The oration of Demosthenes on The crown. With extracts from the oration of Aeschines against Ctesiphon, and explanatory notes online

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action. WOT* TOJV oirXiTwv, tJiat, when our infantry and cavalry were
encamped outside the walls. Reiske understands that the Theban infantry
and cavalry vacated their own city for the occupation of the Athenian army
and encamped outside. This would be a "compliment" unheard of!
Besides, as Diss. observes, the distinctive pronouns your and their could
not be wanting. Boeckh Earn., p. 387, speaks of the difficulty, owing to
the laxity of discipline among the ancient soldiery, of obtaining permission
to introduce an army into an allied city for quarters. The meaning seems
plainly this : the Athenian forces after pitching their camps outside were
invited to take up quarters in the houses of the Thebans ; accordingly, TT\V
(TTpanav embraces as a general term r&v air\iT>v and r&v iirirtuv. Ko.8*
vjuSv = virtp I/pur. So Phil., II., 9 : ntyiffrov Katf vfjLtov eyKdfjuov. Con-
trariwise in Horn. 7Z., VI. 524, virtp = /card : "O0' virp atQev afo^e' d/rotfw.
<ra)<j>po<rivt]s, self-command, Wh. ; good behavior, Kenn. ; Enthaltsnm-
keit, Jacobs. dfiefrovs : explanatory of dvdplas ; diKai&rcp' diovv explana-
tory of 5tKcuo<rw/77s. Kal Ta...ical...8', K. T. ., and wJtat is kept under the
closest guard not only by themselves but also by all men.

216. Kara / vjids = quod ad vos quidem attinet. V. oi>T...T:
negat. and affirm, correlated ; so often. rds -irptoras : all the MSS. except
S add /xdxas. W. is the only editor we know of, besides Z, that follows S.
Another instance of such a verbal ellipsis is found in Lysias pro Mantith.,
15 : rrjs Trpdmrjs [sc. /idx?;?] Teray^vos /xd^ecr^at rots iro\e/jlois. But in our
sentence we would more naturally supply irapard^ets manoeuvres, skir-
mishes, fr. the preceding partic. W. thinks this admirably suited to the
connection, as the allusion is probably to the preliminary marches and
skirmishes by wh. the combined Thebans and Athenians sought to check
the advance of Philip. TOV iroTa(xov, i. e. the Cephissus, wh. flows through
the plain of Elatea and enters Bo3otia not far fr. Chaeronea. ri\v \ti\Ltpi-
vf\v : critics are divided as to the application of this epithet, some making
it mean the skirmish in the winter, others in the storm. But for the latter
meaning the word is properly xet/x^>tos. If, w. Grote, we suppose an inter-
val of 10 months (fr. Oct. 339 to Aug. 338 B. c.) between the capture of
Elatea and the battle of Chaeronea, there is no difficulty in placing these
encounters early in the spring of 338 B. c., and understanding xeifjLepLvfjv of
a wintry time among the mountain passes of Phocis, where snow is some-
times found in the spring months. But if, w. Clinton Fast. Hellen., App.,
p. 16, we suppose that the battle of Chaeronea occurred only 50 days after
the news arrived of Philip's entrance into Phocis, we have no recourse left
other than to say w. him, "the word x l l* P a 'fy is probably corrupt."

2l8 NOTES.

217. STJX.OV, emulation, enthusiasm. ci p^v...ei cl& cf. eop

5'...dv, 178 and note. l wv-.-n-dprvpas, if wliat lie, himself called the gods
to witness as being most excellent ; sc. by participating in the sacrifices, etc.
((rvvtOve). \|rt]4>io-a<r6ai, i. e. by condemning Ctes., wh. would necessarily
imply a condemnation of the orator's policy. TOVJS Ocovs : the gods by
whom the judges were sworn were the same as those to whom JEseh. had
sacrificed. el 8^ (i/fj iropijv presents the other horn of the dilemma.
Lord B. comments upon the exquisite diction, the majestic rhythm, the
skilful collocation of this passage. The dilemma, he remarks, is better
than the average dilemmas of oratory, and quite sufficient, though incom-
plete, for the momentary victory at wh. alone the orator often aims. What
retort could ^Esch. obviously have made ?

