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Meripsa puts it amongst the best remedies, _sect. 1. cap. 12._ in
Antidotis; [4218]"and if this will not serve" (saith Rhasis) "then there
remains nothing but lapis armenus and hellebore itself." Valescus and Jason
Pratensis much commend pulvis hali, which is made of it. James Damascen.
_2. cap. 12._ Hercules de Saxonia, &c., speaks well of it. Crato will not
approve this; it and both hellebores, he saith, are no better than poison.
Victor Trincavelius, _lib. 2. cap. 14_, found it in his experience,
[4219]"to be very noisome, to trouble the stomach, and hurt their bodies
that take it overmuch."

Black hellebore, that most renowned plant, and famous purger of melancholy,
which all antiquity so much used and admired, was first found out by
Melanpodius a shepherd, as Pliny records, _lib. 25. cap. 5._ [4220]who,
seeing it to purge his goats when they raved, practised it upon Elige and
Calene, King Praetus' daughters, that ruled in Arcadia, near the fountain
Clitorius, and restored them to their former health. In Hippocrates's time
it was in only request, insomuch that he writ a book of it, a fragment of
which remains yet. Theophrastus, [4221]Galen, Pliny, Caelius Aurelianus, as
ancient as Galen, _lib. 1, cap. 6._ Aretus _lib. 1. cap. 5._ Oribasius
_lib. 7. collect._ a famous Greek, Aetius _ser. 3. cap. 112 & 113 p._
Aegineta, Galen's Ape, _lib. 7. cap. 4._ Actuarius, Trallianus _lib. 5.
cap. 15._ Cornelius Celsus only remaining of the old Latins, _lib. 3. cap.
23_, extol and admire this excellent plant; and it was generally so much
esteemed of the ancients for this disease amongst the rest, that they sent
all such as were crazed, or that doted, to the Anticyrae, or to Phocis in
Achaia, to be purged, where this plant was in abundance to be had. In
Strabo's time it was an ordinary voyage, _Naviget Anticyras_; a common
proverb among the Greeks and Latins, to bid a dizzard or a mad man go take
hellebore; as in Lucian, Menippus to Tantalus, _Tantale desipis, helleboro
epoto tibi opus est, eoque sane meraco_, thou art out of thy little wit, O
Tantalus, and must needs drink hellebore, and that without mixture.
Aristophanes _in Vespis_, drink hellebore, &c. and Harpax in the [4222]
Comoedian, told Simo and Ballio, two doting fellows, that they had need to
be purged with this plant. When that proud Menacrates [Greek: o zeus], had
writ an arrogant letter to Philip of Macedon, he sent back no other answer
but this, _Consulo tibi ut ad Anticyram te conferas_, noting thereby that
he was crazed, _atque ellebore indigere_, had much need of a good purge.
Lilius Geraldus saith, that Hercules, after all his mad pranks upon his
wife and children, was perfectly cured by a purge of hellebore, which an
Anticyrian administered unto him. They that were sound commonly took it to
quicken their wits, (as Ennis of old, [4223]_Qui non nisi potus ad
arma - prosiluit dicenda_, and as our poets drink sack to improve their
inventions (I find it so registered by Agellius _lib. 17. cap. 15._)
Cameades the academic, when he was to write against Zeno the stoic, purged
himself with hellebore first, which [4224]Petronius puts upon Chrysippus.
In such esteem it continued for many ages, till at length Mesue and some
other Arabians began to reject and reprehend it, upon whose authority for
many following lustres, it was much debased and quite out of request, held
to be poison and no medicine; and is still oppugned to this day by [4225]
Crato and some junior physicians. Their reasons are, because Aristotle _l.
1. de plant. c. 3._ said, henbane and hellebore were poison; and Alexander
Aphrodiseus, in the preface of his problems, gave out, that (speaking of
hellebore) [4226]"Quails fed on that which was poison to men." Galen. _l.
6. Epid. com. 5. Text. 35._ confirms as much: [4227]Constantine the emperor
in his Geoponicks, attributes no other virtue to it, than to kill mice and
rats, flies and mouldwarps, and so Mizaldus, Nicander of old, Gervinus,
Sckenkius, and some other Neoterics that have written of poisons, speak of
hellebore in a chief place. [4228]Nicholas Leonicus hath a story of Solon,
that besieging, I know not what city, steeped hellebore in a spring of
water, which by pipes was conveyed into the middle of the town, and so
either poisoned, or else made them so feeble and weak by purging, that they
were not able to bear arms. Notwithstanding all these cavils and
objections, most of our late writers do much approve of it. [4229]
Gariopontus _lib. 1. cap. 13._ Codronchus _com. de helleb._ Fallopius _lib.
de med. purg. simpl. cap. 69. et consil. 15._ Trincavelii, Montanus 239.
Frisemelica _consil. 14._ Hercules de Saxonia, so that it be opportunely
given. Jacobus de Dondis, Agg. Amatus, Lucet. _cent. 66._ Godef. Stegius
_cap. 13._ Hollerius, and all our herbalists subscribe. Fernelius _meth.
med. lib. 5. cap. 16._ "confesseth it to be a [4230] terrible purge and
hard to take, yet well given to strong men, and such as have able bodies."
P. Forestus and Capivaccius forbid it to be taken in substance, but allow
it in decoction or infusion, both which ways P. Monavius approves above all
others, _Epist. 231. Scoltzii_, Jacchinus in _9. Rhasis_, commends a
receipt of his own preparing; Penottus another of his chemically prepared,
Evonimus another. Hildesheim _spicel. 2. de mel._ hath many examples how it
should be used, with diversity of receipts. Heurnius _lib. 7. prax. med.
cap. 14._ "calls it an [4231]innocent medicine howsoever, if it be well
prepared." The root of it is only in use, which may be kept many years, and
by some given in substance, as by Fallopius and Brassivola amongst the
rest, who [4232]brags that he was the first that restored it again to its
use, and tells a story how he cured one Melatasta, a madman, that was
thought to be possessed, in the Duke of Ferrara's court, with one purge of
black hellebore in substance: the receipt is there to be seen; his
excrements were like ink, [4233]he perfectly healed at once; Vidus Vidius,
a Dutch physician, will not admit of it in substance, to whom most
subscribe, but as before, in the decoction, infusion, or which is all in
all, in the extract, which he prefers before the rest, and calls _suave
medicamentum_, a sweet medicine, an easy, that may be securely given to
women, children, and weaklings. Baracellus, _horto geniali_, terms it
_maximae praestantia medicamentum_, a medicine of great worth and note.
Quercetan in his _Spagir Phar_. and many others, tell wonders of the
extract. Paracelsus, above all the rest, is the greatest admirer of this
plant; and especially the extract, he calls it _Theriacum, terrestre
Balsamum_, another treacle, a terrestrial balm, _instar omnium_, "all in
all, the [4234]sole and last refuge to cure this malady, the gout,
epilepsy, leprosy," &c. If this will not help, no physic in the world can
but mineral, it is the upshot of all. Matthiolus laughs at those that
except against it, and though some abhor it out of the authority of Mesue,
and dare not adventure to prescribe it, [4235]"yet I" (saith he) "have
happily used it six hundred times without offence, and communicated it to
divers worthy physicians, who have given me great thanks for it." Look for
receipts, dose, preparation, and other cautions concerning this simple, in
him, Brassivola, Baracelsus, Codronchus, and the rest.

