Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

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Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 25 of 48)
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by those histories of Thucydides, Livius, Dionysius Halicar-
nassus, with many others that are full of their wonderful
stratagems, and were therefore by those Eoman and Greek
commonwealths adored and worshipped for gods with prayers
and sacrifices, &c. * In a word. Nihil magis qucBrunt quam
meturn et admirationem hominum ; * and as another hath it,
Did non potest, quam impotenti ardore in homines dominium,
et Divinos ctdtos mcUigni spiritus affectent.^ Tritemius in his
book de septem secundis, assigns names to such angels as are
governors of particular provinces, by what authority I know
not, and gives them several jurisdictions. Asclepiades a
Grecian, Rabbi Achiba the Jew, Abraham Avenezra, and
Rabbi Azariel, Arabians (as I find them cited by * Cicogna)
farther add, that they are not our governors only, Sed ex
eorum concordid et discordid, boni et mcdi affectus promanant,
but as they agree, so do we and our princes, or disagree;
stand or fall. Juno was a bitter enemy to Troy, Apollo a
good friend, Jupiter indifferent, j^ua Venus Teucris, Pallas
iniqua fait ; some are for us still, some against us, Premente
Deo,fert Deus alter opem. Religion, policy, public and pri-
vate quarrels, wars are procured by them, and they are
' delighted perhaps to see men fight, as men are with cocks,
bulls, and dogs, bears, &c., plagues, dearths depend on them,
our bene and male esse, and almost all our other peculiar

1 Custodee sunt hominum, et eorum, and admiration of men." 5 " It !■

ut nos animalium : tum et provinciis scarcely possible to describe the impotent

prseporiti regunt auguriis, somniis, orac- ardour with which these malignant spir-

ulii, prsemiis, &c. ^ Lypsius Physiol, its aspire to the honour of bebig dirinehr

Stoic, lib. 1, cap. 19. 3 Leo Suavis. worshipped." 6 Omnif. mag. lib. 2.

Idem et Tritemius. ^ "' They seek cap. 28. J Ludus deorum snmus
nothing more eamsAtly than the fear

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Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 263

actions, for (as Anthony Rosea contends, lih 5, cap. 18,
every man hath a good and a bad angel attending on him
in particular, all his life long, which Jamblichus calls dcemo^
nem,) prefermente, losses, weddings, deaths, rewards, and
punishments, and as ^ Proclus will, all oflSces whatsoever,
alii genetricem, alii opificem potestatem haberit, Sfc, and sev-
eral names they give them according to their oflSces, as Lares
Indijetes, Praestites, &c When the Arcades in that battle
at Cheronae, which was fought against King Philip for the
liberty of Greece, had deceitfully carried themselves, long
after, in the very same place, Diis Grcecice vUorihis (saith
mine author) they were miserably slain by Metellus the
Roman ; so likewise, in smaller matters, they will have
things fall out, as these honi and mali genii favour or dis-
like us ; Satumi non conveniunt Jovialibus^ S^c, He that is
Satuminus shall never likely be preferred. * That base fel-
lows are often advanced, undeserving Gnathoes, and vicious
parasites, whereas discreet, wise, virtuous and worthy men are
neglected and unrewarded ; they refer to those domineering
spirits, or subordinate Genii ; as they are inclined, or favour
men, so they thrive, are ruled and overcome ; for as • Liba-
nius supposeth in our ordinary conflicts and contentions,
Genitis Genio cedit et ohtemperat, one genius yields and is
overcome by another. All particular events almost they
refer to these private spirits ; and (as Paracelsus adds) they
direct, teach, inspire, and instruct men. Never was any man
extraordinary famous in any art, action, or great commander,
Ihat had not familiarem dcemonem to inform him, as Numa,
Socrates, and many such, as Cardan illustrates, cap, 128,
Arcanis prudentice civilisy * Speciali siquidem gratia, si a
Deo donari asserunt magi, d Geniis coelestibus instrui, ah
lis doceri. But these are most erroneous paradoxes, inepta

1 Lib. de anima et dnmone. * Quo- losophi non lemunerentnr, enm scnrra et

ties fit, ut Principes Dorittam aulioum ineptns ob insulsum jocnm ssepe pne-

diTitiiii et dignitatibos pene obruant, et mlum leportet, inde fit, &o. s Lib. di

multomm annorom ministrum, qui non Cruent. Cadayer. * Boissardos e.

