Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

. (page 35 of 48)
Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 35 of 48)
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estimare, an melior parens natura homi- g^ulis quod imperiti petant, experti hew*

ni, an tristior noyerea ftierit : Nulli fra- reant. & ESsse in honore juTat, mot

gilior vita, pavor, confusio, rabies mi^r, displicet. « Uor.



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Mem. 8, snbs. 10.] Discontents, Oares^ S^c, 366

an ocean of adversity, an heavy yoke, wherein infirmities
and calamities overtake, and follow one another, as the sea
waves ; and if we scape Scylla, we fall foul on Charybdis,
and so in perpetual fear, labour, anguish, we run from one
plague, one mischief, one burden to another, duram servient
fps sermttUem, and you may as soon separate weight from
lea^ heat from fire, moistness from water, brightness from
the sun, as misery, discontent, care, calamity, danger from a
man. Our towns and cities are but so many dwellings of
human misery. ** In which grief and sorrow ( * as he right
well observes out of Solon) innumerable troubles, labours of
mortal men, and all manner of vices, are included, as in so
many pens." Our villages are like mole-hills, and men as
so many enunets, busy, busy still, going to and fro, in and
out, and crossing one another's projects, as the lines of sev-
eral sea-cards cut each other in a globe or map. "Now
light and merry, but (* as one follows it) by and by sorrow-
ful and heavy; now hoping, then distrusting; now patient^
to-morrow crying out ; now pale, then red ; running, sitting,
sweating, trembling, halting," Sec Some few amongst the
rest, or perhaps one of a thousand, may be Pullus Jovis, in
the world's esteem, GraUinte jUius alba, an happy and fortu-
nate man, ad invidiam felix, because rich, fair, well allied, in
honour and office ; yet peradventure ask himself, and he will
say, that of all others, ' he is most miserable and unhappy.
A fiur shoe, ERc soecus natms, elegans, as he ^ said, sed nescis
ubi uraJt, but thou knowest not where it pincheth. It is not
another man's opinion can make me happy ; but as * Seneca
well hath it, " He is a miserable wretch that doth not account
himself happy ; though he be sovereign lord of a world, he
is not happy, if he think himself not to be so ; for what avail-

1 BonfaetM in 6 Job. XJrb«8 et oppida die, eras ^nlans; nniio pallens, mbens,

nihil alind sunt qu&m humanarura ourrens, sedens, claudicans, tremens,

emmnamm domicilia, quibns luctus et &c. > Sna cnique calamltas prsecipua

moeror, et mortalium Tarii infinitiqne lar < Cn. Onecinus. > Bpist. 9, 1. 7. Miser

bores, et omnis generis Titia, quasi septis est qui se beatisslmnm non judieat:

Inoludnntnr. < Nat. Ohytreus de lit Ueet imperet mundo non est beatus, qui

BnropsB. LflBtufl nunc, mox tristis; nunc se non putat: quid enim refert quails

qMtans, paulopottdindena; patiensho- status tuns sit, si tibi yidetur malut t



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366 Ckmses of MeUmchoHiy. [Part I. sec. %

eth it what thine estate is, or seem to others, if thou thyself
dislike it?" A common humour it is of all men to think
well of other men's fortunes, and dislike their own : * Gui
placet alteritis, sua nimirum est odio sars ; but ^qut fit
Mec€Bnas, S^c, how comes it to pass, what's the cause of it ?
Many men are of such a perverse nature, they are well
pleased with nothing, (saith • Theodoret) "neither with riches
nor poverty, they complain when they are well and when
they are sick, grumble at all fortunes, prosperity and adver-
sity ; they are troubled in a cheap year, in a barren, plenty
or not plenty, nothing pleaseth them, war nor peace, with
children, nor without" This for the most part is the hu-
mour of us all, to be discontent, miserable, and most unhappy,
as we think at least ; and show me him that is not so, or that
ever was otherwise. Quintus Metellus his felicity is in-
finitely admired amongst the Romans, insomuch that as
* Paterculus mentioneth of him, you can scarce find of any
nation, order, age, sex, one for happiness to be compared
unto him ; he had, in a word, Bona animi, corporis et for'
tuna, goods of mind, body, and fortune, so had P. Mutianus,
*Crassus. Lampsaca, that Lacedemonian lady was such
another in • Pliny's conceit, a king*s wife, a king's mother, a
king's daughter; and all the world esteemed as much of
Polycrates of Samos. The Greeks brag of their Socrates,
Phocion, Aristides ; the Psophidians in particular of their
Aglaus, Omni vita felix, ah omni periculo immunis (which
by the way Pausanias held impossible) ; the Romans of their
' Cato, Curius, Fabricius, for their composed fortunes, and
retired estates, government of passions, and contempt of the
world ; yet none of all these were happy, or free from dis-

