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Anode, 394.

Arago's electro-magnetic researches, 351.

Armatures, 185.

Armstrong's hydro-electrical machine, 210.

Astatic needle, 187.

Athermanous media, 123.

Atmosphere, low temperature of, superior

strata of, 54.; non-conductor of electricity,

198.

Attraction, magnetic, 152. ; electric, 189.

Aurora borealis, Influence of on magnetic

needle, 179.

Austral fluid, 155.

Axis, magnetic, 153. ; of circulating galvanic

current, 321.

Azimuth compass, 165.

Babbage's electro-magnetic researches, 351.

Bagration's galvanic system, 283.

Bain's electro-chemical telegraph, 436.

Balance-wheels, compensation of, 30.

Bar, magnetic, 161.

Battery, electric, 231 . ; voltaic, 280. 440.

Becquerel's galvanic system, 283. ; electro-

chemical researches, 405.

Bells, electric, 246.

Birds, plumage of, its uses, 110.

Blood, temperature of in human species,

Boiling point, 10. 99.

Boreal fluid, 155.

Buildings, metallic, 27.; warming, 38. 46.

106.; ventilation of, 38.

Bulb,thermometric, 7. ; liable to permanent

charge of capacity, 15.

Buusen's galvanic battery, 280.

Calcium, 418.

Caloric, 5.

Calorimeter, 48.

Calorimetry, 47. ; method of solving calori-

metric problems, 48.

Cavendish's electric barometer, 259.

Centigrade scale, 11.

Chemical effects of electricity, 264.

Chemistry, electro-, 393.

Children's great galvanic plate pile, 293.

Circuit, voltaic, 298. See Electricity.

Clothing, its properties, 111.

Cold, greatest natural, 81.

Combustibles, 3. 134.; illuminating power

of, 135.; constituents of, 135.; quantity of

heat developed by, 136.

Combustion, 3. 132. ; agency of oxygen in,

133.; combustibles, 134.; explained, 134.

temperature necessary to produce, 134.;

illuminating power of combustibles, 135.;

constituents of combustibles, 135.

Compass, azimuth, 165.; mariner's, 166.

Compensators, 27.

Compression of vapour, 96.

Coercive force, 156.

Coin, why stamped, not cast, 76.

Condensation, 2. 86.; of vapour, 105.

Condenser, electric, 214. ; principle of, 216. ;

forms of Culhbertson's, 218.

Conduction, heat, 107.; electricity, 196.;

magnetic, 3. 107.; electric, 196.

Conductibility, 3.

Conductors, heat, 4.; good and bad, 107.;

electric, 196. 237. ; connecting galvanic

elements, 292.

Congelation, 2. 67. ; latent heat rendered

sensible by, 65.; points of, 74.; of alcohol,

Contraction, 1.29 ; of solids, 26.; of mercury

in cooling, 76.

Coulomb's electroscope, 222.

Couronne des lasses, 289.

Crosse's electro-chemical researches, 406.

Cruikshank's galvanic arrangement, 290.

Currents, atmospheric, cause of, 41.; voltaic,

296. See Electricity ; rectilinear, 300. ;

indefinite, 300. ; closed, 300. ; circular or

spiral, 300. ; circulating, 320. ; spiral and

heliacal, 322. ; thermo-electric , 385.

Cuthbertson's electric condenser, 2. 218.

Dance, electric, 247.

Daniel's constant galvanic battery, 281. 294.

Davy, galvanic pile, 293. ; experiments in

electro-chemistry, 409. ; method of pre-

serving copper sheathing, 421. See Elec-

tricity.

Declination, 168. ; in different longitudes,

172. ; observed at Paris, 175.

Dena<*rator, galvanic, 293. 439.

Delarive's floating electro-magnetic appa-

ratus, 323.

Deluc's galvanic pile, 295.

Density, effect of relation of different strata

of same liquid, 44. ; relation of specific

heat to, 53.

Dew, principles of, 131.

453

Diathermanous media, 4. 123.

Dilatation. 1. 29.; of mercury, rate of, 13. ;

of solids, 22. ; of gases, 31 ; of gases differs

with change of pressure and temperature,

34.; of liquids, 42. ; rates of, of liquids, 43.

Dip, lines of equal, 171.; local, 173.; ob-

served at Paris, 175.

Dipping-needle. 167.

Discharging-rod, 213.

Distributor, electro-magnetic, 340.

Dutch tears, 85.

Earth, temperature of globe of, 114 ; analogy

of, to magnet, 164. 170. ; direction of mag-

netic attraction of, 353. ; magnetism, 379.

Ebullition, 99.

Electrical attractions and repulsions, 189.

Electrical machines, 207. See Machines.

Electric lamps, 445.

Electric light, 443.