iemel pro hero periculum aubiit, ne te- magia.
runtio donent, &c. Idem. Qnod Phi-

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264 Nature of Spirits, [Part. I. sec. 2.

et falmlosce nugce, rejected by our divines and Christian
churches. 'Tis true thej have, by Grod's permission, power
over us, and we find by experience, that they can ^ hurt not
our fields only, cattle, goods, but our bodies and minds. At
Hammel in Saxony, Atu 1484, 20 Junii, the devil, in like-
ness of a pied piper, carried away one himdred and thirty
children that were never ailer seen. Many times men are
^affrighted out of their wits, carried away quite, as Sche-
retzius illustrates, lib. 1 c. iv., and severally molested by his
means, Plotinus the Platonist, lib. 14, advers, Gnos. laughs
them to scorn, that hold the devil or spirits can cause any
such diseases. Many think he can work upon the body, but
not upon the mind. But experience pronounceth otherwise,
that he can work both upon body and mind. TertuUian is
of this opinion, c. 22. • " That he can cause both sickness and
health," and that secretly. *Taurellus adds "by clancular
poisons he can infect the bodies, and hinder the operations
of the bowels, though we perceive it not, closely creeping into
them," saith * Lipsius, and so crucify our souls : M nociva
melancholia furiosos efficit For being a spiritual body, he
struggles with our spirits, saith Rogers, and suggests (accord-
ing to • Cardan, verba sine voce, species sine visu, envy, lust,
anger, &c.) as he sees men inclined.

The manner how he pei'fbrms it, Biarmannus, in his Ora-
tion against Bodine, sufficiently declares. * " He begins first
with the fantasy, and moves that so strongly, that no reason
is able to resist. Now the fantasy he moves by mediation
of humours ; although many physicians are of opinion, that
the devil can alter the mind, and produce this disease of him-

1 Godelmauus cap. 8, lib. 1, de Magis. et Tenenia nobis ignotia corpus Inflcera.

Idem Zanchius lib. 4, cap. 10 et 11, de 6 Irrepentes corporibus occultd morbos

malis angelis. s Nociya MeLincholia flngunt, mentes terrent, membra distor-

furiosos efficit, et quandoque penitua in- quent. lips. Pbil. Stoic. 1. 1, c. 19. ^ De

terficit. G. Picolomineus IdemqueZancb. rerum var. 1. 16, c. 98. 7 Qunm mens

cap. 10, lib. 4, si Deus permittat, corpora immediate decipi nequit, primum movet

nostra movere possunt, alterare, quoTis phantasiam, et ita obfirmat yanis concep-

morbonim et malorimi genere afficere, tibus ant ut ne quern fiusultati ae s t im ar

imo et in ipsa penetrare et saeyire. ^In- tivae rationi locum relinquat. Spbritoa

ducere potest morbos et sanitates. * Vis- malus inyadit animam, turbat senaus, in

cerum actiones potest inhibere latenter, furorem copjicit. Austin, de Tit. BmI

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Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits, 265

self. Quibusdam medicorum visum, saith ^Avicenna, qudd
Melancholia contingat a dcemonio. Of the same miud is
Psellus and Rhasis the Arab, lib, 1, Tract. 9, Cont. ^ " That
this disease proceeds especially from the devil, and from him
alone." Ai'culanus, cap. 6 in 9, Rhasis, -^lianus Montaltus
in his 9 cap., Daniel Sennertus, lib. 1, part 2, cap. 11, con-
firm as much, that the devil can cause this disease ; by reason
many times that the parties affected prophesy, speak strange
language, but non sine interventu humorisy not without the
humour, as he interprets himself; no more doth Avicenna,
si contingat a cUemonio, sufficit nobis ut convertat complex^
ionem ad choleram nigram, et sit causa efus propinqua cholera
nigra ; the immediate cause is choler adust, which * Pompo-
natius likewise labours to make good ; Galgerandus of Man-
tua, a famous physician, so cured a daemoniacal woman in his
rime, that spake all languages, by purging black choler, and
thereupon belike this humour of Melancholy is called Bal-
neum Diaboli, the Devil's Bath ; the devil spying his oppor-
tunity of such humours drives them many times to despair,
fury, rage, &c., mingling himself amongst these humours.
This is that which TertuUian avers, Gorporibus infligant
acerbos casus, animceque reperUinos, membra distorquent, oc»
cuke repentes, S^c, and which Lemnius goes about to prove,
Immiscent se mali Genii pravis humoribus, atque atrce bilij
S^c. And • Jason Pratensis, ^ that the devil, being a slender,
incomprehensible spirit, can easily insinuate and wind him-
self into human bodies, and cunningly couched in our bowels
vitiate our healths, terrify our souls with fearful dreams, and
shake our mind with furies." And in another place, ** These
unclean spirits settled in our bodies, and now mixed with our
melancholy humours, do triumph as it were, and sport them-
selves as in another heaven." Thus he argues, and that they