218. 0i]pa.ioi...vofiiiv, but the Thebans were in the belief that they had
been preserved through us. The careful student will have noticed before this
the fondness of Dem. for infinitive clauses w. the article. TOIS vo|tt^ov-
triv, i. e. Tjfuv. So reads 2 ; all other MSS. have 6oKou<ru>. V. supposes
vojjdfovffiv to be a corruption due to the proximity of vofu^eiv. OVTOI refers
to jEsch. and his associates. frr|vrrv : the imperf. denotes the frequency
of this correspondence, the object of wh. was to incite his allies in the
Peloponn. war to render him more prompt assistance. Cf. 156. crvvc-
Xwx, K. T. 4., my persistence, and my wanderings (sc. his Trp^/Sewu), and my
hardships. Sictrvpc : there is no passage in ^Esch. speech where this is
doue. But cf. Aesch. c. Ctes., 100. rl is placed last for emphasis.

219. KaXXio-rpaTos, that distinguished Callistratus. He was the most
eminent orator of his period, and is said to have incited Dem. when a boy
to the study of eloquence by his speech on Oropus. 'Api(TTo<J>wv : cf. 70.
Kt4>oXos : cf. 251. 6pao-wpovXos : of Collytus ; not the famous de-
liverer of Athens from the rule ot the Thirty Tyrants. 8id iravros =
cbrAcDs. Cf. 88, 179. vireXtnre, was wont to reserve for himself pri-
vately, virb expresses the underlying motive. A TI -ytvoLr', euphemistic
for in case of a calamity. uvcu}>opa.v, a final resource, a means of recovery.

220. ovrcos : very emphatic ; join w. fj^yav dvai. eSoKci, sc. 6 KivSv-
vos. \wpav ovSi irpovoiav, that it seemed to me to allow no opportunity nor
even forethought for personal safety, rr/s a<r(f>a\ela.s belongs gramm. to irpo-
but logically also to x^P av wn - would be followed by the dat. d-ya-
eivcu, one must be content. The orator means to say that in his opinion
duty to countiy should in such a crisis overshadow all personal considera-
tions, and one should be thankful if he were able to discharge that duty.

221. virfcp = irepl : cf. note 9. ypafyovr &v : the particc. express
the condition (cf. 30, 190) ; &v to be taken w. the infin. ypd-^ai, Trpafri,
jroeo-/3eO<rai. p?l&, nor even. cv ira<riv...raTTov, in all public affairs I

NOTES. 219

constantly made myself the foremost. "W. considers the phrase nearly
synonymous w. 5u/cct e/jLavr&v in 179, 197, 219.

222. Els ravra, K. T. 4. : the rhetorical order of the Greek may be
imitated in Engl. : This is the condition into which, etc. ; this is the utterance
which, etc. eiraipofwvos Xo-yovs, he who before this hurled many defiant
boasts against the city, ^wvrjv t-n-alpeiv, 291, = to lift up the voice in loud
tones. AiwvSas : cf. 249. Ace. to the author of the Lives of the Ten
Orators, 848 c, Diondas prosecuted not only the authors of this decree, De-
momeles and Hyperides, but also Aristonicus ( 223). T& pepos : cf. note
103. diro-jrecjwvyoTa, acquitted, rarely used of things.

