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Unto the heart we may do well to apply bags, epithems, ointments, of which
Laurentius, _c. 9. de melan._ gives examples. Bruel prescribes an epithem
for the heart, of bugloss, borage, water-lily, violet waters, sweet-wine,
balm leaves, nutmegs, cloves, &c.

For the belly, make a fomentation of oil, [4339]in which the seeds of
cumin, rue, carrots, dill, have been boiled.

Baths are of wonderful great force in this malady, much admired by [4340]
Galen, [4341]Aetius, Rhasis, &c., of sweet water, in which is boiled the
leaves of mallows, roses, violets, water-lilies, wether's-head, flowers of
bugloss, camomile, melilot, &c. Guianer, _cap. 8. tract. 15_, would have
them used twice a day, and when they came forth of the baths, their back
bones to be anointed with oil of almonds, violets, nymphea, fresh capon
grease, &c.

Amulets and things to be borne about, I find prescribed, taxed by some,
approved by Renodeus, Platerus, (_amuleta inquit non negligenda_) and
others; look for them in Mizaldus, Porta, Albertus, &c. Bassardus
Viscontinus, _ant. philos._ commends hypericon, or St. John's wort gathered
on a [4342]Friday in the hour of "Jupiter, when it comes to his effectual
operation (that is about the full moon in July); so gathered and borne, or
hung about the neck, it mightily helps this affection, and drives away all
fantastical spirits." [4343]Philes, a Greek author that flourished in the
time of Michael Paleologus, writes that a sheep or kid's skin, whom a wolf
worried, [4344]_Haedus inhumani raptus ab ore lupi_, ought not at all to be
worn about a man, "because it causeth palpitation of the heart," not for
any fear, but a secret virtue which amulets have. A ring made of the hoof
of an ass's right fore foot carried about, &c. I say with [4345]Renodeus,
they are not altogether to be rejected. Paeony doth cure epilepsy; precious
stones most diseases; [4346]a wolf's dung borne with one helps the colic,
[4347]a spider an ague, &c. Being in the country in the vacation time not
many years since, at Lindley in Leicestershire, my father's house, I first
observed this amulet of a spider in a nut-shell lapped in silk, &c., so
applied for an ague by [4348]my mother; whom, although I knew to have
excellent skill in chirurgery, sore eyes, aches, &c., and such experimental
medicines, as all the country where she dwelt can witness, to have done
many famous and good cures upon diverse poor folks, that were otherwise
destitute of help: yet among all other experiments, this methought was most
absurd and ridiculous, I could see no warrant for it. _Quid aranea cum
febre_? For what antipathy? till at length rambling amongst authors (as
often I do) I found this very medicine in Dioscorides, approved by
Matthiolus, repeated by Alderovandus, _cap. de Aranea, lib. de insectis_, I
began to have a better opinion of it, and to give more credit to amulets,
when I saw it in some parties answer to experience. Some medicines are to
be exploded, that consist of words, characters, spells, and charms, which
can do no good at all, but out of a strong conceit, as Pomponatius proves;
or the devil's policy, who is the first founder and teacher of them.

SUBSECT. VI. - _Correctors of Accidents to procure Sleep. Against fearful
Dreams, Redness, &c._

When you have used all good means and helps of alteratives, averters,
diminutives, yet there will be still certain accidents to be corrected and
amended, as waking, fearful dreams, flushing in the face to some ruddiness,

Waking, by reason of their continual cares, fears, sorrows, dry brains, is
a symptom that much crucifies melancholy men, and must therefore be
speedily helped, and sleep by all means procured, which sometimes is a
sufficient [4349]remedy of itself without any other physic. Sckenkius, in
his observations, hath an example of a woman that was so cured. The means
to procure it, are inward or outward. Inwardly taken, are simples, or
compounds; simples, as poppy, nymphea, violets, roses, lettuce, mandrake,
henbane, nightshade or solanum, saffron, hemp-seed, nutmegs, willows, with
their seeds, juice, decoctions, distilled waters, &c. Compounds are syrups,
or opiates, syrup of poppy, violets, verbasco, which are commonly taken
with distilled waters.