1 Lib. 8. Fen. 1, Tract. 4, o. 18. * A vitiare, sompiis anlmas terrere et mentes

Dnmone maxima proficiscif et saspe solo, furoribus quatere. Insinoantsemelachol-

• Lib. de incant. » Caep. de mania lib. icormn penetrallbus, intua ibique oonsi-

je morbis cerebri ; Dnsmones, quum ftint duiit et deliciantur tanquam ^n r^one

teaaes et incomprehemibiles spiritus, se olarissimorum sideramf coguuique aoi-

insinuare corporibns hnraanis possunt. et mum ftirere.
occolte in Tisceribus i^perti, yiUetudinem

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266 Nature of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. a

go in and out of our bodies, as bees do in a hive, and so pro-
voke and tempt us as they perceive our temperature inclined
of itself, and most apt to be deluded. ^ Agrippa and ^ Lava-
ter are persuaded, that this humour invites the devil to it,
wheresoever it is in extremity, and of all other, melancholy
persons are most subject to diabolical temptations and illu«
sions, and most apt to entertain them, and the devil best able
to work upon them. But whether by obsession, or posses-
sion, or otherwise, I will not determine ; 'tis a difficult ques-
tion. Delrio the Jesuit, Tom, 3, lih, 6, Springer and his
colleague, maJL mcdef. Pet. Thyreus the Jesuit, lib, de dcemr-
oniacis, de lods infestis, de Terrificationihus noctumiSf
Hieronimus Mengus Flagel. deem, and others of that rank
ci pontifical writers, it seems, by their exorcisms and conjura-
tions approve of it, having forged many stories to that pur-
pose. A nun did eat a lettuce * without grace, or signing
it with the sign of the cross, and was instantly possessed.
Durand. lib, 6, Rationall. c, 86, numb. 8, relates that he saw
a wench possessed in Bononia with two devils, by eating an
unhallowed pomegranate, as she did afterwards confess, when
she was cured by exorcisms. And therefore our Papists do
sign themselves so often with the sign of the cross, Ne damon
ingredi ausit, and exorcise all manner of meats, as being un-
clean or accursed otherwise, as Bellarmine defends. Many
such stories I find amongst pontifical writers, to prove their
*ssertions, let them free their own credits ; some few I will
recite in this kind out of most approved physicians. Corne-
lius Gemma, Ub. 2, de not. mirac. c. 4, relates of a young
maid, called Katherine Gualter, a cooper's daughter. An.
1571, that had such strange passions and convulsions, three
men could not sometimes hold her ; she purged a live eel,
which he saw a foot and a half long, and touched it himself;
but the eel afterwards vanished ; she vomited some twenty-
four pounds of fulsome stuff of all colours, twice a day for

1 Lib. 1, cap. 6, occult. Philos. part 1, sanctiflcatione 8ic'& d»mone obscessa.
cap. 1, de spectria. > Sine cruce et dial. > Qreg. pag. c. 9.