223. 'ApwrroviKos : cf. note 83, where the decree of Demom. and
Hyper, is taken as a single one, and that of Ctes. is regarded as third in
order. <nryKarr)YopT]<rev : the usages of Athenian law-courts permitted
the prosecutor to associate w. himself several assistants in making complaint
and in carrying on the suit. Cf. Meier and Schom. Att. Proc., p. 710.
AtjfxopcXr] : a cousin of Dem. A. Schaef., II. 528, conjectures that the crown-
ing proposed by Demom. occurred at the great Dionysia, April, 338 B. c.,
and that proposed by Hyper, at the Panathenaic festival, August, 338 B. c.
I prefer the view of W., that Hyper, was only incidentally connected w.
the crowning proposed by Demom. |idXXov...lK6T<i>s, more properly than
this man, i. e. Ctes. ; simply because it is more fitting to punish the first
offence than the second after the first has been passed by unnoticed.

224. TO>S : refers to Ctes. ; tKeivovs to the persons just mentioned ;
TOVTOV aiirbv to JEsch. ; oSros to Ctes. again. dveve-yiceiv 4ir , to refer to
(as a precedent). The force of the prep, remains throughout the sentence.
ircpl TWV ovrw irpax&'vTwv, i. e. legally settled. A suit once decided
could not be renewed in an Athenian court of law. But the suit brought
by ^Esch. was not exactly identical w. that brought by Diondas against
Demom. and Hyper. ; so that the spirit of the law, rather than its letter, is
meant, and the argument of Dem. is a moral rather than a legal one.
Tore, in that case ; i. e. supposing ^sch. had brought suit in the first in-
stance. rJ> Trpd-yp-a-, * T. i., the real question (i. e. whether Dem. was
deserving of a crown or not) would have been tried on its own merits, before
it had obtained any of these precedents. These points seem well taken.

225. ot|Acu : ironical. IK iraXcuwv \p6vwv, K< T - : ne means the
transactions connected w. the .peace of Philocrates. (JLTJT...|At)8els, st. oflre
...ovSets, because there is a shade of uncertainty in the thought, wh. is im-
plied in ol/jiai. irpo4>d(ras : cf. note 156. SOKCIV TI Xe'-yetv, to seem to
speak to the purpose, ovdev \tyeiv = to speak to no purpose.

226. cirl rfjs aX^cds : cf. note 17. H-rfvov <>*>* = all but.rov^
...<f>vywv : the same point is made in 15. Kptoriv : subj. of &re<r0cu.

220 NOTES.

227. irepl T|H L <S V i. e. TEsch. and himself. Dem. makes the illustration
of his rival apply to them both. This idea is brought out more fully in the
sentence : ov yap &v ^erairddeiv, K. T. e., 228. ircpicivcu xp^jiard TO>,
that money remains over in the hands of some one. The figure is taken fr.
trade or banking business. Ka0<upwo-i,v, lit. if the pebbles cancel or remove,
sc. one's credit of money (TO. xp^^^a) ; i. e. if accounts balance. This sense
of Kadcupflv seems somewhat forced ; aipeiv in the passage cited fr. JEsch. is
to be taken in much the same way, and avravektiv (lit. to take up on tJie
opposite side), 231, has the same sense. Other Editt. except V. read Kada-
pal &<riv, wh. is explained as referring to clearing away the pebbles from the
board (cf. afidiciov, Abacus, Diet. Antiq.) in opposite columns of debit and
credit, until the whole board is cleared and accounts balance.

228. <ro4>ov, "sapient." Lord B. wdpxctv l-yvcoo-fw'vovs : cf. 95.
ov -yap &v, K. T. 4., for he would not be seeking to change your mind, if
there were not such an opinion as this existing in regard to each of us.
Dem. proves himself skilful in retort.

229. TiOels \|/T)<|>OVS, by casting up accounts. OVTOS Xo^wrjios : oCros is
predicate ; for the mode of reckoning public deeds is not this (i. e. the arith-
metical, but another).

