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HAND-BOOK

OF

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY

AND

ASTRONOMY^

BY DIONYSIUS LARDNER, D.C.L.

FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND ASTRONOMY
IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON.



SECOND COURSE.

HEAT COMMON ELECTEICITY MAGNETISM
VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY.



\VITH UPWARDS OF TWO HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS.



LONDON :
TAYLOR, WALTON, AND MABERLY,

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1852.



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New-street- Square.



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ADVERTISEMENT.



IN the composition of this Work the Author has had in view the
satisfaction of those who desire to ohtain a knowledge of the
elements of physics without pursuing them through their ma-
thematical consequences and details. The methods of demon-
stration and illustration have accordingly been adapted to such
readers.

The Work has been also composed with the object of sup-
plying that information relating to physical and mechanical
science, which is required by the Medical and Law Student,
the Engineer, and Artisan, by those who are preparing for the
universities, and, in short, by those, who, having already entered
upon the active pursuits of business, are still desirous to sustain
and improve their knowledge of the general truths of physics,
and of those laws by which the order and stability of the material
world are maintained.

According to the original plan of the Work, it was intended
to comprise Astronomy and Meteorology in the present volume,
and so to complete the series. It was found, however, that
these subjects, treated with the fulness and clearness commen-
surate with their importance, would swell the volume to an
objectionable bulk ; and the publishers considered that they
should best consult the interest and convenience of purchasers,
by consigning Astronomy and Meteorology to a separate volume.
A 2



20152 2



iv ADVERTISEMENT.

These will therefore form the third and concluding course of
this Handbook.

Facility of reference has been presented by the copious
analytical tables of contents, as well as by the distinct titles
prefixed to every paragraph, and by the Index given at the
end of each volume.

It is intended to annex to the concluding volume a general
Index to the three courses, which will confer upon the work all
the useful qualities of a compendious Encyclopedia of Physical
and Astronomical Science.



CONTENTS.



BOOK I.

Heat.



CHAP. I.

PRELIMINARY PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS.

Sect Page

1304. Heat ...... 1

1305. Sensible heat .... 16.

1306. Insensible heat .... ib.

1307. Dilatation and contraction - - ib.

1308. Liquefaction and solidification - 2

1309. Vaporization and condensation - ib.

1310. Incandescence .... ib.

1311. Combustion ..... 3

1312. Thermometers and pyrometers - ib.

1313. Conduction ..... ib.

1314. Radiation ..... 4



1315. Diathermanous media -

1316. Reflection of heat - - - ib.

1317. Refraction of heat ... 5

1318. Different senses of the terms heat

and caloric - - - - - ib.
ain thermal

- ib.



- -

1319. Hypothesis to explai
phenomena - -



CHAP. II.

THERMOMETRY.



- ib.

- 6

- ib.

- 7

- ib.



- 8

- 9



1320. Measures of temperature

1321. Thermoscopic substances

1322. Mercurial thermometer

1323. Preparation of the mercury

1324. Selection of the tube -

1325. Formation of the bulb -
13-26. Introduction of the mercury

1327. Thermometric scale arbitrary

1328. Standard points division of scale ib.

1329. Numeration of scale zero point 10

1330. No natural zero - ib.

1331. Phenomena fit to supply standard

points 16.

1332. Freezing and boiling points of

water adopted by common con-
sent ib.

1333. Determination of these points - 11

1334. Different thermometric units and

zeros Fahrenheit's scale - - ib.

1335. Centigrade scale - ... ib.

1336. Reaumur's scale - 12

1337. Methods of computing the tempe-

rature according to any one scale
when the temperature according
to any other is given ... ib.
A



Sect Page

1338. Rate of dilatation of mercury - 13

1339. Its dilatation uniform between

standard points - - - -14

1340. Use of a standard thermometer - ib.

1341. Range of the scale of thermome-

ters varies with purpose to which

they are applied - 15

1342. Qualities which render mercury a

convenient thermoscopic fluid - ib.

1343. Bulbs liable to a permanent change

of capacity, which renders cor-
rection of scale necessary - - ib.

1344. Self-registering thermometers . 16

1345. Spirit of wine thermometer - - ib.

1346. Air thermometer - - - - ib.

1347. Drebhel's air thermometer - - 17

1348. A monton's air thermometer - ib.

1349. The differential thermometer - ib.

1350. Pyrometers adapted to measure

high temperatures - - - 18

1351. Graduation of a pyrometer - - ib.

1352. Temperature of metallic standard

measures must be observed - 19

1353. Borda's pyrometric standard mea-

sure - - - 20

1354. Construction and use of a vernier 21



DILATATION OF SOLIDS.

