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is worth as much as the observations themselves. But has
Mr. Egger not gone a little too far in it when he asks him-
self at what age dreams arise? Notwithstanding the ob-
scurity which still surrounds these plain phenomena of ani-
mal life, analogy gives us a right to suppose that the child
dreams as soon as it has distinct ideas, that is to say pretty
soon after the time of birth.

Tiedeinanii's Essay on Infancy. 21

I do not know whether we can agree with
the interpretation which our philosopher
gives of the following fact : " When the ag-
gravated tooth-ache increased his desire for
seizing with his mouth all kinds of objects
for the purpose of biting them, the child
knew already that distant objects could be
brought near, but he did not know clearly
that the hands should be used for that pur-
pose, for he tried to seize near objects with his
mouth instead of carrying them to his mouth
with his hands." With a child who knows
how to bring objects close to himself and
still better how to carry them to his mouth,
there must have -been in this case the pre-
dominating influence of a very pressing idea
and need, namely that of alleviating his
tooth-ache without delay, and he tried to
take hold of the remedy in what seemed to
him the shortest way. Besides, even if there
is no tooth-ache to excite him, the child at
this age, as has been so well rerharked by
Rousseau, lives for his mouth only and tries
to seize every object near him with this
organ on account of his habit of examining
things through taste. Once I followed, for

22 Perez's Translation of

a quarter of an hour, a mother with a little
girl six or seven months old on her arm, who
was turning towards me but without pay-
ing attention to me and occupied herself
incessantly to seize with her mouth the flut-
tering corner of her mother's veil.
. Fifth Month. I must here mention an
important break and at the same time ac-
knowledge the sincerity of the observer, al-
though his sagacity seems to me to be at
fault. "Up to the thirtieth of December
nothing remarkable was observed." Does
that mean that there was nothing to be ob-
served? The contrary is certainly true.
But let us pass this. "At that time it was
noticed that he made use of his hands to
take hold of a support. When after having
been carried on the arm he was lowered sud-
denly he managed to take a firm hold with
his hands to protect himself from falling,
and it seemed disagreeable to him to be raised
very high." He could have had no idea of
a fall; his fear therefore could be nothing
but a simple mechanical expression of the
same kind that we feel on a specially precipi-
iated height and which resembles dizziness

Tiedemanris Essay on Infancy

to some extent." Here we have a kind of
'emotion which cannot be described any bet-
ter: but our author, as I can affirm in virtue
of numerous experiments, is mistaken in re-
gard to the time and the explanation. I have
noticed the same signs of fright arid "ab-
horrence of a vaccum *' in dogs and cats only
two weeks old, and even in cats that were
still blind, when I lifted them in the air.
There must be therefore some hereditary and
unconscious influence in the emotions and
aversions which are most frequent with be-
ings whose destination is to live on the
ground and not to float ki the air. I have
mentioned in another place that at the age
of two or three years (I know the age from
the date of the sojourn of my family in the
house where I then lived) some person, I
suppose iny nurse, held me in her arms over
the window-sill pretending to throw me out,
;and that I still retain a recollection of my

"The child turned away from persons
-clothed in black with visible signs of repug-
nance : it seems therefore that black must
have something disagreeable in its nature,

M Perez's Translation of

which explains why this color is elected when
we dress for sad occasions. The child had
by this time learned to use his hands for
grasping and holding things. He could
grasp anything now, but he still lacked suf-
ficient practice therein. Singing always at-
tracted his attention and he accompanied it,
to express his pleasure, by jumping and
moving his arms ; but he was indifferent to
whistling (which surprises me): it must
have been therefore sound (and rhythm) alone
which produced the impression. The sensa-
tions derived from taste were also tolerably
distinct. He pushed a bitter medicine way
from him with all his might, but he took
wine and eatables with pleasure." Lastly,
the absence of activity produced tediousness ;
but the least change made him forget even a
tooth-ache ; he produced all kinds of sounds
without being induced to do so, and did not
try to imitate* those produced in his pres-

*Darwin thinks that towards the fourth month he observed
the child began to attempt imitating sounds, and that when
the clflld was flve months and a half old, he heard him articu-
late the sound "da," but without attaching any meaning
to it.

