Robert Burton.

The anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol online

. (page 4 of 48)
Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 4 of 48)
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sit apparety which nature doth with the aliment of our bodief
incorporate, digest, assimikte, I do c&ncoquere quod hausi, dis-
pose of what I take. I make them pay tribute, to set out thk
my Maceronioon, the method only is mine own, I must usuip
that of * Wecker e Ter. nihil dictum quod nan dictum prius^
methodus sola artijicem ostendit, we can say nothing but what
hath been said, the composition and method is ours only, and
shows a scholar. Oribasius, iE^sius, Avicenna, have all out of
Galen, but to their own method, diverso stiloj non diversdjlde.
Our poets steal from Homer ; he ^)ews, saith .^E^an, they lick
it up. Divines use Austin's words verbatim still, and our story
dressers, do as much ; he that comes last is commonly best.

doneo quid grandins stas
Postera Borsqne ferat melior. ^

Though there were many giants of old in Physic and Philos-

1 Qaicqaid ubique bene dietam fiteio illtid Oyp. hoc Laet. illnd Hilar, eft, ita

meum, et illad nunc meis a 1 oompendi- Victorinos, in banc modoin loqtiutus eiit

am, nnnc ad fldem et anctoritafcem alienis Amobius, &c. < Pnef. ad Syntax mecl.

ezprimo yerbis, omnes auctores meos cH- * JJniA a laAet age and a happier k>t ytr^

entes esse arbitior, &c. SariAburiensis daee aometiiing more tnily grand.
ad P(riycrat. pn)l. *In Bpiviph. Nep.



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Dem^critus to the Header. 39

ophy, yet I say with ^ Didacus Stella, " A dwarf standing on
the shoulders of a giant may see farther than a giant him-
self;" I may likely add, idter, and see farther than my
predecessors ; and it is no greater prejudice for me to indite
after others, than for ^SBlianus Montaltus, that famous physi-
cian, to write' de morbis capitis after Jason Pratensis, Heur*
nius, Hildesheim, &c., many horses to run in a race, one
logician, one rhetorician, after another* Oppose then what

thou wilt,

Allatres licet usque nos et usque,
£t Gannitibus improbis lacessas.

I solve it thus. And for those other faults of barbarism,
^ Doric dialect, extemporanean style, tautologies, apish imita-
tion, a rhapsody of rags gathered together from several dung-
hills, excrements of authors, toys and fopperies conftisedly
ttmibled out, without art, invention, judgment, wit, learning,
harsh, raw, rude, fantastical, absurd, insolent, indiscreet, ill-
composed, indigested, vain, scurrile, idle, dull, and dry ; I
confess all ('tis partly^ affected), thou canst not think worse
of me l^an I do of myself. 'Tis not worth the reading, I
yield it, I desire thee not to lose time in perusing so vain a
subject, I should be peradventure loth myself to read him or
thee so writing ; 'tis not opera pretium. All I say is this,
that I have * precedents for it, which Isocrates calls perfugium
its qui peccemty others as absurd, vain, idle, illiterate, &c
NonnvM alii idem fecerwnt ; others have done as much, it
may be more, and perhaps thou thyself, Novimm et qui te,
&c We have , all our faults ; scimus, et hanc veniam, &c. ;
*thou censurest me, so have I done others, and may do thee,
Cedimus inque vicem, &c, 'tis lex tcdiones, quid pro quo. Gk)
now, censure^ criticize, scoff, and rail.

< Nasutns sis usque lioet, sis denique nasus:
Iton potes in uugas dicere plura meas,
Ipse ego qukm dixi, &o.

1 In Luc. 10, torn. 2. Pigmei Gigantam apes. LiprinsadTersaadialo^t. *Uiio

homeria imposlti plusqaam ipsi Oigantes absurdo dato mille sequuntur. * Non

Tident. s Neo araneatum textiu ideo dabito miiltos lectores hie ibre stulftos.

melior quia ez se fila gignuntar, nee nos- • liartial, 18, 2.
tor ideo Tiiior, quia ex alienis libamus ut



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40 Democritus to the Reader.

Wert thou all scoffii and flouts, a rery Momos,
Than we ourselves, thou canst not saj worse of us.