230. irapaTaa|ivous : in agreement w. aurotfs supplied fr. Qi][3atovs
and subj. of KuKvew. eirraKoo-ia o-rdSia : cf. note 195. TOVS X.Tj<rras :
cf. note 145, 241. 4*P lv Ka ^ &Y tv to plunder. v tpT|VT) : anti-
thetic position to TOV Tr6\e/j.ov. CK OaXaTTTjs, from the sea reckoning land-
wards, hence on the side of the sea ; referring to the security of the coasts
fr. predatory invasions. \aj36vTa, after he should have taken Byzantium ;
to be taken in close connection w. Philip's conceived (not actual) occupation
of the Hellespont.

231. 4/rj<f>ois, sc. T$ TUV \f/r]<pwv \oyurfj, : the orator doubtless asked
this question in a sneering tone : Can the statement of deliverance fr. such
threatened calamities be likened to an arithmetical computation of debit and
credit ? ^...dvravcXeiv, K. T. 4., or does it seem to you proper to offset these
against each other ? Cf. note 227. Does he mean (1) offset his own good
deeds or benefits against the misfortunes that are charged to his administra-
tion ; as Lord B. expresses it : " Must these events be taken out of the oppo-
site side of my account ? " Or (2) offset these benefits just enumerated
against the common misfortunes of the country ; wh. is the interpretation
of Reiske, Wh., Kenn., et al. Or (3) should our deeds be made to cancel
each other ; are my services to the country to be set over against your mis-
deeds, so that they mutually cancel, and neither go down to later remem-
brance ? The last interpretation seems most in accordance w. the spirit of the
entire passage. In the preceding section Dem. implies that the calamities

NOTES. 221

wh. were prevented by his policy would have been the legitimate result of
his rival's conduct. And we understand this inquiry to be directed, as the
one just before, to JEsch., and w. a touch of sarcasm. The thought, then,
of the passage is this : when /Esch. asks the Athenians to change their
opinion respecting Dem. by taking into consideration the debit side of his
account, Dem. responds : "let our accounts stand as they are; they are
not to be cast up and balanced as trading accounts, and then forgotten." -
7rpo(rr0T]jii, add to the account ; a mercantile term in harmony w. the pre-
ceding \oyitrn6s. ev ols, in those cases in which. KaOdirog : cf. 197.
T*p<ns means the Phocians and Locrians, also the Thebans after the battle
of Chseronea. TT]S 4>iXav9p comas refers to Philip's generous and kind
treatment of the Athenians after the battle of Chaeronea. Demades
Fragm. 1, says : Zypafa /cat ^iXnrTry TI/J.O.S OVK dpvov/jutt. 5i<rxtXoi>s yap
ev \ijrpuv, Kal x^ ia TroXirQit (Tity-iara x^pls K-ripvuos, Kal rbv
vev 7rpea-/3e/as Xa/Scbv vfuv ravr 2ypa\{/a. Cf. also Polyb., V. 10.
7TpipaXX6p.6vos, with a view to accomplishing the rest of his purposes, irepi-
pd\\effdai = to compass or embrace in one's plans ; cf. Isocr. Panegyr., 184.

KaXcos iroioSvTcs, happily ; indicating the subjective feeling of the
speaker, = / am happy to say. The difference between this and /caXws
TrpaTTovres is clearly shown in Dem. c. Leptin., 110 : 6're 5' u//,e?s, /caXws
jroiovvres, Kal Kara ras xoiz/as irpdj-eis Kal Kara TT\V 6/j.6voiav Kal Kara r&\\a
irdvra &fj,ii>ov e/cetf cjv irpdrreTe.

232. ira.pa8efyii.aTa irXaTTwv, manufacturing illustrations ; such e. g.
as that of the \f/Tj<jjoi. p^ptara tr\^\[t.ara : the former Cic., Orat. VIII.,
understands of the criticism ^Esch. ( 72, 166) made upon several expres-
sions used by Dem. ; the latter word may refer to the mimicking of certain
gestures peculiar to Dem., wh. were, perchance, not altogether in precise
keeping (cf. TEsch., 167) w. the artificial rules of the schools. irdvv -yap,
for altogether in consequence of this don't you see ? have come about the
affairs of the Greeks. A similar ironical use of o^x pfc is fcmnd in 266.

irap^jve-yKa, / extended my hand on this side, but not on that side.