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Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature, of Spirits. 267

fourteen days ; and after that she voided great balls of hair,
pieces of wood, pigeons' dung, parchment, goose dung, coals ;
and after them two pounds of pure blood, and then again
coals and stones, o£ which some had inscriptions bigger than
a walnut, some of them pieces of glass, brass, &c., besides
paroxysms of laughing, weeping, and ecstasies, &c M hoe
(inquit) cum horrore vicU, this I saw with horror. They
could do no good on her by physic, but left her to the clergy.
Marcellus Donatus, lib. 2, c. I, de mecL mirab. hath such an-
other story of a country fellow, that had four knives in his
belly, Instar serrcB dentatos, indented like a saw, every one a
span long, and a wreath of hair like a globe, with much bag
gage of like sort, wonderftil to behold ; how it should come
into his guts, he concludes, Gerte non aMo quam dcemonis as-
tuHd et dolo, (could assuredly only have been through the
artifice of the devil). Langius, JEpist. mecL lib. 1, Bpist. 38,
hath many relations to this effect, and so hath Christopherus
k Vega ; Wierus, Skenkius, Scribonius, all agree that they
are done by the subtlety and illusion of the devil. If you
shall ask a reason of this, 'tis to exercise our patience ; for as
* Tertullian holds. Virtus non est virtus^ nisi comparem habet
aUquem, in quo superando vim suam ostendaiy 'tis to try us
and our faith, 'ti3 for our offences, and for the punishment of
our sins, by God's permission they do it, Gamijices vindictce
jusUe Dei^ as ^Tolosanus styles them, Executioners of his
will ; or rather as David, Ps. 78, ver. 49. " He cast upon
them the fierceness of his anger, indignation, wrath, and vexa-
tion, by sending out of evil angels ;" so did he afflict Job, Saul,
the Lunatics and demoniacal persons whom Christ cured,
Mat iv. 8, Luke iv. 11, Luke xiii., Mark ix., Tobit viii. 3,
&c. This, I say, happeneth for a punishment of sin, for theil
want of faith, incredulity, weakness, distrust, <&c.

• Penvlt. de opillo. DeL i Lib. 28, eap. 20, f mn. a.

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268 Causes of Melancholy. [Part I. seo. S

SuBSECT. III. — Of Witches and Magicians, how they causi
You have heard what the devil can do of himself, now you
shall hear what he can perform by his instruments, who are
many times worse (if it be possible) than he himself, and to
satisfy their revenge and lust cause more mischief, MvUa enim
mala non egisset cUsmon, nisi provocatus a sayis, as ^ Erastus
tliinks ; much harm had never been done, had he not been
provoked by witches to it He had not appeared in Samuel's
shape, if the Witch of Endor had let him alone ; or repre-
sented those serpents in Pharo's presence, had not the magi-
cians urged him unto it ; Nee morbus vel hominihus, vel brutis
infUgeret (Erastus maintains) si sagm guiescerent ; men and
cattle might go free, if the witches would let him alone.
Many deny witches at all, or if there be any they can do no
harm ; of this opinion is Wierus, Ub. 3, cap. 53, de prtBsHg.
deem. Austin Lerchemer, a Dutch writer, Biarmannus, Ewich-
ius, Euwaldus, our countryman Scot ; with him in Horace,

** Somnia, terrores Magicos, miracola, sagas,
Noctumos Lemures, portentaqae Thessala risu

Say, can yon langh indignant at the schemes
pf magic terrors, visionary dreams,
Portentous wonders, witching imps of HqU,
The nightly goblin, and enchanting spell?

They laugh at all such stories ; but on the contrary are most
lawyeris, divines, physicians, philosophers, Austin, Hemingius,
Danaeus, Chytraeus, Zanchius, Aretius, &c., Delrio, Springer,
* Niderius lib. 5, Fomicar. Cuiatius, Bartolus, consil. 6, torn,
1, Bodine dcemoniant. lib. 2, cap. 8, Grodelman, Damhode-
rius, &c, Paracelsus, Erastus, Scribanius, Camerarius, &c.
The parties by whom the devil deals, may be reduced to
these two, such as command him in show at least, as con-
jurors, and magicians, whose detestable and horrid mysteries