Thus, as when women scold, have I cried whore first, and
in some men's censures I am afraid I have overshot myself,
Laudare se vani, vituperare stuUiy as I do not arrogate, I will
not derogate. Ptimue veetrum non sum, nee imus, I am none
of the hest, I am none of the meanest of jou. As I am an
inch, or so many feet, so manj parasangs, after him or him, I
may be peradventure an ace before thee. Be it ther^ore as
it is, well or ill, I have essayed, put myself upon the stage ;
I must abide the censure, I may not escape it. It is most
true, stylus virum arguU, our style bewrays us, and as ^ hunt^
ers find their game by the trace, so is a man's genius descried
by his works, MuUd melius ex sermone quam Uneamentis, de
moribus hominum judtcamus; it was old Cato's rule. I
have laid myself open (I know it) in this treatise, turned
mine inside outward : I shall be censured, I doubt not ; for,
to say truth with Erasmus, nihil morosius hominum judiciisy
there is naught so peevish as men*s judgments ; yet this is
some comfort, utpcdata, sicjudicia, our censures are as vari-
ous as our palates.

3 Tres mihi convivse prope dissentire videntur,
{^oscentes vario multum diversa palato, &c.

Three guests I have, dissenting at my feast,
Requiring each to gratify his taste
With diflferent food.

Our writings are as so many dishes, our readers guests, our
books like beauty, that which one admires another rejects ; so
are we approved as men's fancies are inclined. Pro captu
lectoris habent sua fata libeUi. That which is most pleasing
to one is amaracum sui, most harsh to another. Quot homines,
tot sententitB, so many men, so many minds ; that which thou
oondemnest he commends. ' Quod petis, id sane est invisum

1 Vt tvnatores hmm h Tostigio ImpTCSso, ▼imm lorlptiimoiUa. Lips. * Hor

■ Hor.



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Democritus to the Reader. 41

mddiwtnqm duohus. He respects matter, thou art wholly for
words ; he loves a loose and free style, thou art all for neat
composition, strong lines, hyperboles, allegories ; be desires a
fine frontispiece, enticing pictures, such as * Hieron. Natali
the Jesuit hath cut to the Dominicals, to draw on the reader's
attention, which thou rejectest; that which one admires,
another explodes as most absurd and ridiculous. If it be not
point blank to his humour, his method, his conceit, ^$i quid
for$an omissum, quod is animo conceperit, si qua dictio, &c
If aught be omitted, or added, which he likes, or dislikes,
thou art mancipium pauca leciionisj an idiot, an ass, nuUus
es, or plagiariusy a trifler, a trivant, thou art an idle fellow ;
or else it is a thing of mere industry, a collection without wit
or invention, a very toy. * FaciUa sic ptUant omnes qwB jam
factdf nee de salebris cogitant ubi via strata; so men are
valued, their labours vilified by fellows of no worth them
selves, as things of nought, who could not have done so much.
Dhusquisque abundat sensu stto, every man abounds in his
own sense ; and whilst each particular party is so affected,
how should one please all ?

* Quid dem? quid non dem? Benuis in qnod jabet ille.

What courses must I choose?
What not ? What both would order you refuse.

How shall I hope to express myself to each man's humoui '
and * conceit, or to give satisfaction to all ? Some understand
too little, some too much, qui similiter in legendos libros, atque
in salutandos homines irruunty non cogitantes quales, sed qui-
bus vestibus induti sinty as ^ Austin observes, not regarding
what, but who write, *orexin hdbet auctoris celebritas, not
valuing the metal, but stamp that is upon it, Cantharum aS'
piciuniy non quid in eo. If he be not rich, in great place,
polite and brave, a great doctor, or full fraught with grand
titles, though never so well qualified, he is a dunce ; but, as

* Antwerp, fbl. 1007. i Mnrettis. Maretus. > lib. 1, de ord., cap. 11

I Updiui. * Hor. * Fieri non potest, > Erasmus.
nt qnod qnisque cogitatf dicat onus.