"[Symbol: Rx] diacodii [Symbol: Ounce]j. diascordii [Symbol: Dram]ß
aquae lactucae [Symbol: Ounce]iijß mista fiat potio ad horam somni

Requies Nicholai, Philonium Romanum, Triphera magna, pilulae, de
Cynoglossa, Dioscordium, Laudanum Paracelsi, Opium, are in use, &c. Country
folks commonly make a posset of hemp-seed, which Fuchsius in his herbal so
much discommends; yet I have seen the good effect, and it may be used where
better medicines are not to be had.

Laudanum Paracelsi is prescribed in two or three grains, with a dram of
Diascordium, which Oswald. Crollius commends. Opium itself is most part
used outwardly, to smell to in a ball, though commonly so taken by the
Turks to the same quantity [4350]for a cordial, and at Goa in, the Indies;
the dose 40 or 50 grains.

Rulandus calls Requiem Nicholai _ultimum refugium_, the last refuge; but of
this and the rest look for peculiar receipts in Victorius Faventinus, _cap.
de phrensi_. Heurnius _cap. de mania_. Hildesheim _spicel. 4. de somno et
vigil_. &c. Outwardly used, as oil of nutmegs by extraction, or expression
with rosewater to anoint the temples, oils of poppy, nenuphar, mandrake,
purslan, violets, all to the same purpose.

Montan. _consil. 24 & 25._ much commends odoraments of opium, vinegar, and
rosewater. Laurentius _cap. 9._ prescribes pomanders and nodules; see the
receipts in him; Codronchus [4351]wormwood to smell to.

_Unguentum Alabastritum, populeum_ are used to anoint the temples,
nostrils, or if they be too weak, they mix saffron and opium. Take a grain
or two of opium, and dissolve it with three or four drops of rosewater in a
spoon, and after mingle with it as much _Unguentum populeum_ as a nut, use
it as before: or else take half a dram of opium, _Unguentum populeum_, oil
of nenuphar, rosewater, rose-vinegar, of each half an ounce, with as much
virgin wax as a nut, anoint your temples with some of it, _ad horam somni_.

Sacks of wormwood, [4352]mandrake, [4353]henbane, roses made like pillows
and laid under the patient's head, are mentioned by [4354]Cardan and
Mizaldus, "to anoint the soles of the feet with the fat of a dormouse, the
teeth with ear wax of a dog, swine's gall, hare's ears:" charms, &c.

Frontlets are well known to every good wife, rosewater and vinegar, with a
little woman's milk, and nutmegs grated upon a rose-cake applied to both

For an emplaster, take of castorium a dram and a half, of opium half a
scruple, mixed both together with a little water of life, make two small
plasters thereof, and apply them to the temples.

Rulandus _cent. 1. cur. 17. cent. 3. cur. 94._ prescribes epithems and
lotions of the head, with the decoction of flowers of nymphea,
violet-leaves, mandrake roots, henbane, white poppy. Herc. de Saxonia,
_stillicidia_, or droppings, &c. Lotions of the feet do much avail of the
said herbs: by these means, saith Laurentius, I think you may procure sleep
to the most melancholy man in the world. Some use horseleeches behind the
ears, and apply opium to the place.

[4355]Bayerus _lib. 2. c. 13._ sets down some remedies against fearful
dreams, and such as walk and talk in their sleep. Baptista Porta _Mag. nat.
l. 2. c. 6._ to procure pleasant dreams and quiet rest, would have you take
hippoglossa, or the herb horsetongue, balm, to use them or their distilled
waters after supper, &c. Such men must not eat beans, peas, garlic, onions,
cabbage, venison, hare, use black wines, or any meat hard of digestion at
supper, or lie on their backs, &c.