1 De Lamiis. • Bt quomodo Teneflei flant enanat

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Mem. 1, subs. 8.] Gause% of Melancholy, 269

are contained in their book called * Arbatell ; dcemofies enim
advocati prcesto sunt, seque exorciimts et conjurationibus
quasi cogi patiwitur, tU miserum magorum genus, in tmpte"
tote dettneant. Or such as are commanded, as witches, that
deal ex parte implicit e, or expUcite, as the ^ king hath well de-
fined ; many subdivisions there are, and many several species
of sortjerers, witches, enchanters, charmers, &c. They have
been tolerated heretofore some of them ; and magic hath been
publicly professed in former times, in * Salamanca, t Cracow,
and other places, though after censured by several 'Uni-
versities, and now generally contradicted, though practised
by some still, maintained and excused, Tanquam res secreta
qvce nan nisi viris magnis et pecuUari henejicio de Gcdo
insiructis communicatur (I use { Boesartus his words) and
so far approved by some princes, Ut nihil ausi aggredi in
poUticis, in sacris, in consiliis, sine eorum arbitrio; they
consult still with them, and dare indeed do nothing without
their advice. Nero and Heliogabalus, Maxentius, and Juli-
anus Apostata, were never so much addicted to magic of
old, as some of our modem princes and popes themselves
are nowadays. Erricus King of Sweden had an § en-
chanted cap, by virtue of which, and some magical murmur
or whispering terms, he could command spirits, trouble the
air, and make the wind stand which way he would, insomuch
that when there was any great wind or storm, the conmion
people were wont to say, the king now had on his conjuring
cap. But such examples are infinite. That which they can
do, is as much almost as the devil himself, who is still ready
to satisfy their desires, to oblige th6m the more unto him.
They can cause tempests, storms, which is familiarly prac-
tised by witches in Norway, Iceland, as I have proved.
They can make friends enemies, and enemies friends by
philters ; * Thirpes amores conciliare, enforce love, tell any

*I)eqiiopliml«fpu{nBoi88ardoIib. 1, P. Lombardi. $ Prasfltt. de magis et

de pnestig. i Rex Jacobus Daemonol. yeneflds. $ Rotatum Pileam babebat^

1. 1, e. 8. * An unlTersi^ in Spain in quo yentos yiolentoa c ieret, aerem tnxw

old Castile. t The chief town in Po- baret, et in quam parte p, &o. « Bras

land. < Oxford and Paris, see flnem tos.

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270 Causes of Melancholy. [Part I. seo. %

man where his friends are, about what employed though in
tiie most remote places ; and if they will, * " bring their
sweethearts to them by nighty upon a goat's back flying in
the au*." Sigismund Scheretzius, part 1, cap. 9, de spect^
reports confidently, that he conferred with sundry such, that
had been so carried many miles, and that he heard witches
themselves confess as much ; hurt and infect men and beasts,
vines, com, cattle, plants, make women abortive, not to
oonceive,t barren, men and women unapt and unable, mar-
ried and unmarried, fifly several ways, saith Bodine, lib. 2,
r. 2, fly in the air, meet when and where they will, as
Cicogna proves, and Lavat de spec. pari. 2, c. 17, ''steal
young children out of their cradles, mintsterio cUemonum^
and put deformed in their rooms, which we call changelingSy^
saith t Scheretzius, /Mzrf. 1, c. 6, make men victorious, fortu-
nate, eloquent; and therefore in those ^cient monomaehies
and combats they were searched of old, * they had no magical
^arms ; they can make ^ stick frees, such as shall endure a
riapier's point, musket shot, andi never be wounded ; of which
read more in Boissardus, c€^. &. de Magid^ the qianner of
the adjuration, and by whom *tis made, where and how
to be used in expeditiomhus heUicis^ prceliisy dueUis^ S^e^
with many, peculiar instances and examples ; they can walk
in fiery furnaces, make men feel no pain on, the rack, aui
alias torturas sentire ; they can stanch blood, * represent dead
men's shapes, alter and turn themselves and others into
several forms, at their pleasures. § Agaberta, a famous
witch in Lapland, would do as much publicly to all specta-^
tors, Modo PusiUa, modd amts, modd procera ut queretis^
mode vacca, txdis^ coluber, S^c. Now young, now oLdy higl^
low, like a cow, like a bird, a snake, and what not? she
could represent to others what forms they most desired to
see, show them friends absent, reveal secrets, maocimA

* Hinisterlo hire! tioeturni. t Ster- Teroram ooqjeotir. i Millet. f D.

lies nuptos et inhabiles, Tide Petram de Luther, in primum pneeeptum, et Leon

Palude, lib. 4, distinct. 84. Paulum Varius, lib. 1. de Faseino. * Lavai.