SUBSECT. III. - _Compound Purgers_.

Compound medicines which purge melancholy, are either taken in the superior
or inferior parts: superior at mouth or nostrils. At the mouth swallowed or
not swallowed: If swallowed liquid or solid: liquid, as compound wine of
hellebore, scilla or sea-onion, senna, _Vinum Scilliticum, Helleboratum_,
which [4236]Quercetan so much applauds "for melancholy and madness, either
inwardly taken, or outwardly applied to the head, with little pieces of
linen dipped warm in it." _Oxymel. Scilliticum, Syrupus Helleboratus_ major
and minor in Quercetan, and _Syrupus Genistae_ for hypochondriacal
melancholy in the same author, compound syrup of succory, of fumitory,
polypody, &c. Heurnius his purging cock-broth. Some except against these
syrups, as appears by [4237]Udalrinus Leonoras his epistle to Matthiolus,
as most pernicious, and that out of Hippocrates, _cocta movere, et
medicari, non cruda_, no raw things to be used in physic; but this in the
following epistle is exploded and soundly confuted by Matthiolus: many
juleps, potions, receipts, are composed of these, as you shall find in
Hildesheim _spicel. 2._ Heurnius _lib. 2. cap. 14._ George Sckenkius _Ital.
med. prax._ &c.