1355. Solids least susceptible of dilata-

tion - - -

1356. Homogeneous solids dilate equally

throughout their volume -

1357. Dilatation of volume and surface

computed from linear dilatation

1358. Dilatation of solids uniform be-

tween the standard thermome-
tric points -

1359. Dilatations cease to be uniform

near the point of fusion -

1360. Exceptional cases presented by

certain crystals - - - -

1361. Tabular statement of the rate of

dilatation of solids - - -

1362. Measure of the force of dilatation

and contraction of solids -

1363. Practical application of the forces

of dilatation and contraction in
drawing together the walls of a
building .....



Sect. Page

1364. Moulds for casting in metal must

be larger than the objects to be

1365. Hoops and tires tightened by the

contraction in cooling - - 27

1366. Compensators necessary in all me-

tallic buildings ... - ib.

1367. Blistering and cracking of lead

and zinc roofs * ib.

1368. Metallic inlaying liable to start - ib.

1369. Compensating pendulum - - ib.

1370. Harrison's gridiron pendulum . 28

1371. Bars of different metals mutually

attached are curved by dilata-
tion and contraction - - -29

1372. Application of this principle to

compensation pendulums - -50

1373. Its application to balance wheels - ib.



CHAP. IV.

DILATATION OF GASES.

1374. Volume of gaseous bodies depen-
dent on pressure and tempera-
ture - - - 31

1375.. Method of observing the dilatation

of gases under uniform pressure ib.

1376. Dilatation of gaseous bodies uni-

form and equal - - - . S3

1377. Amount of this dilatation ascer-

tained ib.

1373. Increment of volume correspond.

ing to 1 ib.

1379. Experiments of Gay Lussac, Du-

long and Petit, showing uni-
formity and equality of expan-
sion 34

1380. This result qualified by researches

of Rudberg and Regnault - - ib.

1381. Formula to compute the change

of volume of a gas corresponding
to a given change of tempera-
ture 35

1382. Increaseof pressure due to increase

of temperature - 37

1383. Formula? expressing the general

relation between the volume,
temperature, and pressure - ib.

1384. Examples of the effects of dilata-

tion and contraction - 38
1.385. Ventilation and warming of build-
ings ib.

1386. Effects of open fire-places and close

stoves - .... 39

1387. Methods of warming apartments - ib.

1388. Principle of an Argrind lamp - 40
1.3^9. Cau-e of atmospheric currents - 41
1390. Ex;>eriments illustrating the ex-
pansion and contraction of air - Hi.



CHAP. V.

DILATATION OP LIQUIDS.

1S91. L'quid a state of transition - - 42

1392. Rate of dilatation of liquids in ge-
neral uniform - 43

1S93. Specific gravity of liquid varies

with its temperature - - ib.

1394. Rates of dilatation of liquids - ib.



Sect. Page

1395. Exceptional phenomena mani-

fested by water approaching its
freezing point - 43

1396. Temperature of greatest density - 44
1597. Taken as the basis of the French

metrical system - - - ib.

1398. Effect of the relative densities of

different strata of the same
liquid - - - - -Hi.

1399. Process of heating a liquid - - 45

1400. Heat does not descend in a liquid ib.

1401. Experiments showing the propaga-

tion of heat through a liquid by
currents - - - - - ib.

1402. Method of warming buildings by

hot water - - - 46



; CHAP. vi.

CALORIMETRY.

1403. Quantitative analysis of heat - 47

1404. Calorimetry and thermometry - ib.

1405. Thermal unit - ib.

1406. Specific heat ib.

1407. Uniform and variable - 48

1408. Methods of solving calorimetric

problems - - - - - ib.

1409. Calorimeter of Lavoisier and La-

place t*.

1410. Application of calorimeter to de-

termine specific heat - - 50

1411. Specific heat of water uniform - ib.

1412. Method of ascertaining the specific

heat of other bodies by calori-
meter 51

1413. Method of equalization of tempe-

rature - ... ,b.

1414. Application of this method - - 52

1415. Method of cooling - - 53

1416. Results of calorimetric researches ib.

1417. Relation of specific heat to density ib.

1418. The fire syringe - - - - ib.

1419. Specific heat of gases and vapours

increases as their density is di-
minished - - - - - ib.

1420. Specific heat under constant pres-

sure and constant volume - 54

1421. Greater under a constant pressure ib.

1422. Example of the expansion of high

pressure steam - - - - ib.

1423. Low temperature of superior strata

of atmosphere - - - . ib.

1424. Line of perpetual snow - - 55

1425. Liquefaction of gases - - - ib.

1426. Development and absorption of

heat by chemical combination - 56

1427. Specific heats of simple gases equal

under the same pressure - - ib.