233. eir ...etncrfirei : cf. note 210. d<})op|ids, resources ; particularly
financial, as distinct fr. military (5wd/j.eis). Imords : cf. 60. TTOT]-
o-a.-JScCKWEV : notice the diff. in the tenses : if I had made... he would
(now) point out. xp^o-opiat TU> Xo-ya>, / shall make the statement ; an em-
phatic paraphrase for X^w.

234. TOVS d<r0V<rrdTovs : when the peace of 346 B. c. was concluded,
Athens had Control over Peparethos, Proconnesos, Tenedos, Thasos, Scia-
thos, in addition to Lemnos, Imbros, Scyros, Samos, wh. belonged to her as
dependencies. Chios and Rhodes had torn themselves loose in the Social
War, 357 - 355 B. c. ; about the same time also occurred the revolt of

222 NOTES.

Corcyra. <TVVTOIV : a euphemistic word, whose origin Harpocr. explains :
eXeyov roiis (popovs ffwrd^eis, eTretS/; xctXeTrws tyepov ol "EXXrjves rb TWV (pkpwv
&VOIM. Boeckh Publ. Econ., p. 544, surmises that this contribution was
subsequently increased (cf. 237) to as much as 400 talents. Cf. Dem.
Phil., IV., 37 ff. This contribution was made under the new Athenian
confederacy formed in 377 B. c. See Grote, X., cap. 77. irpoe^iXeyneva,
collected in advance, anticipated. Cf. Dem. Phil., I., 34. oirXfrrrjv . . .
tinr^a : an instance of asyndeton. Cf. 67. TWV olicctwv, the citizen-sol-
diery ; the same as TWV TTO\ITIKU>V, 237, in distinction fr. mercenary troops
wh. are meant by 6tr\lT-r)v, iinrta and %voi ( 237). 4 > P 6 P WTaTOV > sc - % v ~

ovroi : JLsch. and his associates.

235. TTWS, sc. VTTTJPXW Zx VTa " irpoXfyv...povXev<J)Mvos...<l>6tryttV...
ircrcvOvvos : a most lifelike picture of the comparative weakness and strength
of a democratic and despotic form of government. Cf. Isocr. Nicocl., 19.
Lamed compares Canning's description of Bonaparte's power : " He asks no
counsel, he renders no account, he wields at will the population and resources
of a mighty empire and its dependent states."

236. Kal -yap TOVT* : the force of KO! = also falls upon TOUT', wh. refers
by anticipation to r^os xvpios fy. irpwrov has no corresponding elra ex-
pressed ; the next point in the enumeration is '6ffa....irepiyivoivro. ov |i.<5-
vov n.6Ti\ov : his only privilege, as compared w. the advantages of Philip,
was that of haranguing the people, and this he had to share w. his oppo-
nents. irtpfY^voivTO, and whatever successes these gained over me; he means
in the discussions and resolutions of the Assembly. Si'-.-^v.. irp<J(|>a<riv,
through whatever pretext each success might chance to arise. %Ka<rToi> = rb
irepiyevtcrdai. With TV^OI supply yiyi>6/j,vov. Tav9 > ...pepovXea;(iVOi, these
you adopted in favor of the enemy, and then took your departure (sc. fr. the

237. IK, out of; i. e. as starting-points. Me-yctpe'as is written ~M.eya-
peTs, 234. TWV iroXiTiKwv : cf. note 234. o-vvreXeiav, joint contribu-
tion. 8<ra>v...irX(rrr]v : 8<r-rjv would be the usual constr. ; the genit. is
due to attraction. A decree found at the close of the Lives of the Ten Ora-
tors states that this contribution amounted to more than 500 talents.