Solid purges are confections, electuaries, pills by themselves, or compound
with others, as _de lapide lazulo, armeno, pil. indae, of fumitory_, &c.
Confection of Hamech, which though most approve, Solenander _sec. 5.
consil. 22._ bitterly inveighs against, so doth Rondoletius _Pharmacop.
officina_, Fernelius and others; diasena, diapolypodium, diacassia,
diacatholicon, Wecker's electuary de Epithymo, Ptolemy's hierologadium, of
which divers receipts are daily made.

Aetius _22. 23._ commends _Hieram Ruffi._ Trincavelius _consil. 12. lib.
4._ approves of hiera; _non, inquit, invenio melius medicamentum_, I find
no better medicine, he saith. Heurnius adds _pil. aggregat. pills de
Epithymo. pil. Ind._ Mesue describes in the _Florentine Antidotary_,
_Pilulae sine quibus esse nolo, Pilulae, Cochics, cum Helleboro, Pil.
Arabicae, Faetida, de quinque generibus mirabolanorum_, &c. More proper to
melancholy, not excluding in the meantime, turbith, manna, rhubarb, agaric,
elescophe, &c. which are not so proper to this humour. For, as Montaltus
holds _cap. 30._ and Montanus _cholera etiam purganda, quod atrae, sit
pabulum_, choler is to be purged because it feeds the other: and some are
of an opinion, as Erasistratus and Asclepiades maintained of old, against
whom Galen disputes, [4238]"that no physic doth purge one humour alone, but
all alike or what is next." Most therefore in their receipts and magistrals
which are coined here, make a mixture of several simples and compounds to
purge all humours in general as well as this. Some rather use potions than
pills to purge this humour, because that as Heurnius and Crato observe,
_hic succus a sicco remedio agre trahitur_, this juice is not so easily
drawn by dry remedies, and as Montanus adviseth _25 cons._ "All
[4239]drying medicines are to be repelled, as aloe, hiera," and all pills
whatsoever, because the disease is dry of itself.

I might here insert many receipts of prescribed potions, boles, &c. The
doses of these, but that they are common in every good physician, and that
I am loath to incur the censure of Forestus, _lib. 3. cap. 6. de urinis_,
[4240]"against those that divulge and publish medicines in their
mother-tongue," and lest I should give occasion thereby to some ignorant
reader to practise on himself, without the consent of a good physician.

Such as are not swallowed, but only kept in the mouth, are gargarisms used
commonly after a purge, when the body is soluble and loose. Or
apophlegmatisms, masticatories, to be held and chewed in the mouth, which
are gentle, as hyssop, origan, pennyroyal, thyme, mustard; strong, as
pellitory, pepper, ginger, &c.

Such as are taken into the nostrils, errhina are liquid or dry, juice of
pimpernel, onions, &c., castor, pepper, white hellebore, &c. To these you
may add odoraments, perfumes, and suffumigations, &c.

Taken into the inferior parts are clysters strong or weak, suppositories of
Castilian soap, honey boiled to a consistence; or stronger of scammony,
hellebore, &c.

These are all used, and prescribed to this malady upon several occasions,
as shall be shown in its place.

_Chirurgical Remedies_.

In letting of blood three main circumstances are to be considered, [4241]
"Who, how much, when." That is, that it be done to such a one as may endure
it, or to whom it may belong, that he be of a competent age, not too young,
nor too old, overweak, fat, or lean, sore laboured, but to such as have
need, are full of bad blood, noxious humours, and may be eased by it.