1 Hor. ep. 1. 1, 4. « Hor. Ser. 1, Sat. 1. nug, quinque habtiisse dicitur verum bo-

> lib. de curat, graec. a£E9ct. cap. 6, de narum maxima, quod esset ditissimus,

provident. Multis nihil placet atque quod esset nobilissimus, eloquentissimus,

adeo et divitias damnaut, et paupertHtem, juriBconsultissimus, pontifex maximua.

de morbis expostulant, bene valentes « Lib. 7. Regis fliia, Regis uxor, Regit

grayiter femnt, atque ut semel dicam, mater. 7 Qai nihil unquam malj

nihil eos delectat, &«. * Vix ulliiis aut dixit, aut fecit, aut eensit, qui ben«

gentis, setatis, ordinis, hominem invenies semper fecit, quod alitor fboere non pot*

CUJU8 felicitatem fortunsB Metelli com- uit.
part>^, vol. 1. fi P. Grassus Mutia-



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Mera. 3, sabs. 10.] IHscontents, Cares, S^e. 367

content, neither Metellus, Craasus, nor Polycrates, for he
died a violent death, and so did Cato ; and how much evil
doth Lactantius and Theodoret speak of Socrates, a weak
man, and so of the rest. There is no content in this life, but
as * he said, "All is vanity and vexation of spirit;'* lame
and imperfect Hadst thou Samson's hair, Milo's strength,
Scanderbeg's arm, Solomon's wisdom, Absalom's beauty,
Croesus's wealth, Pasetis ohulum, Caesar's valour, Alexander's
spirit, Tull/s or Demosthenes's eloquence, Gyges's ring, Per-
seus's Pegasus, and Grorgon's head, Nestor's years to come,
all this would not make thee absolute, give thee content
and true happiness in this life, or so continue it Even in
the midst of all our mirth, jollity, and laughter, is sorrow and
grief, or if there be true happiness amongst us, 'tis but for a

time,

* " Desinit in piscem mulier fonnosa snpem^ : '*

. " A handsome woman with a fish's tail."
a fair morning turns to a lowering afternoon. Brutus and
Cassius, once renowned, both eminently happy, yet you shall
scarce find two, (saith Paterculus) Quos fortuna maturius
destituertt, whom fortune sooner forsook. Hannibal, a con
queror all his life, met with his match, and was subdued at
last, Occurrit forti, qui mage fortis erit One is brought in
triumph, as Caesar into Rome, Alcibiades into Athens, coronts
aureis donatus, crowned, honoured, admired ; by and by his
statues demolished, he hissed out, massacred, &c ^ Magnus
Gonsalva, that famous Spaniard, was of the prince and people
at first honoured, approved ; forthwith confined and banished.
Admirandas actiones ; graves plerunque sequuntur invtdice, et
acres calumnia : 'tis Polybius his observation, grievous enmi-
ties, and bitter calumnies^ commonly follow renowned actions.
One is bom rich, dies a beggar ; sound to-day, sick to-mor-
row ; now in most flourishing estate, fortunate and happy, by
and by deprived of his goods by foreign enemies, robbed by
thieves, spoiled, captivated, impoverished as they of * " Rab-

1 Solomon, Eocles. 1, 14. * Hor. Art. Poet. • Jorins, Tita ^as. * 2 Sun.
Bii.81.



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368 Causes of Melancholy. [Part I. sec. %

bah, put under iron saws, and under iron harrows, and under
axes of iron, and cast into the tile kihi,"

1 ** Quid me felicem toties jact&stis amici,
Qui cecidit, i tabili non erat ille gradu.**