Electricity, 189. ; attraction and repulsion,

189. ; origin of name, 189. ; fluid, 190. ;

. positive and negative, 191. ; single electric

fluid, 191.; two fluids, 192.; vitreous and

resinous and positive and negative fluids,

192. ; developed by various bodies, 193. ;

positive and negative substances, 194.;

method of producing by glass and silk,

195.; conduction, 196.; conductors and

non-conductors, 196.; insulators, 197.;

insulating stools, 197. ; induction, 202.;

electrical machines, 207. ; condenser and

electrophorous, 214.; dissimulated or la-

tent, 217. ; free, 217. ; electroscopes, 220. ;

Leyden jar, 224. ; charging a series of jars

by cascade, 231.; electric battery, 231.;

laws of electrical forces, 234. ; proof plane,

235. ; electrical orrery, 240. ; mechanical

effects of. 241. ; attractions and repulsions

of electrified bodies, 241. ; electrical bells,

246. ; electric dance, 247. ; electrical see-

saw, 249. ; thermal effects of, 249. ; igni-

tion of metals, 250. ; electric pistol, 251. ;

gunpowder exploded, 252. ; Kinnersley's

electrometer, 252. ; luminous effects of,

253.; electric spark, 254.; imitation of

auroral light, 257. ; Leichtenberg's figures,

257. ; experiments, indicating difference

between the two fluids, 258. ; Cavendish's

electric barometer, 259. ; thermal hypo-

thesis, 259. ; physiological effects of, 261. ;

chemical and magnetic effects of, 264.;

Voltaic, 67. ; discovery of galvanism, 67. ;

contact hypothesis of Volta, 269 ; electro-

motive force, 269. ; classification of bodies

as to electro-motive property, 270. ; elec-

tro-motive action of gases and liquids,

272. ; polar arrangement of fluids in elec-

tro-motive combinations, 274. ; positive

and negative poles, 274. ; Volta 's first

combination, 278.; Wollaston's combina-

tion, 278. ; Hare's spiral arrangement,

278. ; cylindrical combination with one

fluid, 279. ; with two fluids, 280. ; Grove's

battery, 280. ; Bunsen's battery, 280. ;

Daniel's constant battery, 281. ; Pouillet's

modification, 281. ; Smee's battery, 282. ;

Wheatstone's system, 283. ; Bagration's

system, 283. ; Becquerel's system, 283. ;

Schonbein's modification of Bunsen's bat-

tery, 284. ; Grove's gas electro-motive

apparatus, 284. ; Volta's invention of the

pile, 2S5.; Couronnedestasses,289.; Cruik-

shank's arrangement, 290. ; Wollaston's

arrangement, 290. ; heliacal pile of Faculty

of Sciences at Paris, 291 . ; conductors con-

necting the elements, 292. ; memorable

piles, 293. ; Davy's pile, 293. ; Napoleon's

pile, 293. ; Children's great plate batterr

293. ; Hare's deflagrator, 293. ; Stratingh's

deflagrator, 293. ; Pepys's pile, 294. ; bat-

teries on Daniel and Grove's principles

294.; dry piles, 294.; Deluc's pile 295. ^

/amboni's pile, 295. ; piles of a single

metal, 295. ; Hitter's secondary piles, 296. ;

Voltaic currents, 296. ; direction of curl

rent, 297.; poles of pile, 298.- voltaic

circuit, 298. ; method of coating conduct-

ing wires, 301 .; supports of wires, 301-304.;

Ampdre's method to reverse current, 301.

Pohl's reotrope, 303.; electrodes, 303.;

Ampere's apparatus for supporting move-

able currents, 304. ; reciprocal influence

of rectilinear currents and magnets, 305.

electro-magnetism, 305. ; effect of shock

on bodies recently deprived of life, 447

on a leech, 447. ; excitation of nerves of

taste, 448. ; of nerves of sight, 448. ; of

nerves of hearing, 448. ; supposed sources

of electricity in animal organization, 448.;

electrical fishes, 449. ; properties of the

torpedo, 449. ; the electric organ, 450.

Electricfty, thermo-, 384.; thermo-electric

current, 385.; Pouillet's thermo-electric

apparatus, 386.; conducting powers of me-

tals, 389.; thermo-electric piles, 391.-

electro-chemistry, 393.; electrolytes and

electrolysis, 393. ; Faraday's electro-che-

mical nomenclature, 393. ; positive and

negative element, 394. ; electrolysis of

water, 395.; Mitscherlich's apparatus, 397.-

compoundssusceptibleofelectrolysis,4()2.;

electro-negative bodies, 403. ; electro-posi-

tive bodies, 403. ; researches of Becquerel

and Crosse, 405. ; Faraday's voltameter

407. ; Faraday's law, 407. ; Sir H. Davy's

experiments, 409. ; Faraday's doctrine,

412. ; Pouillet's observations, 414. ; Davy's

experiments confirmed by Becquerel,414.

liquid electrodes, 416. ; electrolysis of the

alkalis and earths, 418. ; the series of new

metals, 418. ; Schoubein's experiments on

the passivity of iron, 419. ; tree of Saturn,

420. ; Davy's method of preserving copper

sheathing, 421.; calorific, luminous, and

physiological effects of voltaic current

438. ; Hare and Children's deflagrators,

439. ; Wollaston's thimble battery, 440. ;

Jacobi's fexperiments on conduction by

water, 441.; combustion of the metals,

442. ; electric light, 443. ; electric lamps,

445.