_Rusticus pudor_, bashfulness, flushing in the face, high colour,
ruddiness, are common grievances, which much torture many melancholy men,
when they meet a man, or come in [4356]company of their betters, strangers,
after a meal, or if they drink a cup of wine or strong drink, they are as
red and fleet, and sweat as if they had been at a mayor's feast,
_praesertim si metus accesserit_, it exceeds, [4357]they think every man
observes, takes notice of it: and fear alone will effect it, suspicion
without any other cause. Sckenkius _observ. med. lib. 1._ speaks of a
waiting gentlewoman in the Duke of Savoy's court, that was so much offended
with it, that she kneeled down to him, and offered Biarus, a physician, all
that she had to be cured of it. And 'tis most true, that [4358]Antony
Ludovicus saith in his book _de Pudore_, "bashfulness either hurts or
helps," such men I am sure it hurts. If it proceed from suspicion or fear,
[4359]Felix Plater prescribes no other remedy but to reject and contemn it:
_Id populus curat scilicet_, as a [4360]worthy physician in our town said
to a friend of mine in like case, complaining without a cause, suppose one
look red, what matter is it, make light of it, who observes it?

If it trouble at or after meals, (as [4361]Jobertus observes _med. pract.
l. 1. c. 7._) after a little exercise or stirring, for many are then hot
and red in the face, or if they do nothing at all, especially women; he
would have them let blood in both arms, first one, then another, two or
three days between, if blood abound; to use frictions of the other parts,
feet especially, and washing of them, because of that consent which is
between the head and the feet. [4362]And withal to refrigerate the face, by
washing it often with rose, violet, nenuphar, lettuce, lovage waters, and
the like: but the best of all is that _lac virginale_, or strained liquor
of litargy: it is diversely prepared; by Jobertus thus; _[Symbol: Rx]
lithar. argent. unc. j cerussae candidissimae, [Symbol: Dram]jjj. caphurae,
[Symbol: Scruple]jj. dissolvantur aquarum solani, lactucae, et nenupharis
ana unc. jjj. aceti vini albi. unc. jj. aliquot horas resideat, deinde
transmittatur per philt. aqua servetur in vase vitreo, ac ea bis terve
facies quotidie irroretur_. [4363]Quercetan _spagir. phar. cap. 6._
commends the water of frog's spawn for ruddiness in the face. [4364]Crato
_consil. 283. Scoltzii_ would fain have them use all summer the condite
flowers of succory, strawberry water, roses (cupping-glasses are good for
the time), _consil. 285. et 286._ and to defecate impure blood with the
infusion of senna, savory, balm water. [4365]Hollerius knew one cured alone
with the use of succory boiled, and drunk for five months, every morning in
the summer. [4366]It is good overnight to anoint the face with hare's
blood, and in the morning to wash it with strawberry and cowslip water, the
juice of distilled lemons, juice of cucumbers, or to use the seeds of
melons, or kernels of peaches beaten small, or the roots of Aron, and mixed
with wheat bran to bake it in an oven, and to crumble it in strawberry
water, [4367] or to put fresh cheese curds to a red face.

If it trouble them at meal times that flushing, as oft it doth, with
sweating or the like, they must avoid all violent passions and actions, as
laughing, &c., strong drink, and drink very little, [4368]one draught,
saith Crato, and that about the midst of their meal; avoid at all times
indurate salt, and especially spice and windy meat.

[4369]Crato prescribes the condite fruit of wild rose, to a nobleman his
patient, to be taken before dinner or supper, to the quantity of a
chestnut. It is made of sugar, as that of quinces. The decoction of the
roots of sowthistle before meat, by the same author is much approved. To
eat of a baked apple some advice, or of a preserved quince, cuminseed
prepared with meat instead of salt, to keep down fumes: not to study or to
be intentive after meals.

"[Symbol: Rx]. Nucleorum persic. seminis melonum ana unc. [Symbol:
Scruple]ß aquae fragrorum l. ij. misce, utatur mane."