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42 Democritus to the Reader,

"^ Baronius hath it of Cardinal Carafia's works, he is a mere
hog that rejects any man for his poverty. Some are too par-
tial, as friends to overween, others come with a prejudice to
carp, vilify, detract, and scoff {qui de me forsan, quicqmd
est, amm contemptu contemptius judicant) ; some as bees for
honey, some as spiders to gather poison. What shall I do in
this case ? As a Dutch host, if you come to an inn in German
ny, and dislike your fare, diet, lodging, &c, replies in a surly
ttme, * " cdivd tiU quceras diversorium^* if you like not this,
get you to another inn : I resolve, if you like not my writing;
go read something else* I do not inuch esteem thy censure^
take thy course, it is not as thou wilt, nor as I will, but when
we have both done, that of ^ Plinius Secundus to Trajan will
prove true, ^ Every man's witty labour takes not, except the
matter, subject, occasion, and some commending favourite
happen to it" If I be taxed, exploded by thee and some
such, 1 shall haply be approved and commended by others,
and so have been (JExpertus hqtior), and may truly say with
* Jovius in like case, {absit verbo jaciantia) heroum quortrnF-
dam, pmUificumy et virorum noUlium familiaritatem et amid'
tiam, gratasque gratias, et mvUorum ^ bene laudatorum laudee
gum inde promeritus, as I have been honoured by some wor-
thy men, so have I been vilified by others, and shall be. At
the first publishing of this book, (which * Probus of Persius's
eatires), editum librum continud mirari homines, atque aivide
deripere cceperunt, I may in some sort apply to this my work.
The first, second, and third editions were suddenly gone,
eagerly read, and, as I have said, not so much approved by
some, as scornfully rejected by others. But it was Demoo-
ritus his fortune, Idem admiratiom et firristoni koMtus,
Twas Seneca's fate, that superintendent of wit, learning,
judgment, • ad stuporem doefus, the best of Greek and Latin
writers, in Plutarch's opinion ; " that renowned corrector of

* Annal. Tom. 8, ad annnm 800. Est fftutor, occasio, commendatorqne oontin-

porcus ille qui sacerdotem ex amplitudine gat. ^ Pnef. nist. * Laudaii a laadato

reditaum sordide demetitor. i Erasm. laus est. ^ Vit. Persii. t Ifinuet

dial. * Epist. lib. 6. Ci^iusqiie Inge- praesenUa &maiii. * LipdoB Jadle. ^
niiim non atatiin emergit, nisi materiae



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Democritus to the Header. 43)

vice," as ^ Fabius terms him, ^ and painful omnisdoas philos-
opher, that writ so excellently and admirably well," could not
please all parties, or escape censure. How is he vilified by.
'Caligula, AgeUius^ Fabius, and Lipsius himself, his chief
propugner ? Jbi eo pleraque permtiosa, saith the same Fabius,
many childish tracts and sentences he hath sermo iUc^toratmf
too negligent often and remiss, as Agellius observes, oratto
vulgaris et pratrita, dicaces et inepUB sententiay eruditio ple^
beia, an homely shallow writer as he is. In partibus spinas
et Jastidia hahel, saith * Lipsius ; and, as in all his other
works, so especially in his epistles, alias in arguHis et ineptiis
occupantur, tntricatus alicitbi, et parum compositus, sine copid
rerum hoc fecit, he jumbles up many things together imme-
thodicaUy, after the Stoics' fashion, parum ordinavit, mtUta
accutnul(wit, &c If Seneca be thus lashed, and many famous
men that I could name, what shall I expect ? How shall I
that am vix umhra tanti phitosophi, hope to please ? ^ No
man so absolute (* Erasmus holds) to satisfy all, except an-
tiquity, prescription, &c., set a bar." But as I have proved in
Seneca, this will not always take place, how shall I evade?
Tls the common doom of all writers, I ihust (I say) abide it;
I seek not applause ; ^Mm ego ventosa venor suffragia plebis ;
again, non sum adeo informis, I would not be ^vilified.

• laudatus abunde,
Nod fostiditus si tibi, lector, ero.

I fear good men's censures, and to their favourable acceptance
I submit my labours,

7 et linga^ manoipiomm
Contemno.

