
founded to death, with grief and sorrow of heart" When
Xerxes would have spoiled * Apollo's temple at Delphos of

1 Tanta enim morbi' rarietas ac difRs- cap. 8. * Mente captos, et sttmmo ani*

rentia, ut non fecile dignoscatur unde mi moerore consumptua. * Munster.

initium morbus sumpserit. Melanelius h oosmog. lib. 4, cap. 48, de coelo sabsterne-

Galeno. ^ Felix qui potuit rurum cog- bantur, tanquam insani de saxis pnecipi

ttoscere causas. » 1 Sam. xvi. 14. tati, &c.

Dan. T. 21. s Laotaat. iostit. Ub. 2.



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Mem. 1, sabs. 1.] OatLses of Melancholy, 237

those infinite riches it possessed, a terrible thunder came from
heaven and struck four thousand men dead, the rest ran mad.
* A little after, the like happened to Brennus, lightning, thun-
der, earthquakes, upon such a sacrilegious occasion. If we
may believe our pontifical writers, they will relate unto us
many strange and prodigious punishments in this kind, in-
flicted by their saints. How *Clodoveus, sometime King of
France, the son of Dagobert, lost his wits for uncovering the
body of St. Denis J and how a * sacrilegious Frenchman, that
would have stolen a silver image of St. John, at Birgburge,
became frantic on a sudden, raging, and tyrannizing over his
own flesh ; of a * Lord of Rhadnor, that coming from hunt-
ing late at night, put his dogs into St. Avan*s church, (Llan
Avan they called it), and rising betimes next morning, as
hunters use to do, found all his dogs mad, him^^elf being sud-
denly stricken blind. Of Tyridates, an ^Armenian king, for
violating some holy nuns, that was punished in like sort, with
loss of his wits. But poets and papists may go together for
fabulous tales ; let them free their own credits ; howsoever
they feign of their Nemesis, and of their saints, or by the
devil's means may be deluded ; we find it true, that uUor a
tergo Deus, * " He is God the avenger," as David styles him ;
and that it is our crying sins that pull this and many other
maladies on our own heads. That he can by his angels,
which are his ministers, strike and heal (saith * Dionysius")
whom he will ; that he can plague us by his creatures, sun,
moon, and stars, which he useth as his instruments, as a hus-
bandman (saith Zanchius) doth a hatchet ; hail, snow, winds,
&c. '"^< conjurati veniunt in classica venti;** as in
Joshua's time, as in Pharaoh's reign in Egypt ; they are but
as so many executioners of his justice. He can make the
proudest spirits stoop, and cry out with Julian the apostate,

* Liyins, lib. 38. • Gaguin. 1. 8, c. 4, mora sacrilegna mentis inops, atque in

quod Dionysii corpus discooperuerat, in semetinsaniens InpropriosartusdesflBvit

insaniam incidit. « Idem, lib. 9, sub. « Giraldus Cambrensis lib. 1, c. 1, Itinerar

Carol. 6, sacrorum contemptor, templi Cambrise. * Delrio, torn. 8, lib. 6, sect

foribus effractis, dum D. Johannis argen- 3, qusest. 8. * Psal. xliv. 1. • lib

ceum simulacrum rapere contendit, simu- 8. cap. de ffierar. 7 Olandian.
iacrum aversl taicU dorsum ei versat, uec



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238 Causes of Melancholy, {Paic I. sec. i.