Gniclandum. t In&ntes matribas Cicog. § BoiBsardaB de Bfagb.

•uffurantur, aliis suppodti^te in locum.

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Mem. 1, subs. 8.] Games of Melancholy, 271

omnium admtrcttiane, Sfc. And yet for all this subtlety of
theirs, as Lypsius well observes, Physiolog. Stoicor. lib. 1,
cap. 17, neither these magicians nor devils themselves <^
take away gold or letters out of mine or Crassus's chest, et
Olientelis suis largiri, for they are base, poor, contemptible
fellows most part : as * Bodine notes, they can do nothing in
Judicum decreta aut poenas, in return concilia vel arcana,
nihil in rem nummariam avi thesaurosy they cannot give
money to their clients, alter judges* decrees, or councils of
kings, these mintUi Genii cannot do it, aUiores Genii hoc sibi
adservdrunt^ the higher powers reserve these things to them-
selves. Now and then peradventure there may be some
more &mous magidans like Simon Magus, fApollonius
Tyaneus, Pasetes, Jamblicus, {Odo de Stellis, that for a
time can build castles in the air, represent armies, &c, as
they are ^ said to have done, command wealth and treasure,
feed thousands with all variety of meats upon a sudden,
protect themselves and their followers from all princes' per-
secutions, by removing from place to place in an instant,
reveal secrets, future events, tell what is done in far coun-
tries, make them appear that died long since, and do many
such miracles, to the world's terror, admiration, and opinioii
of deity to themselves, yet the devil forsakes them at last,
they come to wicked ends, and rard aut nunquam such im«
postors are to be found. The vulgar sort of them can work
no such feats. But to my purpose, they can, last of all, cure
and' cause most diseases to such as they love or hate, and
this of * melancholy amongst the rest Paracelsus, Tom. 4,
de morhisy amentium. Tract. 1, in express words affirms;
MuUi fasdnantur in melancholiam, many are bewitched
into melancholy, out of his experience. The same saith
DanaBus, lib: 3, de sortiariis. Vidi, inquit, qui Mekn^
cholicos morbos gravisdmos indvxerunt: I have seen those

• D»niOD. lib. 8, cap. 8. t Vide * Vixg. .fineid. 4. Incantatrioem desori-

PbiloBtratum vita ejus, Boissardum de bens: Hseo se caxminibus piCMoittit m^

llagis. % Nubrigenses lege, lib. 1, c. 19. vere mentes. Quas yelit, ast aliis diUM

Vide Suidam de Paset. De Oruent. Cada- immittere ouns.
Ter. I Erastos. Adolphus Soribanius.

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272 Octuses of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2.

that have caused melancholy in the most grievous manner,
* dried up women's paps, cured gout, palsy; this and apo-
plexy, falling sickness, which no physic could help, solo tactu^
by touch alone. Ruland, in his 3 Cent Cura 91, gives an
instance of one David Helde, a young man, who by eat-
ing cakes which a witch gave him, mox delirare ccepit^
began to dote on a sudden, and was instantly mad ; F. H. D.
in ^ Hildesheim, consulted about a melancholy man, thought
his disease was partly magical, and partly natural, because
he vomited pieces of iron and lead, and spake such lan-
guages as he had never been taught ; but such examples are
common in Scribanius, Hercules de Saxonia and others.
The means by which they work are usually charms, images,
as that in Hector Boethius of King Duffe; characters
stamped of sundry metals, and at such and such constella-
tions, knots, amulets, words, philters, &c., which generally
make the parties affected, melancholy ; as • Monavius dis-
courseth at large in an epistle of his to Acolsius, giving
instance in a Bohemian baron that was so troubled by a
philter taken. Not that there is any power at all in those
spells, charms, characters, and barbarous words'; but that the
devil doth use such means to delude them. Ut Jideles inde
magos (saith * Libanius) in officio retineat, turn in consortium
malefixctorum vocet.

SuBSECT. IV. — Stars a Cause. Signs from Physiognomy,
Metoposcopyy Chiromancy.

Natubal causes are either primary and universal, or sec-
ondary and more particular. Primary causes are the heav-
ens, planets, stars, &c., by their influence (as our astrologers

Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 25 of 48)