Electrodes, 303. 394.

Electro-chemistry, 393.

Electrolysis, 393. ; compounds, susceptible

of, 402.

Electrolytic classification of the simple

bodies, 403.

Electrolytes, 393.

Electro-magnets, 335.

Electro-magnetism : apparatus to exhibit

direction of force impressed by a rectili-

near current on a magnetic pole, 309.

apparatus to measure intensity of such

force, 310. ; apparatus to illustrate electro-

magnetic rotation, 315.; Ampere's method,

318. ; reciprocal influence of circulating

currents and magnets. 320. ; circulating

current, 320. ; axis of current, 321 . ; spiral

and heliacal currents, 322.; Ampere's and

454

Delarive's apparatus, 323. ; instable equi-

librium of current, 325. ; right-handed

and left-handed helices,326. ; electro-mag-

netic induction, 331. ; Savary's experi-

ments, 333.; electro-magnets, 335.; electro-

magnetic power employed as a mechanical

agent, 336. ; electro-motive power applied

by M. Froment, 337. ; electro-motive ma-

chines constructed by him, 339. ; distribu-

tor, 340. ; regulator, 343. ; use of a contact

breaker, 34S. ; magneto-electric machines,

348. ; effects of momentary inductive cur-

rents produced upon revolving metallic

disks, 351 .; researches of Arago, Herschel,

Babbage, and Faraday, 351. ; influence of

terrestrial magnetism on voltaic currents,

353. ; direction of earth's magnetic attrac-

tion, 353.; Pouillet's apparatus to exhibit

effects of (earth's magnetism, 3*7. ; Am-

pere's rectangle, 362. ; reciprocal influence

of voltaic currents, 363. ; voltaic theory of

magnetism, 378. ; reoscopes and reome-

ters, 3-*0. ; differential reometer, 384.

Electro-magnetic induction, 331.

Electro-metallurgy, 425. ; production of

metallic moulds, 428. ; production of ob-

jects in solid metal, 428. ; reproduction of

stereotypes and engraved plates, 429. ;

metallizing textile fabrics, 429. ; glypho-

graphy, 430. ; reproduction of Daguerre-

otype, 430.

Electro-motive force, 269.

Electro-negative bodies, 403.

Electro-positive bodies, 403.

Electrophorous, 214 219.

Electroscopes, 220. ; pith-ball, 221 . ; needle,

221.; Coulomb's, 222.; quadrant, 222. ;

gold leaf, 222. ; condensing, 223.

Electro-telegraphy, 431.; conducting wires,

432. ; earth best conductor, 432.; telegra-

phic signs, 433.; Morse's system, 436.;

electro-chemical telegraphy, 436. ; Bain's

telegraph, 436.

Element, positive, 394. ; negative, 394.

Equator, magnetic, 149. 170.

Evaporation, 86. ; mechancal force de-

veloped in, 92. ; heat absorbed In, 103.

Faraday's electro-magnetic researches, 351 . ;

electro-chemical nomenclature, 393. ; vol-

tameter, 407. ; electro-chemical law, 407.

See Electricity.

Fire-eaters, feats of, explained, 147.

Fireplaces, 39.

Fishes, electric, 449.

Flame, 133.

Fluid, magnetic, 155. ; electric, 190.; posi-

tive, 192. ; negative, 192. ; vitreous, 192. ;

resinous, 192. ; experiments indicating

specific difference between two electric,

258.

Fluxes, 81. j principle of, 81.; application,

Forces (electrical), laws of, 234.

Freezing mixtures, 77. 80. ; apparatus, 79.

French metrical system, 44.

Froment's electro-magnetic machines, 337.

Froast (hoar), principles of, 131.

Fusion 2. ; latent heat of, 70. ; points of, 70 ;

substances which soften before, 77. ; in-

fusible bodies, 82.

Galvanism, 269.

Galvanometer, 382.

Gases, dilatation of, 31 . ; liquefaction of, 55.

97. ; permanent, 97.'; solidification of, 97. ;

under extreme pressures, 99.; non-con-

ductors of heat, 109.

Graduation of thermometers, 9. ; of pyro-

meters, 18.

Gravity, specific, of liquid, 43.

Grove's galvanic battery, 280. 294.; gas

electro-motive apparatus, 284.

Hare's deflagrator, 293.

Hare's spiral galvanic arrangement, 278.

Harrison's pendulum, 28.