He that erst marched like Xerxes with innumerable armies,
as rich as Croesus, now shifts for himself in a poor cock-boat,
is bound in iron chains, with Bajazet the Turk, and a foot-
stool with Aurelian, for a tyrannizing conqueror to trample
on. So many casualties there are, that as Seneca said of a
city consumed with fire, Una dies interest inter maximam
dvitatem et nuUam, one day Jbetwixt a great city and none ;
so many grievances from outward accidents, and from our-
selves, our own indiscretion, inordinate appetite, one day
betwixt a man and no man. And which is worse, as if dis-
contents and miseries would not come fast enough upon us ;
homo homini cUemon, we maul, persecute, and study how to
sting, gall, and vex one another with mutual hatred, abuses,
injuries ; preying upon and devouring as so many * ravenous
birds ; and as jugglers, panders, bawds, cozening one another ;
or raging as • wolves, tigers, and devils, we take a delight to
torment one another ; men are evil, wicked, malicious,
treacherous, and * nought, not loving one another, or loving
themselves, not hospitable, charitable, nor sociable as they
ought to be, but counterfeit, dissemblers, ambidexters, all for
their own ends, hard-hearted, merciless, pitiless, and to benefit
themselves, they care not what mischief they procure to
others. • Praxinoe and Gorgo in the poet, when they had
got in to see those costly sights, they then cried hen^ est, and
would thrust out all the rest ; when they are rich themselves,
in honour, preferred, fnll, and have even that they would,
they debar others of those pleasures which youth requires,

1 Boethins, lib. 1, Met 1. * Om- * Qaod PateroxUtts de popnlo Romano,

nes hie aut captantar. aut captant : ant durante bello Punioo per annos 116, ant

eadarera qn» laoeiantar, ant corri qui bellum inter eo8, ant belli prasparatio,

laoerant Petron. 'Homoomne mon- aut infida pax, idem ^;o de mondi aeeo*

•tmm eet. lUe nam ens^rat feras, lupoA- Ui. • Tbeoorltus Idyll. 16.
qoa et oxaot peotore obeenro tegit Hens.



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Mem. 8, sulis. 10. J Discontents^ Cares, S^c, 369

and they formerly have ei^ojed. He sits at table in a sofl
chair at ease, but he doth not remember in the meaa time that
a tired waiter stands behind him, " an hungry fellow minis-
ters to him full, he is athirst that gives him drink (saith
* Epictetus) and is silent whilst he speaks his pleasure ; pen-?
sive, sad, when he laughs." Plena se probiit auro ; he feasts,
revels, and profusely spends, hath variety of robes, sweet
music, ease, and all the pleasures the world can afford, whilst
many an hunger-starved poor creature > pines in the street^
wants clothes to cover him, labours hard all day long, runs,
rides for a trifle, 6ghts. perad venture from sun to sun, sii^
and ill, weary, full of pain and grief, is in great distress and
sorrow of heart He loathes and scorns his inferior, hates or
emulates his equal, envies his superior, insults over all such
as are under him, as if he were of another species, a demi*-
god, not subject to any fall, or human intrmittes. • Oenerally
they love not, are not beloved again ; they tire out others'
bodies with continual labour, they themselves living at ease,
caring for none else, sihi nati ; and are so fer many times
from putting to their helping hand, that they seek sUl m^ms
to. depress, even most worthy and well deserving, better than
themselves, those whom they are by the laws of nature bound
to relieve and help, as much as in them lies, they will let
them caterwaul, starve, beg, and hang, before they will any
ways (though it be in their power) assist ot ease ;^ so unnat-
ural are they for the most part, so unregardful ; so i hard-
hearted, .so churlish, proud, insolent, so dogged, c^- eo bad a
disposition: And being so brutish, so devilishly bent one
towards another, how is it possible but that we should be di^
rx)ntent of all sides, full of cares, woes, and miseries ?