1428. Formula for the variation of spe-

cific heat consequent on change
of pressure - 57

1429. Relation between specific heat and

atomic weight - ib.

1430. Tables of specific heat - 58



CHAP. VII.

LIQUEFACTION AND SOLIDIFICATION.

1431. Thermal phenomena attending li-
quefaction - - - -



, CONTENTS.



vii



Sect. Page

1432. Phenomen* developed in progress

of these changes - - - 64

1433. Heat received by melting ice during

liquefaction latent - - - ib.

1434. Quantity of heat rendered latent

in liquefaction - 65

1435. When ice is liquefied quantity of

heat absorbed - ib.

1436. Latent heat of water - - - ib.

1437. Latent heat rendered sensible by

congelation - ib.

1458. Latent heat of water in liquid state
gradually disengaged in process
of congelation - 66

1439. Other methods of determining la-

tent heat of water - ib.

1440. Experimental illustration of this - 67

1441. Liquefaction and congelation must

always be gradual processes - ib.

1442. Processes of congelation and lique-

faction - - - i6.
1143. Water may continue in liquid state

below 32 - - - 68

1444. Explanation of this anomaly - ib.

1445. Useful effects produced by the heat

absorbed in liquefaction and de-
veloped in congelation of water 69

1446. Heat absorbed and developed in the

liquefaction and solidification of
other bodies - ib,

1447. Latent heat of fusion - 70

1448. Points of fusion - - - - ib.

1449. Latent heat of fusion of certain

bodies 72

1450. Facility of liquefaction propor-

tional to the quantity of latent
heat - - - ib.

1451. Other bodies besides water may

continue liquid below the point
of solidification - - - - 73

1452. Refractory bodies - ib.

1453. Alloys liquefy more easily than

their constituents - ib.

1454. Some bodies in fusing pass through

different degrees of fluidity - 74

1455. Singular effects manifested by sul-

phur ib.

1456. Points of congelation lowered by

the solution of foreign matter - ib.

1457. Points of congelation of acid solu-

tions - ib.

1458. Sudden change of volume accom-

panies congelation - ib.

1459. This expansion in the case of water

not identical with that which
lakes place below the point of
greatest density - - - 75
1160. The quantity of expansion pro-
duced in congelation is the same
for the same liquid, at whatever
temperature congelation takes
place ib.

1461. Phosphorus and oils in general

contract in congealing - - 76

1462. Some bodies expand and some con-

tract in congelation - - - ib.
14^3. Why coin is stamped and not cast ib.

1464. Contraction of mercury in cooling ib.

1465. Substances which soften before

fusion 77

14R6. Weldable metals - - - - ib.

1467. Freezing mixtures - - - ib.

1468. Apparatus for producing artificial

cold 79



Sect. Page

1469. TaWe of freezing mixtures - - 80

1470. Extraordinary degrees of artificial

cold produced by Thirolier and
Mitchell ib,

1471. Alcohol^probably congeals at about

1472. Precaution necessary in experi-

ments with freezing mixtures - ib.

1473. Greatest natural cold yet observed ib.

1474. Principle of fluxes. Example of

their application - - - ib.

1475. Infusible bodies - - - - 82

1476. Marble may be fused - 83

1477. Organic bodies are decomposed

before fusion - ib.

1478. Water separated from matter held

in solution by congelation - ib.

1479. Saturated solutions partially de-

composed by cooling - - 84

1480. Anomalous case of anhydrous sul-

phate of soda - ib.

1481. Case in which the matter held in

solution congeals with the water 85

1482. Dutch tears - - - - - ib.
1433. Use of annealing in glass manu-
facture and pottery - ib.

1484. Tempering steel - - - , 86



CHAP. VIII.

VAPORIZATION AND CONDENSATION.

1485. Evaporation of liquids in free air ib.

1486. Apparatus for observing the pro-

perties of vapour ... fo.
14S7. Vapour of liquid an elastic, trans-
parent, and invisible fluid like

1488. How its pressure is indicated and

measured - - - - - ib.

1489. When a space is saturated with

vapour - - - 89

1490. Quantity of vapour in saturated

space depends on temperature - 90

1491. Relation between pressure, tempe-

rature, and density - - - 91

1492. Pressure, temperature, and density

of the vapour of water - - ib.

1493. Vapour produced from water at all

temperatures, however low - ib.

1494. Mechanical force developed in eva-

poration 92

1495. Vapour separated from a liquid

may be dilated by heat like any
gaseous body - - - - 95

1496. Peculiar properties of superheated

vapour - - - - - ib.

1497. Vapour cannot be reduced to the

liquid state by mere compression 96
1493. Vapour which has the greatest
density due to its temperature
under any given pressure will
have the greatest density at all
other pressures, provided it do
not gain or lose heat while the
pressure is changed - - - ib.