Heat, 1. 5. ; sensible, 1.; insensible, 1.,

latent, 1. 65. 101.; heating liquid, 45.;

does not descend in liquid, 45. ; propagation

of, through liquid by currents, 45. ; quan-

titative analysis of, 47. ; specific, 47. 58. ;

uniform and variable, 48. ; development

and absorption of by chemical combina-

tion, 56. 132.; specific of simple gases

equal under same pressure, 57. ; relation

between specific and atomic weight, 57. ;

rendered latent in liquefaction, 65. ; latent

rendered sensible by congelation, 65.; la-

tent, of fusion, 70. ; absorbed in evapora-

tion at different temperatures, 103. ; ra-

diation of, 115.; reflection of, 119. 12^.;

absorption of, 121.; transmission of, 123.;

decomposition of by absorption, 125.; re-

fraction of, 128.; polarization of, 128.;

Quantity of developed by combustibles,

36. ; animal, 138.; experiments to ascer-

tain rate of development of animal, 142. ;

total quantity of animal explained by

chemical laws, 143.; sensation of, 144.;

touch, fallacious measure of, 145.

Heliacal galvanic pile of Paris, 291.

Helices. See Electricity.

Herschel's electro-magnetic researches, 351 .

Hydraulic press, Britannia bridge, casting

of, 113.

Ice, method of preserving, 112.; production

of artificial, 79. 132.

Incandescence, 2.

Induction, magnetic, 156.; electric, 202.;

effects of, 179.; electro-magnetic, 331.

Influence of voltaic currents and magnets,

306. 363.

Influence of terrestrial magnetism on voltaic

currents, 353.

Infusible bodies, 82.

Inlaying, metallic, 27.

Insulating stools, 197. 212.

Insulators, 197.

Isogonic lines, 173.

Jacobi's experiments on electric conduction

by water, 441 .

Kathion, 394.

Kathode, 394.

Keepers, 185.

Kinnersley's electrometer, 252.

Lamp, Argand, 40. ; electric, 445.

Laplace's calorimeter, 48.

Lavoisier's calorimeter, 48.

Leyden jar, 22-1. ; improved form of, 230.

Light, solar, thermal analysis of, 115.; phy-

sical analysis of, 116.; electric, 443.

Lines of equal dip, 171.; agonic, 172.; iso-

gonic, 173. ; isodynamic, 176.

Liquefaction, 2. 67. ; of gases, 55. 97. ; ther-

mal phenomena attending, 63. ; facility of

455

proportional

to latent heat, 72. ; of alloys

Liquids, dilatation of, 42.; effects of tempe-

ratures of different climates on, 106. ; non-

conductors of heat, 109.; materials fitted

for vessels to keep warm, 129.

Loadstone, 149.

Luminous effects of electricity, 253.

Machines, electrical, 207.; parts of, 207.;

common cylindrical, 207. ; Nairne's cylin-

der, 209. ; common plate, 209. ; Arm-

strong's hydro-electrical, 210. ; appen-

dages to, 212.

Magnetic effects of electricity, 264.

Magnetism, 149. ; equator, 149. 170. ; poles,

149.; pendulum, 151.; attraction and re-

pulsion, 152. ; axis, 153.; boreal and aus-

tral fluids, 155. ; coercive force, 156. ; sub-

stances, 156. ; induction, 156. ; decompo-

sition of fluid, 159. ; effects of heat on,

162.; terrestrial, 164.; meridian, 168.

171.; declination or variation, 168.; va-

riation of dip, 170. ; lines of equal dip,

171.; agonic lines, 172.; isogonic lines,

173. ; local dip, 173. ; position of mag-

netic poles, 173. ; intensity of terrestrial,

175.; isodynamic lines, 176.; diurnal va-

riation of needle, 177. ; influence of au-

rora borealis, 179.; voltaic theory of, 378.

See Electricity.

Magnetization, 179.; effects of induction,

179.; method of single touch, 181.; of

double touch, 182.; magnetic saturation,

183.; limit of magnetic force, 183. ; effects

of terrestrial magnetism on bars, 184.;

armatures or keepers, 185. ; compound

magnets, 186.; influence of heat on mag-

netic bars, 186. ; astatic needle, 187.

Magnets, electric machines, 348. See Elec.

tricity.

Magnets, natural, 149.; artificial, 149. 180. ;

compound, 161. 186.; with consequent

points, 163. ; best material, form, and

method of producing artificial, 180. ; elec-

tro-magnet, 335. See Electricity.

Marble, fusible, 83.

Mariner's compass, 166.

Matting on exotics, its use, 112.

Mechanical effects of electricity, 241.

Melloni's thermoscopic apparatus, 123.;

thermo-electric pile, 392.

Mercury, preparation of, for thermometer,

7. ; introduction in tube, 8. ; rate of dila-

tation of, 13. ; qualities which render it a

convenient thermoscopic fluid, 15.

Meridian, magnetic, 168. 171.; true, 168.;

terrestrial, 168.

Metals, weldable, 77. ; ignition of, hy elec-

tricity, 250. ; electric conducting power of,

389. ; new, 418.

Mitscherlich's electro-chemical apparatus,

Moisture, deposit of on windows, 129.

Moulds for casting metal, 26. ; electro-me-

tallurgic, 428.

Morse's electric telegraph, 436.

Multiplier, electro-magnetic, 382.

Nairne's cylinder electrical machine, 209.

Napoleon, galvanic pile, 293.