[4370]To apply cupping glasses to the shoulders is very good. For the other
kind of ruddiness which is settled in the face with pimples, &c., because
it pertains not to my subject, I will not meddle with it. I refer you to
Crato's counsels, Arnoldus _lib. 1. breviar. cap. 39. 1._ Rulande, Peter
Forestus de Fuco, _lib. 31. obser. 2._ To Platerus, Mercurialis, Ulmus,
Rondoletius, Heurnius, Menadous, and others that have written largely of

Those other grievances and symptoms of headache, palpitation of heart,
_Vertigo deliquium_, &c., which trouble many melancholy men, because they
are copiously handled apart in every physician, I do voluntarily omit.

_Cure of Melancholy over all the Body_.

Where the melancholy blood possesseth the whole body with the brain, [4371]
it is best to begin with bloodletting. The Greeks prescribe the [4372]
median or middle vein to be opened, and so much blood to be taken away as
the patient may well spare, and the cut that is made must be wide enough.
The Arabians hold it fittest to be taken from that arm on which side there
is more pain and heaviness in the head: if black blood issue forth, bleed
on; if it be clear and good, let it be instantly suppressed, [4373]
"because the malice of melancholy is much corrected by the goodness of the
blood." If the party's strength will not admit much evacuation in this kind
at once, it must be assayed again and again: if it may not be conveniently
taken from the arm, it must be taken from the knees and ankles, especially
to such men or women whose haemorrhoids or months have been stopped. [4374]
If the malady continue, it is not amiss to evacuate in a part in the
forehead, and to virgins in the ankles, who are melancholy for love
matters; so to widows that are much grieved and troubled with sorrow and
cares: for bad blood flows in the heart, and so crucifies the mind. The
haemorrhoids are to be opened with an instrument or horseleeches, &c. See
more in Montaltus, _cap. 29._ [4375]Sckenkius hath an example of one that
was cured by an accidental wound in his thigh, much bleeding freed him from
melancholy. Diet, diminutives, alteratives, cordials, correctors as before,
intermixed as occasion serves, [4376]"all their study must be to make a
melancholy man fat, and then the cure is ended." Diuretics, or medicines to
procure urine, are prescribed by some in this kind, hot and cold: hot where
the heat of the liver doth not forbid; cold where the heat of the liver is
very great: [4377]amongst hot are parsley roots, lovage, fennel, &c.: cold,
melon seeds, &c., with whey of goat's milk, which is the common conveyer.

To purge and [4378]purify the blood, use sowthistle, succory, senna,
endive, carduus benedictus, dandelion, hop, maidenhair, fumitory, bugloss,
borage, &c., with their juice, decoctions, distilled waters, syrups, &c.

Oswaldus, Crollius, _basil Chym._ much admires salt of corals in this case,
and Aetius, _tetrabib. ser. 2. cap. 114._ Hieram Archigenis, which is an
excellent medicine to purify the blood, "for all melancholy affections,
falling sickness, none to be compared to it."


SUBSECT. I. - _Cure of Hypochondriacal Melancholy_.

In this cure, as in the rest, is especially required the rectification of
those six non-natural things above all, as good diet, which Montanus,
_consil. 27._ enjoins a French nobleman, "to have an especial care of it,
without which all other remedies are in vain." Bloodletting is not to be
used, except the patient's body be very full of blood, and that it be
derived from the liver and spleen to the stomach and his vessels, then
[4379]to draw it back, to cut the inner vein of either arm, some say the
salvatella, and if the malady be continuate, [4380]to open a vein in the

Preparatives and alteratives may be used as before, saving that there must
be respect had as well to the liver, spleen, stomach, hypochondries, as to
the heart and brain. To comfort the [4381]stomach and inner parts against
wind and obstructions, by Areteus, Galen, Aetius, Aurelianus, &c., and many
latter writers, are still prescribed the decoctions of wormwood, centaury,
pennyroyal, betony sodden in whey, and daily drunk: many have been cured by
this medicine alone.