Mr. Taine, in pleading the cause of his theory of inventive
or re-inventive spontaneity which, according to him pre-

Tiedenmnn's Essay on Infancy. 25

ence ; this may be even on account of his
having no clear idea of difference of sounds,
or because his organs were not yet able to
move according to his volition. Tiedemann
is the first one who has expressed those ideas
on the nature of the child's attempts at lan-

ceded the work of assimilation, asserts that this unconscious
prattle possesses an astonishing flexibility, and that all
shades of emotion, astonishment, amusement, contrariness,
and sadness are indicated by varieties of tone, and that in
this respect the infant is the equal of, or surpasses the adult.
Who is the fortunate observer who will succed in recording
the mysterious phonetics of infantile life, which are no less
difficult to seize than the warbling of the nightingale in re-
gard to which this result has been accomplished ? Phono-
graphic experiments interpreted by musicians, philologists,
naturalists and psychologists would yield remarkable infor-

Mr. Egger observes at a rather late epoch, in the middle of
the sixth month, an evident instance of imitation, together
with the act of recollection which it implies. Mr. Egger also
attributes a large share of the first development of language
to personal initiative. He notices at the age of six months
non-voluntary activity of the voice with its infinite varia-
tions which form a kind of rough outline of sounds and of
articulation. He sees in this an instinctive, natural language
which is common to all times and to all peoples, and which
becomes gradually restricted by the growth of another lan-
guage, which is invented by each child and which is capable
of endless individual variation. Mr. Egger and Mr. Taine
have done very little towards noting down the forms of this
individual language. Their observations are too general and
vague to enable me to espouse or reject their hypothetical in-

26 Perez's Translation of

guage, which we have since seen reproduced
or confirmed by Taine, Darwin, Egger, Pol-
lock, etc.

At the age of four months and ten days
"it was noticed that the child turned his
face always exactly towards the direction
from which a noise originated which he had
heard before."

I noticed this fact at a later time. The
activity increased visibly; in this state of
watchfulness the limbs were in constant
agitation. When the infant saw the breast
he manifested his pleasure visibly; this seems
to me rather tardy progress.

Sixth Month. Here Tiedemann notices a
growing desire to become acquainted him-
self and to increase his pastimes, which was
manifested by the pleasure which the infant
showed at the idea of being taken out into
the open air, when his cloak was handed to
the attendant. He seemed to prefer this
girl to his mother except when he was hun-
gry. He seemed also fonder of his toys
because he knew better how to derive amuse-
ment from them, and he did not allow objects
given to him to be taken away without cry-

Tiedemann's Essay on Infancy. 27

ing. At the age of five months and a half
the exclamation '"ah" expressed for the
first time his astonishment and his pleasure.
(Tiedemaiin does not say whether he at-
tributes this to imitation or spontaneous
action). " He commenced also to make use
of his legs in trying to walk, and manifested
pleasure whenever he was placed on his feet."
" He distinguished persons without having
as yet very clear ideas about them. He dis-
tinguished very well between the different
tones of voice which expressed different
emotions and sentiments." Yet I suppose
he had had for a long time that power of dis-
tinction in this respect which depends on
the instinctive knowledge of the univer-
sal language,, and which, in some way, is
organic and structural in every human being.
Seventh Month. The observations gat]j.-
ered during this month confine themselves to
the following: On the fourteenth of March
the infant began to articulate and repeat
sounds. His mother pronounced the syllable
"ma" for him; he looked attentively at her
mouth and tried to repeat this syllable.
Whenever he heard a word that was easy to

28 Perez's Translation of

pronounce it was observed that he moved
the lips as if trying torepeat it to himself.

Eighth Month. Tidemeann observes,rath-
er late, " visible signs of affection for persons
whom he knew/* and adds "he cried when
he was made to believe that his mother or
nurse was being whipped/* Would he not
have cried if he had seen other persons
assume the appearance of beating each other?