Needle, magnetic, 161.; dipping, 167.; di-

urnal variation of, 179. ; influence of

aurora borealis on, 179. ; astatic, 187.

Nobili's reometer, 383.; Thermo-electric

pile, 392.

Non-conductors, electric, 196.

Oils, congelation of, 76.

Orrery, electric, 240.

Oxygen, its agency in combustion, 133.

Pendulum, compensating, 27. ; Harrison's

gridiron, 28.; magnetic, 151.

Pepys' galvanic pile, 294.

Physiological effects of electricity, 261.

Phosphorus, congelation of, 76.

Piles, galvanic. See Electricity Thermo-

electric, 391.

Pistol, electric, 251.

Platinum rendered incandescent, 135.

Pohl's reotrope, 303.

Point, standard, in thermometer, 9. ; freez-

ing, 10. ; boiling, 10. 99. ; of fusion, 70. ;

of congelation, 74.; consequent, 163.;

electric conductors with, 237. ; consequent,

electro-magnetic, 332.

Polarization, heat, 128.

Poles, magnetic, 149. 168. ; position of mag-

netic, 173. ; electric, positive and negative,

274. ; of galvanic pile, 298.

Potassium, 418.

Pouillet's modification of Daniel's battery,

281 .; apparatus to exhibit effects of earth's

magnetism, 357. ; thermo-electric appa-

ratus, 386.

Pressure, 31."

Proof-plane, 235.

Pyrometer, 3. 18. ; graduation of, 18.

Radiation, 4. 115. ; rate of heat, 120.; inten-

sity of, 120. ; influence of surface on, 120. ;

radiating powers, 121.

Reaumur's scale, 12.

Red-hot, 2.

Regnault's tables of specific heat, 58.

Regulator, electro-magnetic, 343.

Reflection, heat, 4. 119. 128.; reflecting

powers, 121.

Refraction, heat, 5. 128. ; light, 116.

Refractory bodies, 73.

Reometer, 380. ; differential, 384.

Reoscope, 380.

Reotrope, Pohl's, 303.

Repulsion, magnetic, 152. ; electric, 189.

241.

Ritter, secondary galvanic piles, 296.

Rod (discharging), 213.

Roofs, metallic, 27.

Scale: thermometric, 9.; centigrade.il.;

Reaumur, 12.

Schb'nbein's modification of Bunsen's bat-

tery, 284. ; experiments on the passivity

of iron, 419.

Sensation of heat, 144.

See-saw (electric), 249.

Simple voltaic combination, 267-

Smee's galvanic battery, 282.

Snow, perpetual, line of, 55. ; effect of on

soil, 111.

Sodium, 418.

Solar light, 115.

Solids, dilatation of, 22. ; contraction of, 26.

Solidification, 2. 63. ; of gases, 97.

Sonometer, application of electro-magnetic

machine as, 343.

Specific heat, 47. ; relation of to density, 53.

456

Standard points (thermometer), 9.

Steam, high pressure, expansion of, 54.

Steel, tempering, 86.

Stools, insulating, 197. 212.

Stoves, 39. ; unpolished, advantage of, 129.

Stratingh's galvanic deflagrator, 293.

Structures, metallic, 27.

Substances, magnetic, 156.

Sulphur, fusion of, 74.

Syringe, fire, 53.

Temperature, 5. 31.; methods of computing

according to different scales, 12. ; of great-

est density, 44. ; method of equalization of,

51. ; in liquids and gases, 109. ; of globe of

earth, 114. ; necessary to produce combus-

tion, 134. ; of blood in human species,

138. ; of blood in animals, 140. See Heat.

Terrestrial magnetism, 164. ; influence of on

voltaic currents, 353.

Thermal unit, 47.

Thermo-electricity, 384. See Electricity.

Thermometer, 3. ; mercurial, 6. ; tube, 7. ;

bulb, 7.; self-registering, 16.; spirit of

wine, 16. ; air, 16. ; differential, 17.

Thermometry, 5, 47.

Thermoscopic bodies, 3. 6. ; apparatus, 123.

Torpedo, electrical properties of, 449.

Tree of Saturn, 420.

Tube (thermometric), 7.

Unit (thermometric), 11. ; thermal, 47.

Vaporization, 2. 86.

Vapor, 86. ; apparatus for observing proper,

ties of, 86. ; elastic, transparent, and invi-

sible, 88. ; how pressure of indicated and

measured, 88. ; relation between its pres-

sure, temperature, and density, 91.; me-

chanical force of, 92. ; dilatable by heat,

95. ; properties of super-heated, 95. ;

cannot be reduced to liquid by mere com-

pression, 96. ; compression of, 96. ; latent

heat of, 101.

Variation, 16S. ; diurnal of needle, 177.

Ventilation of buildings, 38.

Vernier, 21.

Voltaic batteries, 285. See Electricity.

Voltaic currents, 296. 363.

Voltaic electricity, 67. See Electricity.

Volta's first galvanic combination, 278. ; in-

vention of the pile, 285.

Voltaic piles, 285.