Victsti, Galilcee ; or with Apollo's priest in * Chrysostom, O
ccdum ! 6 terra ! unde hostis hie ? What an enemy is this ?
And pray with David, acknowledging his power, " I am
weakened and sore broken, I roar for the grief of mine
heart, mine heart panteth," &c., Psalm xxxviii. 8. "O
Lord rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chastise me
in thy wrath,'* Psalm xxxviii. 1. "Make me to hear
joy and gladness, that the bones which thou hast broken,
may rejoice," Psalm li. 8 ; and verse 12, " Restore to
me the joy of thy salvation, and stablish me with thy free
spirit," For these causes belike * Hippocrates would have a
physician take special notice whether the disease come not
from a divine supernatural cause, or whether it follow the
course of nature. But this is farther discussed by Fran.
Valesius de sacr. philos. cap. 8. • Femelius, and * J. Caesar
Qaudinus, to whom I refer you, how this place of Hippoc-
rates is to be understood. Paracelsus is of opinion, that
such spiritual diseases (for so he calls them) are spiritually
to be cured, and not otherwise. Ordinary means in such
cases will not avail ; Non est reluctandum cum Deo (we must
not struggle with God). When that monster-taming Her-
cules overcame all in the Olympics, Jupiter at last in an
unknown shape wrestled with him ; the victory was uncer
tain, till at length Jupiter descried himself, and Hercules
yielded. No striving with supreme powers. Nil juvai imr
mensos Cratero promittere montes, physicians and physic can
do no good,* "we must submit ourselves unto the mighty
hand of Grod," acknpwledge our offences, call to him for
mercy. -If he strike us, una eademque manus vulnus openv'
queferet^ as it is with them that are wounded with the spear
of Achilles, he alone must help ; otherwise our diseases are
incurable, and we not to be relieved.

1 De BabiUL Martjre. < Ub. cap. 6, sis. < Bespons. med. 12, reep. • k
prog. s Lib. 1, de Abditis rerum caa- Pet. t. 6.



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Mem 1, subs. 2.] Muure of Devils. 239

SuBSECT. II. — A Digression of the nature of Spints, bad
Angels, or Devils, and how they cause Melancholy.
How far the power of spirits and devils doth extend, and
whether they can cause this, or any other disease, is a serious
question, and worthy to be considered ; for the better under-
standing of which, I will make a brief digression of the nature
of spirits. And although the question be very obscure, ac-
cording to ^ Postellus, " full of controversy and ambiguity,"
beyond the reach of human capacity, fateor excedere vires
intentionis mete, saith * Austin, I confess I am not able to
understand it, finitum de infinito non potest statuere, we can
sooner determine with TuUy, de not. deorum, quid non sint
quam quid sint, our subtle schoolmen, Cardans, Scaligers,
profound Thomists, Fracastoriana and Ferneliaua acies, are
weak, dry, obscure, defective in these mysteries, and all our
quickest wits, as an owl's eyes at the sun's light, wax dull,
and are not sufficient to apprehend them ; yet, as in the rest,
I will adventure to say something to this point In formor
times, as we read Acts xxiii., the Sadducees denied that
there were any such spirits, devils, or angels. So did Galen
the physician, * the Peripatetics, even Aristotle himself, as
Pomponatius stoutly maintains, and Scaliger in some sort
grants. Though Dandinus the Jesuit, com. in lib. 2, de
animd, stiffly denies it ; substantia separatee and intelligences,
are the same which Christians call angels, and Platonists
devils, for they name all the spirits, dcemones, be they good
or bad angels, as Julius Pollux Onomasticon, lib. 1, cap. 1,
observes. Epicures and atheists are of the same mind in
general, because they never saw them. Plato, Plotinus,
Porphjrrius, Jamblichus, Proclus, insisting in the steps of
Trismegistus, Pythagoras and Socrates, make no doubt of it ;
Qor Stoics, but that there are such spirits, though much
erring from the truth. Concerning the first beginning of

1 lib. 1, c. 7f de orbis coneordis. In quijn de daemoDibus et substantiis s«p
nulla re major Jhdt alteroatio, major ob- aratls. * lib. 8, da Trinit. cap. 1
•ftuiltaa, minor opinionum concordiaf



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240 Nature of Devils, [Part I. sec. %

them, the ^ Talmudists say that Adam had a wife called Lilis,
before he married Eve, and of her he begat nothing but devils.
The Turks* * Alcoran is altogether as absurd and ridiculous
in this point ; but the Scripture informs us Christians, how
Lucifer, the chief of them, with his associates, 'fell from
heaven for his pride and ambition ; created of God, placed
in heaven, and sometimes an angel of light, now east down
into the lower aerial sublunary parts, or into hell, " and de-
livered into chains of darkness (2 Pet ii. 4), to be kept unto
damnation."