I think that his tears might be explained
by simple natural sympathy. Tiedemann
noticed also that there appeared the associa-
tion between the sign and the object. He
calls this I don't know why the most
difficult of all associations, one which the
animal can but seldom attain, and never by
its own efforts. This is an evident error. I
can see no difference, from a mental point
o^ view, between an animal and a child who
both associate the ideas " sugar" or " meat "
with the words which express those things.
But there is a physiological difference in
favor of the child in the fact that his organs
enable him to -imitate these sounds which
are expressive for the animal and for man
alike. As regards the progress in judg-

Tiedemann' s Essay on Infancy. 29

ment and comparison which the discrimina-
ting of articulation implies, Tiedemann very
correctly speaks of them as of the conditions
of spoken language; but these faculties are
just as necessary for the understanding of
the language which we hear, and for this
reason they must have been active long before
the age of eight months.

On the fifth day of the eighth month
Tiedemann notes that the association of ideas
was constantly increasing, and that it gave
rise to complex sensations and desires. " In
proof of this he mentions the fit of anger of
his son when he saw another child placed,
for a joke, on his mother's lap, and the
efforts of the jealous child to draw the other
away. Similar facts may be observed long
before this period, even at the age of three
months or three months and a half.*

* Darwin also declares it difficult to find a distinct sign of
the feeling of anger during the first months. He believes,
however, he observed one at about the age of two months
and a half ; it consisted in a slight frown on the forehead
Vhich lasted the whole time during which the infant was
drinking milk which was a little cold. As far as my own
observations are concerned, I think that I have, observed
very frequently at the end of the first month, if not earlier,
signs of impatience in infants who refuse to take jjpe breast
of some nurse. But when Darwin's child was about four

30 Perez's Translation of

Ninth Month. " Whenever anything pre-
sented itself to him the child pointed his
finger at it to direct the attention of others
to it, and then used this exclamation: ah !
ah ! " Tiedemann sees in these facts obvious
signs of reflection and of the growth of the
faculty of discrimination, and finds occasion
to remark "how deeply the desire to com-
municate with others is rooted in human
nature." These are but few observations
for such an important epoch.

Thirteenth Month. For three months
nothing new was observed, which is all the
more to be regretted, as not only the first pro-
gress in talking and walking, but also that
of the faculties of thinking, feeling and will-
ing, offer ample material for observation
during this epoch. Towards the middle of
the thirteenth month more comprehensive
ideas, movements better coordinated, a wid-

months old, or perhaps even before that time, it became
evident from the way in which the blood rushed into his
face and.scalp,that he easily grot into a violent passion. Angep
as well as jealousy manifest themselves very clearly in child-
hood, but it is often very difficult to determine whether these
manifestations indicate simple or complex feelings. The
surest in^rence is, to see in them above all other things,
simple and instinctive feelings.

Tiedemann's Essay on Infancy. 31

er knowledge of language were observed.
" When the child saw a glass of water, he-
moved towards it, and even towards his cradle,
when he was tired. He distinguished better
and better the objects which served to satisfy
his physical wants, and* made better use of
his limbs in satisfying them. He repeated
some sounds intelligibly, although without
attaching any exact meaning to them. He
knew already the meaning of "make a bow""
or "chase away the fly" and executed these
commands with precision. It will be noticed
that the observations of this month are
neither very characteristic, nor abundant.*

* Mr. F. Pollock records a very distinct progress of lan-
guage at this period. At the age of twelve months " M-m,' v
often repeated, indicates a desire for something ; " ba-ba "
meant an indefinite number of times. When thirteen
months old, the child used " da-da " as a kind of vague dem-
onstrative adjective, and after a short time this became the
proper noun for the father. He said " wa-wa " to express-
the ideas of water or drinking ; " wah-wah " rather guttural,
when he recognized the form of an animal, a dog for instance
in a picture; which, Mr. Pollock says, is a curious fact, con-
sidering the inability of adult savages, as reported by travel-
lers, to understand even the simplest representations of
objects. " Na-na " was a general name for food of all kinds.
All these sounds had been furnished by adults, and had been
learned according to th^ir value, and were imitated better
and better. All these sounds were monosyllables ; the first-
dissyllabic word pronounced was baby, pronounced at other
times also '* bee-bi " as if it were a reduplicated monosyllable-
Mr. Pollock seems to accord more importance to imitation
than to spontaneity.