Voltaic theory of magnetism, 378.

Voltameter (Faraday's), 407.

Warming buildings, 38. 46. 106.

Water, solidification of, 63. ; liquid below

32, 68. ; pressure, temperature, and den-

sity of the vapour of water, 91.; vapour

produced from at all temperatures, 91. ;

mechanical force of vapor of, 93.; tempe-

rature, volume, and density of vapor of,

corresponding to atmospheric pressures,

95.; latent heat of vapor of, 103,104. ; a

conductor of electricity, 199. ; composition

of, 394. ; electrolysis of, 395.

Weight, atonic, 57.

Wheatstone's galvanic system, 283.

Wine coolers, 112.

Wires (electric), 301. 304.

Wollaston's galvanic combination, 278290.;

thimble battery, 440.

Zamboni's galvanic pile, 295.

Zero of thermometric scale, 10.

THE END OF THE SECOND COURSE.

LONDON :

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New-street-Square.

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, &c.

A HANDBOOK OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND

ASTRONOMY. By DIONYSIUS LARDNER, formerly Professor of

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THE STEAM ENGINE, STEAM NAVIGATION, ROADS

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In former editions, much space was occupied by historical and bio-

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Arago's electro-magnetic researches, 351.

Armatures, 185.

Armstrong's hydro-electrical machine, 210.

Astatic needle, 187.

Athermanous media, 123.

Atmosphere, low temperature of, superior

strata of, 54.; non-conductor of electricity,

198.

Attraction, magnetic, 152. ; electric, 189.

Aurora borealis, Influence of on magnetic

needle, 179.

Austral fluid, 155.

Axis, magnetic, 153. ; of circulating galvanic

current, 321.

Azimuth compass, 165.

Babbage's electro-magnetic researches, 351.

Bagration's galvanic system, 283.

Bain's electro-chemical telegraph, 436.

Balance-wheels, compensation of, 30.

Bar, magnetic, 161.

Battery, electric, 231 . ; voltaic, 280. 440.

Becquerel's galvanic system, 283. ; electro-

chemical researches, 405.

Bells, electric, 246.

Birds, plumage of, its uses, 110.

Blood, temperature of in human species,

Boiling point, 10. 99.

Boreal fluid, 155.

Buildings, metallic, 27.; warming, 38. 46.

106.; ventilation of, 38.

Bulb,thermometric, 7. ; liable to permanent

charge of capacity, 15.

Buusen's galvanic battery, 280.

Calcium, 418.

Caloric, 5.

Calorimeter, 48.

Calorimetry, 47. ; method of solving calori-

metric problems, 48.

Cavendish's electric barometer, 259.

Centigrade scale, 11.

Chemical effects of electricity, 264.

Chemistry, electro-, 393.

Children's great galvanic plate pile, 293.

Circuit, voltaic, 298. See Electricity.

Clothing, its properties, 111.

Cold, greatest natural, 81.

Combustibles, 3. 134.; illuminating power

of, 135.; constituents of, 135.; quantity of

heat developed by, 136.

Combustion, 3. 132. ; agency of oxygen in,

133.; combustibles, 134.; explained, 134.

temperature necessary to produce, 134.;

illuminating power of combustibles, 135.;

constituents of combustibles, 135.

Compass, azimuth, 165.; mariner's, 166.

Compensators, 27.

Compression of vapour, 96.

Coercive force, 156.

Coin, why stamped, not cast, 76.

Condensation, 2. 86.; of vapour, 105.

Condenser, electric, 214. ; principle of, 216. ;

forms of Culhbertson's, 218.

Conduction, heat, 107.; electricity, 196.;

magnetic, 3. 107.; electric, 196.

Conductibility, 3.

Conductors, heat, 4.; good and bad, 107.;

electric, 196. 237. ; connecting galvanic

elements, 292.

Congelation, 2. 67. ; latent heat rendered

sensible by, 65.; points of, 74.; of alcohol,

Contraction, 1.29 ; of solids, 26.; of mercury

in cooling, 76.

Coulomb's electroscope, 222.

Couronne des lasses, 289.

Crosse's electro-chemical researches, 406.

Cruikshank's galvanic arrangement, 290.

Currents, atmospheric, cause of, 41.; voltaic,

296. See Electricity ; rectilinear, 300. ;

indefinite, 300. ; closed, 300. ; circular or

spiral, 300. ; circulating, 320. ; spiral and

heliacal, 322. ; thermo-electric , 385.

Cuthbertson's electric condenser, 2. 218.

Dance, electric, 247.

Daniel's constant galvanic battery, 281. 294.

Davy, galvanic pile, 293. ; experiments in

electro-chemistry, 409. ; method of pre-

serving copper sheathing, 421. See Elec-

tricity.

Declination, 168. ; in different longitudes,

172. ; observed at Paris, 175.

Dena<*rator, galvanic, 293. 439.

Delarive's floating electro-magnetic appa-

ratus, 323.

Deluc's galvanic pile, 295.