As the barking of a dog, I securely contemn those malicious

1 lib. 10. Plnrimum ttudii, multam temporls pnesoriptio, aemota Jadicand]

renim oofnhlonem, (unnem siadiorum libertate, reIigion« quadam animos occo-

materianif &c.f molta In eo probanda, p&rit. < Hor. Ep. 1, lib. 19. *JEquA

mnlta admiranda. * Suet. Arena sine turpe frioidi laudari ao inseetanter vita*

aalee. • Intxodnct. ad Sen. > Judio. perari. Phavorinus A.Gel. lib. 19, cap 2

ie Sen. yis, aliqnia tarn abeolutus, nt • Orid. trist. U, eleg. 6. ' Jnren. sat. 6
ttterl p«r omnia latislkeiat nisi longa



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44 Democritut to the Reader.

and scanile obloquies, flouts, calumnies of railers and de-
tractors ; I scorn the rest. What therefore I have said, pro
tenuitcOe medj I haye said.

One or two things jet I was desirous to have amended if
I could, concerning the manner of handling this my subject,
for which I must apologize, depreccari^ and upon better advice
give the friendly reader notice: it was not mine intent to
prostitute my muse in English, or to divulge tecreta Minervm^
but to have exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could
have got it printed. Any scurrile pamphlet is welcome to
our mercenary stationers in English ; they print all,

cudnntqne libellos
In qaoram foliis vix simia nada caoaret;

But in Latin they will not deal ; which is one of the reasons
^ Nicholas Car, in his oration of the paucity of English writ-
ers, gives, that so many flourishing wits are smothered in
oblivion, lie dead and buried in this our nation. Another
main fault is, that I have not revised the copy, and amended
the style, which now flows remissly, as it was first conceived ;
but my leisure would not permit ; Fed nee quod potui^ nee
quod voltd, I confess it is neither as I would, nor as it should

be.

* Ciim relego scripsisse pndet, qnia plnrima oemo
Me quoqae qum fuerant judice digna lini.

When I peruse this/tract which I have writ,
I am abash'd, and much I hold unfit

M quod grammmvm^ in the matter itself, many things I dis-
allow at this present, which, when I writ, ' Nbn eadem est
atoiy non mens ; I would willingly retract much, &c, but 'tis
too late, I can only crave pardon now for what is amiss.
I might indeed, (had I wisely done) observed that precept

of the poet, nonumque prematur in annumy and have

taken more care : or, as Alexander the physician would have

1 Aufc artis Inseil ant qusBBtnl magis Lond. Bxous. 1676. * Ovid, d* pont
fMin Uterifl student, hab. Cantab, et Bleg. 1, 6. * Hor.



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Democntus to the Reader, 45

done by lapis lazuli, ^ftj times washed before it be used I
should have revised, corrected, and amended this tract ; but I
had not (as I said) that happj leisure, no amanuenses or as-
sistants. Fancrates in ^Lucian, wanting a servant as he
went from Memphis to Coptus in Egypt, took a door-bar, and
after some superstitious words pronounced (Eucrates the re-
lator was then present) made it stand up like a serving-man,
fetch him water, turn the spit, serve in supper, and what work
he would besides; and when he had done that service he
desired, turned his man to a stick again. I have no such
skill to make new men at my pleasure, or means to hire
them ; no whistle to call like the master of a ship, and bid
them run, &c I have no such authority, no such benefac-
tors, as that noble * Ambrosius was to Origen, allowing him
six or seven amanuenses to write out his dictates ; I must for
that cause do my business myself, and was therefore enforced,
as a bear doth her whelps, to bring forth this confused lump ;
I had not time to lick it into form, as she doth her young
ones, but even so to publish it, as it was first written, quic-
quid in buccam venity in an extemporean style, as ^ I do
commonly all other exercises, e^fWi quicquid dictavit genius
meus, out of a confused company of notes, and writ with as
small deliberation as I do ordinarily speak, without all afiec-
ladon of big words, fustian phrases, jingling terms, tropes,
strong lines, that like t Acestes' arrows caught fire as they
flew, strains of wit, brave heats, elegies, hyperbolical exoma-
tions, elegances, &c, which many so much affect I am
^aqiuB potor, drink no wine at all, which so much improves
our modem wits, a loose, plain, rude writer,^/2ci^m voco jkumy
et Ugonem ligonem, and as free, as loose, idmi calamo quod in
mente, ^ I call a spade a spade, animis hcec scriho, nan auribus,
I respect matter, not words ; remembering that of Cardan,
verba. propter res, nan res propter verba: and seeking with

1 Tom. 8. Philopsend. aooepto pes- iino, as he made rersefl. f Vbg.

rolo. quom carmen quoddam dixisset, * Xon eadem & sammo expeefees, mim*

eflent at ambolaret, aquam haariret, moque poeta. * Stylus hks nnlliia,

nmam pararet, &o. * Buseblua, pneter parrhedam.