The quantity depends upon the party's habit of body, as he is strong or
weak, full or empty, may spare more or less.

In the morning is the fittest time: some doubt whether it be best fasting,
or full, whether the moon's motion or aspect of planets be to be observed;
some affirm, some deny, some grant in acute, but not in chronic diseases,
whether before or after physic. 'Tis Heurnius' aphorism _a phlebotomia
auspicandum esse curiationem, non a pharmacia_, you must begin with
bloodletting and not physic; some except this peculiar malady. But what do
I? Horatius Augenius, a physician of Padua, hath lately writ 17 books of
this subject, Jobertus, &c.

Particular kinds of bloodletting in use [4242]are three, first is that
opening a vein in the arm with a sharp knife, or in the head, knees, or any
other parts, as shall be thought fit.

Cupping-glasses with or without scarification, _ocyssime compescunt_, saith
Fernelius, they work presently, and are applied to several parts, to divert
humours, aches, winds, &c.

Horseleeches are much used in melancholy, applied especially to the
haemorrhoids. Horatius Augenius, _lib. 10. cap. 10._ Platerus _de mentis
alienat. cap. 3._ Altomarus, Piso, and many others, prefer them before any
evacuations in this kind.

[4243]Cauteries, or searing with hot irons, combustions, borings, lancings,
which, because they are terrible, _Dropax_ and _Sinapismus_ are invented by
plasters to raise blisters, and eating medicines of pitch, mustard-seed,
and the like.

Issues still to be kept open, made as the former, and applied in and to
several parts, have their use here on divers occasions, as shall be shown.


SUBSECT. I. - _Particular Cure of the three several Kinds; of Head

The general cures thus briefly examined and discussed, it remains now to
apply these medicines to the three particular species or kinds, that,
according to the several parts affected, each man may tell in some sort how
to help or ease himself. I will treat of head melancholy first, in which,
as in all other good cures, we must begin with diet, as a matter of most
moment, able oftentimes of itself to work this effect. I have read, saith
Laurentius, _cap. 8. de Melanch_. that in old diseases which have gotten
the upper hand or a habit, the manner of living is to more purpose, than
whatsoever can be drawn out of the most precious boxes of the apothecaries.
This diet, as I have said, is not only in choice of meat and drink, but of
all those other non-natural things. Let air be clear and moist most part:
diet moistening, of good juice, easy of digestion, and not windy: drink
clear, and well brewed, not too strong, nor too small. "Make a melancholy
man fat," as [4244]Rhasis saith, "and thou hast finished the cure."
Exercise not too remiss, nor too violent. Sleep a little more than
ordinary. [4245]Excrements daily to be voided by art or nature; and which
Fernelius enjoins his patient, _consil. 44_, above the rest, to avoid all
passions and perturbations of the mind. Let him not be alone or idle (in
any kind of melancholy), but still accompanied with such friends and
familiars he most affects, neatly dressed, washed, and combed, according to
his ability at least, in clean sweet linen, spruce, handsome, decent, and
good apparel; for nothing sooner dejects a man than want, squalor, and
nastiness, foul, or old clothes out of fashion. Concerning the medicinal
part, he that will satisfy himself at large (in this precedent of diet) and
see all at once the whole cure and manner of it in every distinct species,
let him consult with Gordonius, Valescus, with Prosper Calenius, _lib. de
atra bile ad Card._ Caesium, Laurentius, _cap. 8. et 9. de mela._ Aelian
Montaltus, _de mel. cap. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30._ Donat. ab Altomari, _cap. 7.
artis med_. Hercules de Saxonia, _in Panth. cap. 7. et Tract. ejus
peculiar. de melan. per Bolzetam, edit. Venetiis 1620. cap. 17. 18. 19._
Savanarola, _Rub. 82. Tract. 8. cap. 1._ Sckenkius, _in prax. curat. Ital.
med_. Heurnius, _cap. 12. de morb_. Victorius Faventius, _pract. Magn. et
Empir_. Hildesheim, _Spicel. 2. de man. et mel._ Fel. Plater, Stockerus,
Bruel. P. Baverus, Forestus, Fuchsius, Capivaccius, Rondoletius, Jason
Pratensis, Sullust. Salvian. _de remed. lib. 2. cap. 1._ Jacchinus, _in 9.
Rhasis_, Lod. Mercatus, _de Inter. morb. cur. lib. 1. cap. 17._ Alexan.
Messaria, _pract. med. lib. 1. cap. 21. de mel_. Piso. Hollerius, &c. that
have culled out of those old Greeks, Arabians, and Latins, whatsoever is
observable or fit to be used. Or let him read those counsels and
consultations of Hugo Senensis, _consil. 13. et 14._ Reinerus Solenander,
_consil. 6. sec. 1. et consil. 3. sec. 3._ Crato, _consil. 16. lib. 1._
Montanus 20. 22. and his following counsels, Laelius a Fonte Egubinus,
_consult. 44. 69. 77. 125. 129. 142._ Fernelius, _consil. 44. 45. 46._ Jul.
Caesar Claudinus, Mercurialis, Frambesarius, Sennertus, &c. Wherein he
shall find particular receipts, the whole method, preparatives, purgers,
correctors, averters, cordials in great variety and abundance: out of
which, because every man cannot attend to read or peruse them, I will
collect for the benefit of the reader, some few more notable medicines.