Density, effect of relation of different strata

of same liquid, 44. ; relation of specific

heat to, 53.

Dew, principles of, 131.

453

Diathermanous media, 4. 123.

Dilatation. 1. 29.; of mercury, rate of, 13. ;

of solids, 22. ; of gases, 31 ; of gases differs

with change of pressure and temperature,

34.; of liquids, 42. ; rates of, of liquids, 43.

Dip, lines of equal, 171.; local, 173.; ob-

served at Paris, 175.

Dipping-needle. 167.

Discharging-rod, 213.

Distributor, electro-magnetic, 340.

Dutch tears, 85.

Earth, temperature of globe of, 114 ; analogy

of, to magnet, 164. 170. ; direction of mag-

netic attraction of, 353. ; magnetism, 379.

Ebullition, 99.

Electrical attractions and repulsions, 189.

Electrical machines, 207. See Machines.

Electric lamps, 445.

Electric light, 443.

Electricity, 189. ; attraction and repulsion,

189. ; origin of name, 189. ; fluid, 190. ;

. positive and negative, 191. ; single electric

fluid, 191.; two fluids, 192.; vitreous and

resinous and positive and negative fluids,

192. ; developed by various bodies, 193. ;

positive and negative substances, 194.;

method of producing by glass and silk,

195.; conduction, 196.; conductors and

non-conductors, 196.; insulators, 197.;

insulating stools, 197. ; induction, 202.;

electrical machines, 207. ; condenser and

electrophorous, 214.; dissimulated or la-

tent, 217. ; free, 217. ; electroscopes, 220. ;

Leyden jar, 224. ; charging a series of jars

by cascade, 231.; electric battery, 231.;

laws of electrical forces, 234. ; proof plane,

235. ; electrical orrery, 240. ; mechanical

effects of. 241. ; attractions and repulsions

of electrified bodies, 241. ; electrical bells,

246. ; electric dance, 247. ; electrical see-

saw, 249. ; thermal effects of, 249. ; igni-

tion of metals, 250. ; electric pistol, 251. ;

gunpowder exploded, 252. ; Kinnersley's

electrometer, 252. ; luminous effects of,

253.; electric spark, 254.; imitation of

auroral light, 257. ; Leichtenberg's figures,

257. ; experiments, indicating difference

between the two fluids, 258. ; Cavendish's

electric barometer, 259. ; thermal hypo-

thesis, 259. ; physiological effects of, 261. ;

chemical and magnetic effects of, 264.;

Voltaic, 67. ; discovery of galvanism, 67. ;

contact hypothesis of Volta, 269 ; electro-

motive force, 269. ; classification of bodies

as to electro-motive property, 270. ; elec-

tro-motive action of gases and liquids,

272. ; polar arrangement of fluids in elec-

tro-motive combinations, 274. ; positive

and negative poles, 274. ; Volta 's first

combination, 278.; Wollaston's combina-

tion, 278. ; Hare's spiral arrangement,

278. ; cylindrical combination with one

fluid, 279. ; with two fluids, 280. ; Grove's

battery, 280. ; Bunsen's battery, 280. ;

Daniel's constant battery, 281. ; Pouillet's

modification, 281. ; Smee's battery, 282. ;

Wheatstone's system, 283. ; Bagration's

system, 283. ; Becquerel's system, 283. ;

Schonbein's modification of Bunsen's bat-

tery, 284. ; Grove's gas electro-motive

apparatus, 284. ; Volta's invention of the

pile, 2S5.; Couronnedestasses,289.; Cruik-

shank's arrangement, 290. ; Wollaston's

arrangement, 290. ; heliacal pile of Faculty

of Sciences at Paris, 291 . ; conductors con-

necting the elements, 292. ; memorable

piles, 293. ; Davy's pile, 293. ; Napoleon's

pile, 293. ; Children's great plate batterr

293. ; Hare's deflagrator, 293. ; Stratingh's

deflagrator, 293. ; Pepys's pile, 294. ; bat-

teries on Daniel and Grove's principles

294.; dry piles, 294.; Deluc's pile 295. ^

/amboni's pile, 295. ; piles of a single

metal, 295. ; Hitter's secondary piles, 296. ;

Voltaic currents, 296. ; direction of curl

rent, 297.; poles of pile, 298.- voltaic

circuit, 298. ; method of coating conduct-

ing wires, 301 .; supports of wires, 301-304.;

Ampdre's method to reverse current, 301.

Pohl's reotrope, 303.; electrodes, 303.;

Ampere's apparatus for supporting move-

able currents, 304. ; reciprocal influence

of rectilinear currents and magnets, 305.

electro-magnetism, 305. ; effect of shock

on bodies recently deprived of life, 447

on a leech, 447. ; excitation of nerves of

taste, 448. ; of nerves of sight, 448. ; of

nerves of hearing, 448. ; supposed sources

of electricity in animal organization, 448.;

electrical fishes, 449. ; properties of the

torpedo, 449. ; the electric organ, 450.