•eelei. hist. Ub. 6. * Staos pede in



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46 Democrttus to the Reader.

Seneca, quid scribam, non qv^emadmodum, rather what than
how to write : for as Philo thinks, '* ^ He that is conversant
about matter, neglects words, and those that excel in this art
of speaking, have no profound learning,

2 Verba nitent phaleris, at nuUas verba medullas
Intus habent —

Besides, it was the observation of that wise Seneca, " • when
you see a fellow careful about his words, and neat in his
speech, know this for a certainty that man's mind is busied
about toys, there's no solidity, in him. Nan est omamentum
virile concinnitas: as he said of a nightingale, vox es, prceterea
nihil, &c I am therefore in this point a professed disciple
of ^ ApoUonius a scholar of Socrates, I neglect phrases, and
labour wholly to inform my reader's understanding, not to
please his ear ; 'tis not my study or intent to compose neatly,
which an orator requires, but to express myself readily and
plainly as it happens. So that as a river runs sometimes pre-
cipitate and swift, then dull and slow ; now direct, then per
ambages; now deep, then shallow; now muddy, then clear;
now broad, then narrow ; doth my style flow : now serious,
then light ; now comical, then satirical ; now more elaborate,
then remiss, as the present subject required, or as at that
time I was affected. And if thou vouchsafe to read this
treatise, it shall seem no otherwise to thee, than the way to
an ordinary traveller, sometimes fair, sometimes foul ; here
champaign, there inclosed ; barren in one place, better soil in
another: by woods, groves, hills, dales, plains, &c. I shall
lead thee per ardwx montium, et luhrica vcMum, et roscida
cespitum, et * glehosa camporum, through variety of objects
that which thou shalt like and surely dislike.

1 Qui rebus se ezeroet, Terba negU^t, dum. Epist. lib. 1, 21. * Phnoetra-

et qui eallet artem dieendi, nullam dis- tus, lib. B, yit. Apol. Negligeb^t orato-

ciplinam habet recognitam. • Pallin- riam facultatcm, et penitus aspemabator

genius. Words may be resplendent with cgus professores, quod linguam duntazat,

(urnament, but they contain no marrow non antem men tern redderent eruditio-

within. * Oujuscunque oratiooem rem. * Hie enim, quod Seneca da

▼ides politam et solicitam, scito animum Ponto, bos herbam, ciconu larisam, eanii

m punllis oocupatum, in scriptis nil soli- leporem, yirgo florem legat.



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Democritus to the Reader, 47

For the matter itself or method, if it be faulty, consider I
praj you, that of OolumeUoy Nihil perfectuniy aut a singvlari
e&nsummatum industrid, no man can observe all, much is de-
fective no doubt, may be justly taxed, altered, and avoided
in Gralen, Aristotle, those great masters. Bmi venatoris
Qoae holds) plures fertzs capere^ non omnes; he is a good
huntsman, can catch some, not all ; I have done my endeav-
our. Besides, I dwell not in this study, Non hie stdcos dtun-
mu8, non hoc ptdvere desudamusy I am but a smatterer, I con-
fess, a stranger, ^ here and there I pull a flower; I do easily
grant, if a rigid censurer should criticize on this which I have
writ, he should not find three sole faults, as Scaliger in Te-
rence, but three hundred. So many as he hath done in
Cardan's subtleties, as many notable errors as ' Gul. Laurem-
bergius, a late professor of Bostocke, discovers in that anat-
omy of Laurentius, or Barodus the Venetian in Sacro hoscus.
And although this be a sixth edition, in which I should have
been more accurate, corrected all those former escapes, yet
it was magni hhoris opus^ so diificult and tedious, that as
carpenters do find out of experience, 'tis much better build
a new sometimes, than repair an old house ; I could as soon
write as much more, as alter that which is wiitten. K aught
therefore be amiss (as I grant there is), I require a friendly
admonition, no bitter invective, * Sint mizsis socii (Marites,
Furia omnis ahesto, otherwise, as in ordinary controversies
Junem contentionis nectamus, sed cui bono f We may con-
tend, and likely misuse each other, but to what purpose ? We
are both scholars, say,

ft Arcades ambo,
Et cantara pares, et respondere parati.