If this be not a suflScient proof of their discontent and
mitriory, examine every condition and calling apart Kings,
princes, monarchs, and magistrates seem to be most happy,

1 Qui 0edet in mensa, non meminit sibi et Hberlus rolnptates suaa expleverlnt,
otioso ministrare negotiofios, edenti eau- UH gnatis impontint duriores condnentia
rientes, bibenti nitiented. &c. 3 Qtiando 1^|^.
in adolefwentia sua ipsi yixerint, lautius

VOL. I. 24



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370 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 1

but look into their estate, you shall * find them to be most
encumbered with cares, in perpetual fear, agony, suspicion,^
jealousy ; that as ^ he said of a crown, if they knew but the
discontents that accompany it, they would hot stoop to take it
up. Quern mihi regem dabts (saith Chrysostom) non curia
plenum f What king canst thou show me, not full of 2ares ?
• " Look not on his crown, but consider his afflictions ; attend
not his number of servants, but multitude of crosses." Nihil
aliud potestas culminis, quam tempestofi mentis, as Gregory
seconds him ; sovereignty is a tempest of the soul ; Sylla-like
they have brave titles but terrible fits : splencbrem titiUo, crur
datum animo ; which made * Demosthenes vow, si vet ad
tribunal, vel ad interitum duceretur : if to be a judge, or to be
condemned, were put to his choice, he would be condemned.
Rich men are in the same predicament ; what their pains are,
stuiti nesciunt, ipsi sentiunt : they feel, fools perceive not, as I
shall prove elsewhere, and their wealth is brittle, like chil-
dren's rattles ; they come and go, there is no certainty in
them ; those whom they elevate, they do as suddenly depress,
and leave in a vale of misery. The middle sort of men are
as so many asses to bear burdens ; or if they be free, and
live at ease, they spend themselves, and consume their bodies
and fortunes with luxury and riot, contention, emulation, &c.
The poor I reserve for another * place, and their discontents.
For particular professions, I hold as of the rest, there's no
content or security in any ; on what course will you pitch ;
how resolve ? to be a divine, 'tis contemptible in the world'*
esteem ; to be a lawyer, 'tis to be a wrangler ; to be a physi-
cian, ^pudet htii, 'tis loathed ; a philosopher, a madman ; an
alchymist, a beggar ; a poet, esurit, an hungry jack ; a musi-
cian, a player ; a schoolmaster, a drudge ; an husbandman,
an emmet ; a merchant, his gains are uncertain ; a mechani-

1 Lngnibris Ate luctuque fero R^nm as, sed Titam affliottone refertam, doc

tumidas obsidet arces. Res est inquJeta caterras satellitum, sed curarain molti-

fielicitas > Plus aloes quam mollis tudinem. * As, Plutarch relatoth

habet. Non humi jacentem tolleres. ^ Sect. 2, memb. 4. sdbsect. 6. ^ Star

Faler. 1. 7, c. 8. ' Non diadema aspiei- cus et urina, meoiccnram fercola



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Mem. 8, subs. 10.] Discontents^ CareSy S^c. 371

daD, base; a chirurgeon, fulsome; a tradesman, a ^liar; a
tailor, a thief ; a serving-man, a slave ; a soldier, a butcher ;
a smith, or a metalman, the pot's never from's nose ; a cour-
tier, a parasite, as he could find no tree in the wood to hang
himself; I can show no state of life to give content The
like you maj say of all ages ; children live in a perpetual
.slavery, still under that tyrannical government of masters ;
young men, and of riper years, subject to labour, and a thou-
sand cares of the world, to treachery, falsehood, and cozenage,

s ^ Incedit per igaes,
Snppositos cineri doloso,**

** you incautious tread
On fires, with faithless ashes overhead.**

' old are full of aches in their bones, cramps and convukions,
stlicemioy dull of hearing, weak sighted, hoary, wrinkled,
harsh, so much altered as that they cannot know their own
face in a glass^ a burden to themselves and others, after
seventy years, " all is sorrow ** (as David hath it), they do not
live but linger. If they be sound, they fear diseases ; if sick,
weary of their lives ; I^on est vtvere sed valere, vita. One
complains of want, a second of servitude, * dhother of a secret
or incurable disease ; of some deformity of body, of some
loss, danger, death of friends, shipwreck, persecution, impris-
onment, disgrace, repulse, * contumely, calumny, abuse, injury,
contempt, ingratitude, unkiudness, scoffs, fiouts, unfortunate
marriage, single life, too many children, no children, false
servants, unhappy children, barrenness, banishment, oppres-
fdon, frustrate hopes and ill success, &c.