238. Ta...8lKcua, our just dues as regards the Thebans. He alludes to
the complaints of ^Esch. contained in 143, wh. is cited on p. 85. TO,
irpbs B^avrCovs : cf. note 95. rd irp&s Evpoe'as : cf. ^Esch., 92, 93.

TWV to-wv : ( 'ra foa hoc loco sunt sequse portiones sumptuum in bellum
faciendorum." Schaef. TWV. . .Tpi//jpwv : genit. of the whole depending on ras
dia.Ko<rias. TpiaKO<rtwv : the whole number of ships at the battle of Sala-
mis is given by Time., I. 74, ace. to some MSS., as 300, ace. to other MSS.,
as 400, of wh. Athens furnished two thirds. Herod., VIII. 48, says there

NOTES. 223

were 378, and of these 180 were Athenian. eXaTrowrBcu, to be defrauded.
Dem. turns into a meritorious act what ^Esch. had censured as an injustice
practised upon the city by Thebes, through the venality of Dem.

239. KCVO.S, K. T. . : you confer upon these (i. e. the Athenians) empty
favors in calumniating me ; empty, because so entirely useless after all was
over. iropwv, i. e. in the Assembly, as fypa0es shows. CVC&XCTO, if,
indeed, they (raOra) admitted of it, sc. irpdrreiv ; i. e. if they were practi-
cable. iropd = dici : on account of, under the existing circumstances.
Schaef. But the sense seems quite as good if we take it as in trap avra
TddiK^fMTa, 13, = at the moment of; implying that the crises were such
as to demand instantaneous action, when they had to accept what they
could get, without deliberating upon what they might wish to have. 8<ra
if]povXdjie0a : the indie, denotes what is definite ; dolij, the optat., denotes
what is indefinite. ical. . .ical^ not only. ..but also. TOVS. . .dircXavvofUvovs :
W. takes in a hypothetical sense, and as referring to the Thebans and
others who were negotiating for an alliance w. Athens, in case they should
be repulsed through the exorbitant demands of the Athenians.

240. vw, as the case stands. KaTrj-yopfas : the plural, since there
were many points embraced in the one formal accusation. &v adds em-
phasis to -rl and modifies froieiv...\yeu> below, where it is repeated. Cf.
GMT. 223, 224 ; G. 1312. TOVTWV, i. e. TO. irpbs Qrjpaiovs diitaia in 238.

dicpipoXo-yovjjtevou : deriv.? diaffering, haggling.

241. ow\> sc. SLV %\eyov. pouX.6p.evoi refers to the people of the ir6Xs
above. clro, furthermore ; it continues the question in the direct form in-
troduced by oi>x ; the whole is summed up at the close in OVK SLV ravr Aeyop.

TOV 'EX\Ti<nrovTOv, K. T. 4. : the calamities wh. in 230 he named as the
impending results of the policy of his rival, the orator here sums up in a
different order as likely to be laid to his charge by ^Esch., had he not pre-
vented them. His enemies now find fault w. the means by wh. he averted
the calamities wh. they were preparing ; but these very calamities, had
they occurred, they would have laid at his door ; they were bound to blame
him anyhow. <rtTOiro|iiras : cf. note 87. TWV XTJOTWV : cf. note 145., yea.. .and.

242. <f>v<rci icCvaSos : cf. note 162. rdvOpwmrfv, manikin, apology
for a man; the neuter and the diminutive combining to form the con-
temptuous term. avroTpa-ytKos iri&qtcos : an allusion, probably, to his
extravagant imitations and mimicries on the stage. dpovpatos Olvojiaos :
cf. note 180. SCIVOTTJS, power as an orator, eloquence. irarpflJi : for
the omission of the art. cf. 170. vvv, now at last, to-day; this emphasis
belongs to it also in vvv X^yeis ; 243.