Nature of Devils."] There is a foolish opinion which some
hold, that they are the souls of men departed, good and more
noble were deified, the baser grovelled on the ground, or in
the lower parts, and were devils, the which with Tertullian,
Porphyrins the philosopher, M. Tyrius ser. 27 maintains.
** These spirits," he * saith, " which we call angels and devils,
are nought but souls of men departed, which either through
love and pity of their friends yet living, help and assist them,
or else persecute their enemies, whom they hated," as Dido
threatened to persecute JEneas :

" Omnibus umbra locis adero: dab is, improbCj.poenas."

" My angry ghost arising from the deep,
Shall haunt thee waking, and disturb thy sleep;
At least my shade thy punishment shall know,
And Fame shall spread the pleasing news below."

They are (as others suppose) appointed by those higher
powers to keep men from their nativity, and to protect or
punish them as they see cause ; and are called boni et malt
Genii by the Romans. Heroes, lares, if good, lemures or
larvae if bad, by the Stoics, governors of countries, m in,
cities, saith f Apuleius, Deos appellant qui ex hominum nu-
mero juste ac prudenter vita curriculo gubemato, pro nutnine,

1 Pererius in Oenedn, lib. 4, in cap. 8, pore deposito priorem miserati vitam,

V. 23. * See Strozsius Cicogna omnifarisB. cognatis succurrunt commoti misericor^

Mag. lib. 2, c. 15. Jo. Aubanua, Breden- dia, &c. t De Deo Socratis. All those

bachius > Angelus per superbiam mortals are called gods, who, the course

Beparatus i. Deo, qui in veritate non of life being prudently guided and goft-

stetit. Austin. * Nihil aliud sunt erned. are honored by men with temptot

Djemones quam nnd» animsB quad cor- and' sacrifices, as Osiris in j^gypt, &o.



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M6m. 1, sTibB. 2.J Nature of Devils, 241

postea ab hominihus prcediti fanis et ceremoniis vulgd admit'
tunturj tU in ^gypto Osyris, S^e. PrcesiiteSy Capella calls
them, " which protected particular men as well as princes ; **
Socrates had his Dcemonium Satuminum et ignium, which
of all spirits is best, ad sublimes cogitationes animum eri-
gentem, as the Platonists supposed ; Piotinus his, and we
Christians our assisting angel, as Andreas Victorellus, a
copious writer of this subject, Lodovicus de La-Cerda, the
Jesuit, in his voluminous tract de Angela Oustodej Zanchius,
and some divines think. But this absurd tenet of Tyreus,
Pi-oclus confutes at large in his book de Animd et dcsmone,
^Psellus, a Christian, and sometimes tutor (saith Cuspin-
ian) to Michael Parapinatius, Emperor of Greece, a great
observer of the nature of devils, holds they are ^ corporeal,
and have '* aerial bodies, that they are mortal, live and die,"
(which Martianus Capella likewise maintains, but our Chris-
tian philosophers explode,) "that 'they are nourished and
have excrements, they feel pain if they be hurt (which Car-
dan confirms, and Scaliger justly laughs him to scorn for;
Si pascantur a^e, cur non pugnant oh puriorem aera f S^c.)
or stroken ; " and if their bodies be cut, with admirable
celerity they come together again. Austin, in Gfien. lib. iii.
lib. arbit, approves as much, mutata casu corpora in deteri-
orem qualitcUem (zeris spissioris, so doth Hieromc. Com-
ment, in epist. ad Ephes. cap. 3, Origen, Tertullian, Lao-
tantius, and many ancient fathers of the Church; that iu
their fall their bodies were changed into a more aerial and
gross substance. Bodine, lib. 4, Theatri Naturae, and David



Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 22 of 48)