^ Talia de genere hoc adeo sunt malta, loquacem ut
Delassare valent Fabium.'*

" But, every various instance to repeat,
Would tire even Fabius of incessant prate.**

Talking Fabius will be tired before he can tell half of them ;

1 NihU lucrantnr, nisi admodcim mea- mendlcos, quos nemo attdet fteUcen dio*

riendo. Tall. Offic. > Hor. 1. 2, od. 1. ere. Card. lib. 8, c. 46, de rer. Tar.

< Rants felix idemotle senex. Seneoa ia ^ Spretotqjae injuria fi>nn« • Hor.
Her. aiteo. < Omitto aBtrros, exnles,



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872 Catises of Melancholy. [Fart. 1. sec. 2.

they are the subject of whole volumes, and shall (some of
them) be more opportunely dilated elsewhere. In the mean
time thus much I may say of them, that generally they cru-
cify the soul of man, ^ attenuate our bodies, dry them^ wither
them, shrivel them up like old apples, make them as so many
anatomies (^ossa atque peUis est totus, ita cutis macet), they
cause tempus fctdum et squaUdumy cumbersome days, in-
grataque tempora^ slow, dull, and heavy times ; make us howl,
roar, and tear our hairs, as sorrow did in ** Cebes's table, and
groan for the very anguish of our souls. Our hearts fail us
as David's did, Psall xl. 12, ^' for innumerable troubles that
compassed him ; " and we arfe ready to confess with Heze-
kiah, Isaiah Iviii. 17, " behold, for felicity I had bitter grief; "
to weep with HeracHtus, to curse the day of our birth with
Jeremy, XX. 14, and our stars with Job ; to hold that axiom
of Silenus, * " better never to have been bom, and the best
tiext of all, to die quickly ;" or if we must live, to abandon
the world, as TWon did ; creep into caves and holes, as our
ahchorites ; cast all into the sea, as Crates Thebanus ; or as
Theombrotus Ambrodato's four hundred auditors, precipitate

6urselves to be ri3 of diese miseries.
i • ■

SuBSSOT. XI^ — Concupisctble Appetite, as Desires, Amhition^
Causes.

These concupiscible and irascible appetites are as the two
twists of a rope, mutually mixed one with the other, and both
twining about the heart; both good, as Austin holds, /I 14,
c. 9, de civ. Dei, * " if they be moderate ; both pernicious if
they be exorbitant.** This concupiscible appetite, howsoever
it may seem to carry with it a show of pleasure and delight,
and our concupiscences most part affect us with content and a
pleasing object, yet if they be in extremes, they rack and
wring us on the other side. A true saying it is, " Desire
hath no rest ; " is infinite in itself, endless ; and as • one calls

1 AtteniiaTit Titles corpus miserabile ci, ant cito mori. s BonaB d zectam ra-
oonB. s Plauttu. * Hteo cttm crinei tionem Bequtrntnr. maltt si ezmrUtant
evellit, serumna. < Optimum non nas- « Tho. Buoyie. Prob. 18.



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Mem. 8, sabB. 11.] Ambition, a Cause. 373

ity a perpetual rack, ^ or horsemill, aecording to Austin, still
going round as in a ring. They are not so continual, as
divers, feUoius atamas denumerare possem, saith ^ Bernard,
qtuim moius cordis ; nunc Jubcj nunc iUa cogUo, you may as
well reckon up the motes in the sun as them. ^ ^ It extends
itself to everything," as Guianerius will have it, ^ that is su-
perfluously sought after; " or to any * fervent desire, as Fer-
nelius interprets it ; be it in what kind soever, it tortures if
unmoderate, and is (according to '^Plater and others) an
especial cause of melancholy. Mukuosis concupiscentiis
dUcmiofUur cogitationes mea^ * Austin confessed, that he was
torn, a pieces with his manifold desires ; and so doth ' Ber-
nard complain, ^^ that he could not rest for them a minute of
an hour; this I would have, and that, and then I desire to
be such and such.** 'Tis a hard matter ther^ore to confine
them, being they are so various and many, impossible to ap-
prehend aU. I will only insist upon some few of the chief,
and most jK>xious in their kind, as that exorbitant appetite
and desire (^ honour, which we commonly call ambition;
k>ve of money, whidi is covetoiisness,<and that greedy desire
of gain ; self-love, pride, and inordinate desire of vainglory
or applause, k)ve of study in excess ; love of women (whidi
will require a just volume of itself), of the other I will briefly
speak, and in their order.