243. ukrirep dv ct : the ellipsis (cf. 194) is somewhat as follows: to do

224 NOTES.

so is just as absurd as it would be (c&cnre/o SLV ef) if, etc. dcrOevovtn, K. r. I.,
visiting his patients in the course of their sickness. On the parallel passage
in jEsch. given below, see Introduction, p. xv. TO, vo|iiofwva, the custom-
ary rites were being performed over him. TO ical TO, this and that, so and
so ; an instance of the original demonstrative use of the article &v6p&nros :
Bekk.'s emendation for fi.v0p<irjros of the MSS., on the ground that the art.
is needed w. the demonstr. pronoun. tlra vw, do you then now at last
(when all is over) speak ?

244. Toivuv marks the conclusion. T?|V fj-rrav : at Chseronea. Trap*
6jJLol> in my power. 8iroi iir|uj>0r)v : the indie, emphasizes the actual fact,
while Trefjupeeitjv, 45, states the fact indefinitely. OVK...OVK...OVK...OV...
OVK...OVK...OU : a marked instance of asyndeton, adding much emphasis to
the expression. 0TroXas : of these embassies little is known besides
what is said in this oration and in the Third Philippic. The Theban has
been described in 211 ff.; that to Byzantium, in 88. The kings of the
Thracians were Teres and Cersobleptes. The latter ^Esch., 61, mentions
as dvdpa 0iXov Kal cvwaxov TTJ TroXei. dXXoOev ov8ajid0V : Dem. also
went on a similar embassy to the Peloponn. states. Cf. 79 and note 45.
AXV 4v ots, K. T. 4., but where his ambassadors were vanquished in argu-
ment, he came with arms and carried the day. Kenn.

245. paXoKtav a-Kunrrwv, scoffing at the same man for cowardice. In
allusion to the charge of ^Esch. that he had fled fr. his post on the field of
battle. This story, first found in 2Esch., grew as it was repeated, until in
the Lives of the Ten Orators, p. 845, it is narrated as a fact, that Dem., as
he was fleeing fr. the battle-field, became entangled in a bramble-bush, and
panic-stricken turned to the bush, saying : " Spare my life and take me
prisoner ! " Against this charge the orator finds a sufficient defence in this
and the succeeding sections. < ri]s...4 n) X''jS : commentators are uncertain
whether to take this as courage, temper, or as life.

246. irao-av 4$raoav, a full examination. ov : / do not
beg off. ireirpaKTaC : Grote, XI. 121, remarks upon this claim of Dem.:
" The first Philippic is alone sufficient to prove, how justly Dem. lays claim
to the merit of having ' seen events in their beginnings ' and given timely
warning to his countrymen." iroXiTiica = olxeta ; which are inherent and
unavoidable defects belonging to all popular governments. TroXts is used
here in the sense of TroXtret'a. Cf. Isocr. Nicocl., 17 ff., for a comparison
between democratic and monarchical government. s : separated fr. the
superlative by a prep. Cf. 288. irporpexj/ai, sc. TS 7r6Xas. ovStls
|rij i$pT] = ov ri TIS evp-g. For ov w w. subj. cf. GMT. 294, 295 ; H. 1032 ;
G. 1360 ; Cu. 620.

247. T<ji 8186 vcu Kal Sia<J>0eupiv, by promises and bribes to those in power.



Cf. note 45. TWV Ko/rd ravra irpa.\6ivTo>v, of Uie deeds done in this de-
partment ; i. e. as Kvpios and rpye/x.tbj' ru-*/ dwd/utewv. TO S.a^.0apT]vai, in the
matter of being bribed by money or not. rai 5ta00. is dat. respect. o wvov-
p-evos, the bidder. TO KO.T' cp. : the logic is clear : by two means Philip
conquered, sc. arms and bribery. But with arms I had nothing to do, and
as to bribery, I proved myself incorruptible ; ergo, the defeat of the city is
chargeable to me neither in this nor in that.


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