32 Perez's Translation of

Fourteenth Month. There is but a single
observation. The infant had as yet no idea
of the fall of bodies from a. height, nor of
the difference between filled or empty space
(a badly observed, or badly interpreted or
badly reported fact)T. He wanted to throw
himself down from any height (young ani-
mals who are still unused to jumping or
flying do the same), and in several instances
he let his cracker fall to the ground with the
intention of stopping it (this indicates per-
haps awkwardness just as much as an inexact
though not lacking appreciation of dis-

Fifteenth Month. Again but one obser-
vation. (( When he had done anything by
himself, for instance if he had given a cer-
tain movement to his toys, he was visibly
pleased and took pleasure in repeating it."
Tiedemann sees in this the highest degree
of the activity and individuality of human
nature; equivalent facts can be noticed how-
ever in all young animals; they enjoy and
in a measure become proud of the develop-
ment of their strength and skill. The fol-
lowing observation has more justice in it:

Tiedemann's Essay on Infancy. 33

"The children enjoy doing by themselves
that which they have been so far cbmpelled
to let others do for them; for this reason
they want to take food with their own hands,
and do not want to be touched when they
are to be dressed or washed, etc/'

Towards the same time appeared the signs
of a sensibility which called into play the
most complex feelings. " Affection and self-
love had developed gradually into the feel-
ing of honor: on the tenth of November he
cried because his hand was rejected which *
he loved to tender as a sign of affection, and
he showed visibly signs of grief when he was
made to understand that he had done some-
thing wrong. "

Sixteenth Month. On the 27th of Novem-
ber he pronounced several words distinctly
and knew their meaning, namely papa and
mamma;* he did not use them, however, to

* At fourteen months, three weeks, the child which Mr.
Taine observed understood several words and pronounced
some while attaching to them their proper meaning: papa,
mamma, tata(food), oua-oua (dog), dada (horse, wagon), coco
(chicken), mia (puss, cat), etc. This incipient rocabulary
offers to Mr. Taine an opportunity for the interesting dem-
onstration of the child's ability to seize analogies and to en-
large the meaning of the names which we have given him

34 Perez's Translation of

call anybody, but rather almost accidentally
without wishing to express anything by them.
There were some sounds however which had
^ signification with the child, as for instance,
"ha! ha!"; "indeed the sound ha seems nat-
urally to express reflection to astonishment:
It is produced by the sudden expulsion of
suppressed breath, and it has been suppressed
because the unexpected appearance of what
is strange or bizarre arrests the course of

to imitate. Between the fifteenth and the seventeenth
months the child understands the meaning and intonation of
many phrases, but he has learned or invented very few new
words. The principal words are: Pa (Paul), Babert (Gilbert),
bebe (baby), baba (the groat), cola chocolate), oua-oua (any-
thing good to eat), ham (eat, I want to eat). The ground
covered by each of these wordif is enlarged or restricted in
proportion to the intellectual progress of the child. But
from the very beginning and instinctively, says Mr. Taine,
-the child made them serve for general terms. The word
" ham " is attributed to the child's own invention. " It is
the vocal gesture of one who snaps at something; it begins
with a guttural aspiration not far removed from a bark and
nds in a closing of the lips as if the food had been seized
and swallowed ; a man would make the same sign if he
found himself with bound hands among the savages and had
only his vocal organs to express himself and wished to say
that he would like to eat." The explanation is at least in-
genious ; I add to it that it has a scientific appearance and
has seemed plausible to Mr. Darwin. The '"ham" of Mr.
Taine has with him the corresponding word " mum ^(food,
give me to eat), and he also attributes it to the child's initia-

Tiedemann's $ssay on Infancy.

ideas which then suddenly take another direc-
tion.'^ This physiological explanation may
be of value ; it is easy to verify its exact-
ness. The child whose organs had not had
sufficient exercise supplied by his gestures a
substitute for the long words which he omit-
ted. One could observe indications of this
kind and they gave evidence of the coodina-
tion of ideas going on in him and allowed us
to recognize a beginning of individual poetic
force. He had been taught to reply to the
questions "How. tall are you?" by raising
his hands in the air; he is asked to pronounce
grandmamma, and, as if it were too difficult
for him to pronounce grand he raised his
hands and added the word "mamma."* To-
wards the middle of this month, his sight
was "well trained in projective. He liked
to look at images ; he knew how to distin-
guish in the engravings objects which were
familiar to him, although they were repre-
sented on a small scale."