Ambition, a proud oovetousness, or a dry thirst of honour,
a great torture of the mind, composed of envy, pride, and
covetousness, a gallant madness, one ' defines it a i^easant
poison, Ambrose, ^ a canker of the soul, an hidden plague ; **
* Bernard, ^a secret poison, the father of Hvor, and mother
of hypocrisy, the moth of holiness, and cause of madness,
crucifying and disquieting all that it takes hold of.**



1 Mctem Mfauriam. * Traei. de In- t^ftgor, nidlo temporis momento qnfefleou

tor. 0. 92. < Cirea qnamlibet rem talis et talis esse cnplo, illtid atque illtia

mimdi base paseio flni potest, qnse su- habere desidero. " Ambroe. 1. 8. sttpex

perfln^ diU^ttar. Tract. 16. e. 17. Lncam, aerugo animse. * Nihil ani-

« Verrentiiu dedderimn. 6 Imprimis mum emciat, nihil molestiiis inquietat,

v«v6 Appetttns, fre. 8, de alien, ment. secretom Tims, peetis occulta, fro.,epi8t.

OoDf 1, e. 29. ' Per dlrersa loca 126.



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874 Causes of Mdaitchjoty. iPart. l. sec. a

* Seneca calls it rem $6Ucitcany timtdam^ vanam, ventosan^
a windy thing, a vain, solicitous, and fearful thing. For
commonly they that, like Sysiphus, roll this restless stone
of ambition, are in a perpetual agony, still * perplexed,
semper tactti, tristesqtie recedunt (Lucretius), doubtful, tim-
orous, suspicious, loath to offend in word or deed, still cog-
ging and colloguing, embracing, capping, cringing, Applaud-
ing, flattering, fleering, visiting, waiting at men's doors, with
all affability, counterfeit honesty and humility.' If that will
not serve, if once this humour (as * Cyprian describes it)
possess his thirsty soul, amMtionis scdsugo ubt hihulam ant'
mam possidet, by hook and by crook he will obtain it, " and
from his hole he will climb to all honours and offices, if it be
possible for him to get up, flattering one, bribing another, he
will leave no means unessay'd to win alL" * It is a wonder
to see how slavishly these kind of men subject themselves,
when they are about a suit, to every inferior person ; what
pains they will take, run, ride, cast, plot, countermine, protest
and swear, vow, promise, what labours undergo, early up,
down late ; how obsequious and affable they are, how popular
and courteous, how they grin and fleer upon every man they
meet ; with what feasting and inviting, how they spend them-
selves and their fortunes, in seeking that many times, which
they had much better be without ; as • Cyneas the orator told
Pyrrhus; with what waking nights, painful hours, anxious
thoughts, and bitterness of mind, inter spemque metumque^
distracted and tired, they consume the interim of their time.
There can be no greater plague for the present If they do
obtain their suit, which with such cost and solicitude they
have sought, they are not so freed, their anxiety is anew to

1 Bp. 88. s Nihil infeUcitis his, tar, ft«qtieiitat curias, yisitat, optimatee
quantus iis timor, quanta dubitatio, amplexatur, applandit, adulator: per
quantus conatns, quanta sollcitudo, nulla &s et neflis k latebris, in omnem gradum
illis jt molestiis vacua hora. > Semper ubi aditus patet se ingerit, discurrit.
attonitus, semper pavidus quid dicat, &- ft TurbsB co^t ambitio r^;em inserrire,
eiatre: ne displiceat humilitatem simu- ut Homerus Agamemnonem querentrao
lat, honestatem mentitur. ^ Cypr. indueit. • Plutarchus. Quin con-
Prolog, ad ser. To. 2, cunctos honorat, viTemnr, et in otio nos obleotemur, quo
universiB inclinat, subeequitur, obeequi- niam in prcxnpta id noUs sit, &o.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Mem. 8, subs. 11.] Ambition, a Cause, 375

begin, for they are never satisfied, nihU aliud nisi imperium
spirant, their thoughts, actions, endeavours are all for sov-
ereignty and honour, like * Lues Sforsia that huffing duke of
Milan, " a man of singular wisdom, but profound ambition,
born to his own, and to the destruction of Italy," though it
be to their own ruin, and friends' undoing, they will contend,



Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 35 of 48)