Both young Arcadians, both alike inspired
To sing and answer as the song requirM.

If we do wrangle what shall we get by it? Trouble and

1 P«t. Nannlas not. in Hor. • Non. nt canis NUnm lambens. * Supra bia
Ue eolonns domleiliiim habeo, sed topi- mille notabiles errores LaurentU demon-
wft in iiioi«m, tiino iode florem velUco, strayi, &c. * Phllo de Oon. & Virg



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48 Democrttus to the Reader.

wrong oorselves, make sport to others. If I be convict of
an error, I will yield, I will amend. Si quid bants morihus,
si quid veritati disserUaneuniy in sacris vel humanis Uteris a
me dictum sit, id nee dictum esto. In the mean time I re-
quire a faTOurable censure of all faults omitted, harsh cchu-
posidons, pleonasms of words, tautological repetitions (diough
Seneca bear me out, nunquam nimis dicitur, quod nunquam
satis dicitur) perturbations of tenses, numbers, printers'
faults, &c M7 translations are soipetimes rather pan^hrases
than interpretations, nan ad verhum, but as an author, I use
more liberty, and that's only taken which was to my purpose.
Quotations are often inserted in the text, which makes the
style more harsh, or in the margin as it hi^pened. Greek
authors, Plato, Plutarch, Athenaeus, &c, I have cited out of
their interpreters, because the original was not so ready. I
haye mingled sacra praphanis, but I hope not profaned, and
in repetition of authors' names, ranked them per accidens, not
according to chronology; sometimes Neoterics before An
cients, as my memory suggested. Some things are here al-
tered, expunged in this sixth edition, others amended, much
added, because many good * authors in all kinds are come
to my hands since, and 'tis no prejudice, no such indecorum^
or oversight.

A Nanquam ita qaicquam bene subduotft ratione ad vitam fait,
Quin res, setas, nsiis, semper aliquid apportent novi,
Aliquid moneant, ut ilia qa» scire te credas, nesoias,
Et qusB tibi putftris prima, in exeroendo at lepadiaa.

Ne*er was aaght yet at first contrived so fit,
But use, age, or something woald alter it;
Advise thee better, and, apon perose,
Make thee not say, and what thoa takest refase.

But I am now resolved never to put' this treatise out again,
Nie quid nimis, 1 will not hereafter add, alter, or retract ; I
have done. The last and greatest exception is, that I, being
a divine, have meddled with physic,

• FrambesariuB, Sennertos, FenndiWf &e i Tw. Addph.



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DemocritiLS to the Reader, 49

1 Tantumne est ab re ink otii tibi,
Aliena ut cures, eaque nihil qusB ad te attinent?

Which Menedemus objected to Chremes ; . have I so much
leisure, or little business of mine own, as to look after other
men's matters which concern me not ? What have I to do
with physic ? Qitod medicorum est promittant medict. The
* Lacedemonians were once in counsel aboat Ftate matters, a
debauched fellow spake excellent well, and to the purpose,
his speech was generally approved : a grave senator steps
up, and by all means would have it repealed, though good,
because dehonestabatur pessimo atictore, it had no better an
author; let some good man relate the same, and then it
should pass. This counsel was emhmced, factum est, and it
was registered forthwith. JEt sic bona sententia manstt, ma"
his auctor mvtatus est. Thou sayest as much of me, stoma-
chosus as thou art, an4 grantest, peradventure, this which I
have written in physic, not to be amiss, had another done it,
a professed physician, or so ; but why should I meddle with
this tract ? Hear me speak. There be many other subjects,
I do easily grant, both in humanity and divinity, fit to be



Online LibraryRobert BurtonThe anatomy of melancholy : what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it : in three partitions, with their several sections, members, and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically opened and cut up : with a satirical preface, conducing to the fol → online text (page 4 of 48)