Prosper Altinus and some others as much magnify the water of Nile against
this malady, an especial good remedy for windy melancholy. For which reason
belike Ptolemeus Philadelphus, when he married his daughter Berenice to the
king of Assyria (as Celsus, _lib. 2._ records), _magnis impensis Nili aquam
afferri jussit_, to his great charge caused the water of Nile to be carried
with her, and gave command, that during her life she should use no other
drink. I find those that commend use of apples, in splenetic and this kind
of melancholy (lamb's-wool some call it), which howsoever approved, must
certainly be corrected of cold rawness and wind.

Codronchus in his book _de sale absyn._ magnifies the oil and salt of
wormwood above all other remedies, [4382]"which works better and speedier
than any simple whatsoever, and much to be preferred before all those
fulsome decoctions and infusions, which must offend by reason of their
quantity; this alone in a small measure taken, expels wind, and that most
forcibly, moves urine, cleanseth the stomach of all gross humours,
crudities, helps appetite," &c. Arnoldus hath a wormwood wine which he
would have used, which every pharmacopoeia speaks of.

Diminutives and purges may [4383]be taken as before, of hiera, manna,
cassia, which Montanus _consil. 230._ for an Italian abbot, in this kind
prefers before all other simples, [4384]"And these must be often used,
still abstaining from those which are more violent, lest they do exasperate
the stomach, &c., and the mischief by that means be increased." Though in
some physicians I find very strong purgers, hellebore itself prescribed in
this affection. If it long continue, vomits may be taken after meat, or
otherwise gently procured with warm water, oxymel, &c., now and then.
Fuchsius _cap. 33._ prescribes hellebore; but still take heed in this
malady, which I have often warned, of hot medicines, [4385]"because" (as
Salvianus adds) "drought follows heat, which increaseth the disease:" and
yet Baptista Sylvaticus _controv. 32._ forbids cold medicines, [4386]
"because they increase obstructions and other bad symptoms." But this
varies as the parties do, and 'tis not easy to determine which to use.
[4387]"The stomach most part in this infirmity is cold, the liver hot;
scarce therefore" (which Montanus insinuates _consil. 229._ for the Earl of
Manfort) "can you help the one and not hurt the other:" much discretion
must be used; take no physic at all he concludes without great need.
Laelius Aegubinus _consil._ for an hypochondriacal German prince, used many
medicines; "but it was after signified to him in [4388]letters, that the
decoction of China and sassafras, and salt of sassafras wrought him an
incredible good." In his _108 consult_, he used as happily the same
remedies; this to a third might have been poison, by overheating his liver
and blood.

For the other parts look for remedies in Savanarola, Gordonius, Massaria,
Mercatus, Johnson, &c. One for the spleen, amongst many other, I will not
omit, cited by Hildesheim, _spicel. 2_, prescribed by Mat. Flaccus, and out
of the authority of Benevenius. Antony Benevenius in a hypochondriacal
passion, [4389]"cured an exceeding great swelling of the spleen with capers
alone, a meat befitting that infirmity, and frequent use of the water of a
smith's forge; by this physic he helped a sick man, whom all other
physicians had forsaken, that for seven years had been splenetic." And of
such force is this water, [4390]"that those creatures as drink of it, have
commonly little or no spleen." See more excellent medicines for the spleen
in him and [4391]Lod. Mercatus, who is a great magnifier of this medicine.
This _Chalybs praeparatus_, or steel-drink, is much likewise commended to
this disease by Daniel Sennertus _l. 1. part. 2. cap. 12._ and admired by
J. Caesar Claudinus _Respons. 29._ he calls steel the proper
[4392]alexipharmacum of this malady, and much magnifies it; look for
receipts in them. Averters must be used to the liver and spleen, and to
scour the mesaraic veins: and they are either too open or provoke urine.
You can open no place better than the haemorrhoids, "which if by
horseleeches they be made to flow, [4393]there may be again such an
excellent remedy," as Plater holds. Sallust. Salvian will admit no other
phlebotomy but this; and by his experience in an hospital which he kept, he
found all mad and melancholy men worse for other bloodletting. Laurentius
_cap. 15._ calls this of horseleeches a sure remedy to empty the spleen and
mesaraic membrane. Only Montanus _consil. 241._ is against it; [4394] "to
other men" (saith he) "this opening of the haemorrhoids seems to be a
profitable remedy; for my part I do not approve of it, because it draws
away the thinnest blood, and leaves the thickest behind."