* In German as well as in French the word for tall and
the first syllable of the word grandmother are identical ;
44 tall " is in French grand. Hence the child's attempt to
express the first syllable in " grandmother " by the. same
gesture which he used to express how tall he was.

36 Perez's Translation of

Seventeenth Month. Sympathy and self-
love developed more and more; he showed
evident pleasure when a person laughed at
his plays and when he was praised. He
even tried to make people laugh by assum-
ing various postures, for he already wanted
to walk alone. This tendency to play the
joke may be observed much earlier, as Dar-
win has remarked and as I have indicated
myself. Likewise the other progress which
Tiedemann has recorded during this period
can be observed much earlier: the imitation
of various sounds, the speaking of significant
words, as for instance take, take, the point-
ing of the finger to known places, the ability
to recognize his own image in the. glass and
even his efforts towards imitating phrases,
which resulted in a "number of unintelli-
gible sounds/'

At this period his observation of new ob-
jects became more and more attentive and
analytical; he understood a large number of
phrases which he did not use himself; the
desire for praise and for the approval of
others increased.

Tiedemann's Essay on Infancy. 37

Eighteenth Month. I am astonished not
to find at this period a record of the agreea-
ble impression which light produces, and
especially the sight of the moon or of the
rays of the sun falling into the room.

Nineteenth MoniJi. Manifest progress in
language ; various objects called by name
when he saw them but the nouns with sev-
eral syllables pronounced with difficulty: us-
ually the last syllables, or the accented ones
are alone pronounced. " He did not seem to
be able to pronounce well the consonants, z,
set, w, st, sp, or the diphthongs ;*the easiest
consonants for him were p, t, k/' "A more
and more developed individuality manifested
itself in the evident pleasure which he took^
in doing that which presented some difficul-
ty : to get himself into a narrow corner, to
put himself into dangerous positions, to car-
ry heavy things, etc."

The greater the value of these observations
and of those of the previous months, the
more we must regret to find such a small
number of them in Tiedemann's essay.

Twentieth Month; "He could already
pronounce words of two syllables, knew al-

38 Perez's Translation of

most all the external parts of the body
(which other children do at an earlier peri-
od) ; almost everything in the room was
known to him by name."

Tiuenty-first Month. Nothing recorded.

Twenty-second MontJl. He began to put
together several words in order to form a
phrase composed of verb and subject; but he
always used the infinitive in place of the im-
perative and nominative,the article was entire-
ly omitted* (we should not forget the language
which young Tiedemann had to practice in
was German). Although he was ashamed
when he had soiled himself, and knew how to
ask to be cleaned, he had not yet sufficient
command over his organs to avoid uncleanli-
ness. " Jealousy and vanity developed more

* Mr. Egger has noticed at the twenty-eighth month, and
Mr. Pollock at the twenty-fourth, the progress which con-
sists in forming a phrase of three or four words. " Not open
this " meant: the window is closed; " no.curtain this," meant
the window has no curtain. Mr. Egger, who, as I take .it,
is rather too fond of discovering in the child the character-
istics of an inferior civilization, compares these awkward
forms of child-speech to the elliptic idiom of the negroes
" who borrow from the language of their masters but a lim-
ited number of the most neceisary words, which they jum-
ble together as necessity requires, -without any regard to
-conjugation or even to syntax."

Tiedemann's Essay on Infancy. 39

and more; when his little sister was being ca-
ressed, he came to be caressed also. He
tried to take away from her what was given
to her and even tried to strike her by stealth/'
These last traits are perfectly characteristic
of this age, and -even of the age of three or
four years.

Twenty -third Month. Tiedemann men-
tions a fact which to him indicates nothing
but a well exercised memory, but in which
we may see the incipient development of the


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