SUBSECT. II. - _Bloodletting_.

Phlebotomy is promiscuously used before and after physic, commonly before,
and upon occasion is often reiterated, if there be any need at least of it.
For Galen, and many others, make a doubt of bleeding at all in this kind of
head-melancholy. If the malady, saith Piso, _cap. 23._ and Altomarus, _cap.
7._ Fuchsius, _cap. 33._ [4246]"shall proceed primarily from the
misaffected brain, the patient in such case shall not need at all to bleed,
except the blood otherwise abound, the veins be full, inflamed blood, and
the party ready to run mad." In immaterial melancholy, which especially
comes from a cold distemperature of spirits, Hercules de Saxonia, _cap.
17._ will not admit of phlebotomy; Laurentius, _cap. 9_, approves it out of
the authority of the Arabians; but as Mesue, Rhasis, Alexander appoint,
[4247]"especially in the head," to open the veins of the forehead, nose and
ears is good. They commonly set cupping-glasses on the party's shoulders,
having first scarified the place, they apply horseleeches on the head, and
in all melancholy diseases, whether essential or accidental, they cause the
haemorrhoids to be opened, having the eleventh aphorism of the sixth book
of Hippocrates for their ground and warrant, which saith, "That in
melancholy and mad men, the varicose tumour or haemorrhoids appearing doth
heal the same." Valescus prescribes bloodletting in all three kinds, whom
Sallust. Salvian follows. [4248]"If the blood abound, which is discerned by
the fullness of the veins, his precedent diet, the party's laughter, age,
&c., begin with the median or middle vein of the arm; if the blood be ruddy
and clear, stop it, but if black in the spring time, or a good season, or
thick, let it run, according to the party's strength: and some eight or
twelve days after, open the head vein, and the veins in the forehead, or
provoke it out of the nostrils, or cupping-glasses," &c. Trallianus allows
of this, [4249]"If there have been any suppression or stopping of blood at
nose, or haemorrhoids, or women's months, then to open a vein in the head
or about the ankles." Yet he doth hardly approve of this course, if
melancholy be situated in the head alone, or in any other dotage,
[4250]"except it primarily proceed from blood, or that the malady be
increased by it; for bloodletting refrigerates and dries up, except the
body be very full of blood, and a kind of ruddiness in the face." Therefore
I conclude with Areteus, [4251]"before you let blood, deliberate of it,"
and well consider all circumstances belonging to it.

SUBSECT. III. - _Preparatives and Purgers_.