Aetius, Vidus Vidius, Mercurialis, Fuchsius, recommend diuretics, or such
things as provoke urine, as aniseeds, dill, fennel, germander, ground pine,
sodden in water, or drunk in powder: and yet [4395]P. Bayerus is against
them: and so is Hollerius; "All melancholy men" (saith he) "must avoid such
things as provoke urine, because by them the subtile or thinnest is
evacuated, the thicker matter remains."

Clysters are in good request. Trincavelius _lib. 3. cap. 38._ for a young
nobleman, esteems of them in the first place, and Hercules de Saxonia
_Panth. lib. 1. cap. 16._ is a great approver of them. [4396]"I have found
(saith he) by experience, that many hypochondriacal melancholy men have
been cured by the sole use of clysters," receipts are to be had in him.

Besides those fomentations, irrigations, inunctions, odoraments, prescribed
for the head, there must be the like used for the liver, spleen, stomach,
hypochondries, &c. [4397]"In crudity" (saith Piso) "'tis good to bind the
stomach hard" to hinder wind, and to help concoction.

Of inward medicines I need not speak; use the same cordials as before. In
this kind of melancholy, some prescribe [4398]treacle in winter, especially
before or after purges, or in the spring, as Avicenna, [4399] Trincavellius
mithridate, [4400]Montaltus paeony seed, unicorn's horn; _os de corde
cervi_, &c.

Amongst topics or outward medicines, none are more precious than baths, but
of them I have spoken. Fomentations to the hypochondries are very good, of
wine and water in which are sodden southernwood, melilot, epithyme,
mugwort, senna, polypody, as also [4401]cerotes, [4402]plaisters,
liniments, ointments for the spleen, liver, and hypochondries, of which
look for examples in Laurentius, Jobertus _lib. 3. c. pra. med._ Montanus
_consil. 231._ Montaltus _cap. 33._ Hercules de Saxonia, Faventinus. And so
of epithems, digestive powders, bags, oils, Octavius Horatianus _lib. 2. c.
5._ prescribes calastic cataplasms, or dry purging medicines; Piso
[4403]dropaces of pitch, and oil of rue, applied at certain times to the
stomach, to the metaphrene, or part of the back which is over against the
heart, Aetius sinapisms; Montaltus _cap. 35._ would have the thighs to be
[4404]cauterised, Mercurialis prescribes beneath the knees; Laelius
Aegubinus _consil. 77._ for a hypochondriacal Dutchman, will have the
cautery made in the right thigh, and so Montanus _consil. 55._ The same
Montanus _consil. 34._ approves of issues in the arms or hinder part of the
head. Bernardus Paternus in Hildesheim _spicel 2._ would have [4405] issues
made in both the thighs; [4406]Lod. Mercatus prescribes them near the
spleen, _aut prope ventriculi regimen_, or in either of the thighs.
Ligatures, frictions, and cupping-glasses above or about the belly, without
scarification, which [4407]Felix Platerus so much approves, may be used as

SUBSECT. II. - _Correctors to expel Wind. Against Costiveness, &c._

In this kind of melancholy one of the most offensive symptoms is wind,
which, as in the other species, so in this, hath great need to be corrected
and expelled.

The medicines to expel it are either inwardly taken, or outwardly. Inwardly
to expel wind, are simples or compounds: simples are herbs, roots, &c., as
galanga, gentian, angelica, enula, calamus aromaticus, valerian, zeodoti,
iris, condite ginger, aristolochy, cicliminus, China, dittander,
pennyroyal, rue, calamint, bay-berries, and bay-leaves, betony, rosemary,
hyssop, sabine, centaury, mint, camomile, staechas, agnus castus,
broom-flowers, origan, orange-pills, &c.; spices, as saffron, cinnamon,

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