1499. Compression facilitates the abstrac-

tion of heat by raising the tem-
perature, and" thus facilitating
condensation - 97

1500. Permanent gases are superheated

vapours - - - - - ib.

4



Till



CONTENTS.



Sect. Page

1501. Processes by which gases have been

liquefied or solidified - -97
1500. Gases which have been liquefied - 98

1503. At extreme pressures gases depart

from the common law of the
density being proportional to
pressure - - - 99

1504. State of ebullition ... - ib.

1505. Boiling point varies with the pres-

sure - - - ib.

1506. Experimental verification of this

principle 100

1507. At elevated stations water boils at

low temperatures - ib.

1508. Table of the boiling pointsof water

at various places - 101

1509. Latent heat of vapour - - - ib.

1510. Different estimates of the latent

heat of th e vapour of water - 1 03

1511. Heat absorbed in evaporation at

different temperatures - - ib.

1512. Latent heat of vapour of water as-

certained by Regnault - - 104

1513. Latent heat of other vapours as-

certained by Fabre and Silber-
mann - - - - - ib.

1514. Condensation of vapour - -105

1515. Why vessels in which liquids are

boiled are not destroyed by ex-
cessive heat - - - - ib.

1516. Uses of latent heat of steam in do-

mestic economy - 106

1517. Method of warming dwelling-

houses - - - - - ib.

1518. Effects of the temperature of dif-

ferent climates on certain liquids ib.



CHAP. IX.

CONDUCTION.

1519. Good and bad conductors - - 107

1520. Experimental illustration of con-

duction it,.

1521. Table of conducting powers - 108

1522. Liquids and gases are non-con-

ductors 109

1523. Temperature equalized in these by

circulation - - - - ib.

1524. Conducting power diminished by

subdivision and pulverization - 110

1525. Beautiful examples of this prm-

ciple in the animal economy - ib.
152fi. Uses of the plumage of birds " - ib.

1527. The wool and fur of animals - 111

1528. The bark of vegetables - - ib.

1529. Properties of the artificial clothing

of man - - - - - ib.

1530. Effects of snow on the soil in winter >b.
1.531. Matting upon exotics - - -112

1532. Method of preserving ice in hot

climates - - - - - ib.

1533. Glass and porcelain vessels why

broken by hot water - - - ib.
153*. Wine coolers .... ib.

1535. A heated globe cools inwards - ib.

1536. Example of a fluid metal cast in

spherical mould - - - 113

1537. Cooling process may be indefinitely

protracted - - - - ib,

1538. Example of the casting of the hy-

draulic press which raised the
Britannia bridge - - . ib.



Sect Page

1539. Example of streams of volcanic

1540. Example of the earth itself - - ib.

1541. Temperature increases with the

depth ib.

1542. The earth was formerly in a state

of fusion, and is still cooling - 115

CHAP. X.

RADIATION.

1543. Heat radiates like light - - ib~

1544. Thermal analysis of solar light - itf

1545. Thermal solar rays differently re-

frangible 116

15ia Physical analysis of solar light

Three spectra - ib.

1547. Relative refrangibility of the con-

stituents of solar light varies with
the refracting medium - - 117

1548. Invisible rays may be luminous

and all rays may be thermal - ib.

1549. Refraction of invisible thermal rays 118

1550. Heat radiated from each point on

the surface of a body - - - ib.

1551. Why bodies are not therefore in-

definitely cooled - - - 119

1552. Radiation is superficial or nearly so ib.

1553. Reflection of heat- - - - ib.

1554. Rate of radiation proportional to

excess of temperature of radia-
tor above surrounding medium 120

1555. Intensity inversely as square of

distance ib.

1556. Influence of surface on radiating

power - - - - - ib,
15. r >7. Reflection of heat - ... ib.

1558. Absorption of heat - - -121

1559. Tabular statement of radiating and

reflecting powers ... ib.

1560. Singular anomaly in the reflection

from metallic surfaces - - 122

1561. Thermal equilibrium maintained

by the interchange of heat by ra-
diation and absorption - - ib.

1562. Erroneous hypothesis of radiation

of cold 123

1563. Transmission of heat - - - ib.

1564. Melloni's thermoscopic apparatus ib.

1565. Results of Melloni's researches - 125

1566. Transparent media not proportion-

ally diathermanous - - - ib.

1567. Decomposition of heat by absorp-

tion ib.

1563. Absorption not superficial but li-
mited to a certain depth - - 126

1569. Physical conditions of diatherma-

nism 127

Iu70. Refraction and polarization of heat 128

1571. Application of these principles to

explain various phenomena - ib.

1572. Experiment of radiated and re-



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