After bloodletting we must proceed to other medicines; first prepare, and
then purge, _Augeae stabulum purgare_, make the body clean before we hope
to do any good. Walter Bruel would have a practitioner begin first with a
clyster of his, which he prescribes before bloodletting: the common sort,
as Mercurialis, Montaltus _cap. 30._ &c. proceed from lenitives to
preparatives, and so to purgers. Lenitives are well known, _electuarium
lenitivum, diaphenicum diacatholicon_, &c. Preparatives are usually syrups
of borage, bugloss, apples, fumitory, thyme and epithyme, with double as
much of the same decoction or distilled water, or of the waters of bugloss,
balm, hops, endive, scolopendry, fumitory, &c. or these sodden in whey,
which must be reiterated and used for many days together. Purges come last,
"which must not be used at all, if the malady may be otherwise helped,"
because they weaken nature and dry so much, and in giving of them, [4252]
"we must begin with the gentlest first." Some forbid all hot medicines, as
Alexander, and Salvianus, &c. _Ne insaniores inde fiant_, hot medicines
increase the disease [4253]"by drying too much." Purge downward rather than
upward, use potions rather than pills, and when you begin physic, persevere
and continue in a course; for as one observes, [4254]_movere et non educere
in omnibus malum est_; to stir up the humour (as one purge commonly doth)
and not to prosecute, doth more harm than good. They must continue in a
course of physic, yet not so that they tire and oppress nature, _danda
quies naturae_, they must now and then remit, and let nature have some
rest. The most gentle purges to begin with, are [4255]senna, cassia,
epithyme, myrabolanea, catholicon: if these prevail not, we may proceed to
stronger, as the confection of hamech, pil. Indae, fumitoriae, de
assaieret, of lapis armenus and lazuli, diasena. Or if pills be too dry;
[4256]some prescribe both hellebores in the last place, amongst the rest
Aretus, [4257]"because this disease will resist a gentle medicine."
Laurentius and Hercules de Saxonia would have antimony tried last, "if the
[4258]party be strong, and it warily given." [4259]Trincavelius prefers
hierologodium, to whom Francis Alexander in his _Apol. rad. 5._ subscribes,
a very good medicine they account it. But Crato in a counsel of his, for
the duke of Bavaria's chancellor, wholly rejects it.

I find a vast chaos of medicines, a confusion of receipts and magistrals,
amongst writers, appropriated to this disease; some of the chiefest I will
rehearse. [4260]To be seasick first is very good at seasonable times.
Helleborismus Matthioli, with which he vaunts and boasts he did so many
several cures, [4261]"I never gave it" (saith he), "but after once or
twice, by the help of God, they were happily cured." The manner of making
it he sets down at large in his third book of Epist. to George Hankshius a
physician. Walter Bruel, and Heurnius, make mention of it with great
approbation; so doth Sckenkius in his memorable cures, and experimental
medicines, _cen. 6. obser. 37._ That famous Helleborisme of Montanus, which
he so often repeats in his consultations and counsels, as _28. pro. melan.
sacerdote, et consil. 148. pro hypochondriaco_, and cracks, [4262] "to be a
most sovereign remedy for all melancholy persons, which he hath often given
without offence, and found by long experience and observations to be such."

Quercetan prefers a syrup of hellebore in his _Spagirica Pharmac._ and
Hellebore's extract _cap. 5._ of his invention likewise ("a most safe
medicine and not unfit to be given children") before all remedies
whatsoever. [4263]

Paracelsus, in his book of black hellebore, admits this medicine, but as it
is prepared by him. [4264]"It is most certain" (saith he) "that the virtue
of this herb is great, and admirable in effect, and little differing from
balm itself; and he that knows well how to make use of it, hath more art
than all their books contain, or all the doctors in Germany can show."

Aelianus Montaltus in his exquisite work _de morb. capitis, cap. 31. de
mel._ sets a special receipt of his own, which, in his practice [4265]"he
fortunately used; because it is but short I will set it down."

"[Symbol: Rx]. Syrupe de pomis [Symbol: Ounce]ij, aquae borag.
[Symbol: Ounce]iiij. Ellebori nigri per noctem infusi in ligatura 6
vel 8 gr. mane facta collatura exhibe."

Other receipts of the same to this purpose you shall find in him. Valescus
admires _pulvis Hali_, and Jason Pratensis after him: the confection of
which our new London Pharmacopoeia hath lately revived. [4266]"Put case"

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