Electricfty, thermo-, 384.; thermo-electric

current, 385.; Pouillet's thermo-electric

apparatus, 386.; conducting powers of me-

tals, 389.; thermo-electric piles, 391.-

electro-chemistry, 393.; electrolytes and

electrolysis, 393. ; Faraday's electro-che-

mical nomenclature, 393. ; positive and

negative element, 394. ; electrolysis of

water, 395.; Mitscherlich's apparatus, 397.-

compoundssusceptibleofelectrolysis,4()2.;

electro-negative bodies, 403. ; electro-posi-

tive bodies, 403. ; researches of Becquerel

and Crosse, 405. ; Faraday's voltameter

407. ; Faraday's law, 407. ; Sir H. Davy's

experiments, 409. ; Faraday's doctrine,

412. ; Pouillet's observations, 414. ; Davy's

experiments confirmed by Becquerel,414.

liquid electrodes, 416. ; electrolysis of the

alkalis and earths, 418. ; the series of new

metals, 418. ; Schoubein's experiments on

the passivity of iron, 419. ; tree of Saturn,

420. ; Davy's method of preserving copper

sheathing, 421.; calorific, luminous, and

physiological effects of voltaic current

438. ; Hare and Children's deflagrators,

439. ; Wollaston's thimble battery, 440. ;

Jacobi's fexperiments on conduction by

water, 441.; combustion of the metals,

442. ; electric light, 443. ; electric lamps,

445.

Electrodes, 303. 394.

Electro-chemistry, 393.

Electrolysis, 393. ; compounds, susceptible

of, 402.

Electrolytic classification of the simple

bodies, 403.

Electrolytes, 393.

Electro-magnets, 335.

Electro-magnetism : apparatus to exhibit

direction of force impressed by a rectili-

near current on a magnetic pole, 309.

apparatus to measure intensity of such

force, 310. ; apparatus to illustrate electro-

magnetic rotation, 315.; Ampere's method,

318. ; reciprocal influence of circulating

currents and magnets. 320. ; circulating

current, 320. ; axis of current, 321 . ; spiral

and heliacal currents, 322.; Ampere's and

454

Delarive's apparatus, 323. ; instable equi-

librium of current, 325. ; right-handed

and left-handed helices,326. ; electro-mag-

netic induction, 331. ; Savary's experi-

ments, 333.; electro-magnets, 335.; electro-

magnetic power employed as a mechanical

agent, 336. ; electro-motive power applied

by M. Froment, 337. ; electro-motive ma-

chines constructed by him, 339. ; distribu-

tor, 340. ; regulator, 343. ; use of a contact

breaker, 34S. ; magneto-electric machines,

348. ; effects of momentary inductive cur-

rents produced upon revolving metallic

disks, 351 .; researches of Arago, Herschel,

Babbage, and Faraday, 351. ; influence of

terrestrial magnetism on voltaic currents,

353. ; direction of earth's magnetic attrac-

tion, 353.; Pouillet's apparatus to exhibit

effects of (earth's magnetism, 3*7. ; Am-

pere's rectangle, 362. ; reciprocal influence

of voltaic currents, 363. ; voltaic theory of

magnetism, 378. ; reoscopes and reome-

ters, 3-*0. ; differential reometer, 384.

Electro-magnetic induction, 331.

Electro-metallurgy, 425. ; production of

metallic moulds, 428. ; production of ob-

jects in solid metal, 428. ; reproduction of

stereotypes and engraved plates, 429. ;

metallizing textile fabrics, 429. ; glypho-

graphy, 430. ; reproduction of Daguerre-

otype, 430.

Electro-motive force, 269.

Electro-negative bodies, 403.

Electro-positive bodies, 403.

Electrophorous, 214 219.

Electroscopes, 220. ; pith-ball, 221 . ; needle,

221.; Coulomb's, 222.; quadrant, 222. ;

gold leaf, 222. ; condensing, 223.

Electro-telegraphy, 431.; conducting wires,

432. ; earth best conductor, 432.; telegra-

phic signs, 433.; Morse's system, 436.;

electro-chemical telegraphy, 436. ; Bain's

telegraph, 436.

Element, positive, 394. ; negative, 394.

Equator, magnetic, 149. 170.

Evaporation, 86. ; mechancal force de-

veloped in, 92. ; heat absorbed In, 103.

Faraday's electro-magnetic researches, 351 . ;

electro-chemical nomenclature, 393. ; vol-

tameter, 407. ; electro-chemical law, 407.

See Electricity.

Fire-eaters, feats of, explained, 147.

Fireplaces, 39.

Fishes, electric, 449.

Flame, 133.

Fluid, magnetic, 155. ; electric, 190.; posi-

tive, 192. ; negative, 192. ; vitreous, 192. ;

resinous, 192. ; experiments indicating

specific difference between two electric,

258.

Fluxes, 81. j principle of, 81.; application,

Forces (electrical), laws of, 234.

Freezing mixtures, 77. 80. ; apparatus, 79.

French metrical system, 44.

Froment's electro-magnetic machines, 337.

Froast (hoar), principles of, 131.

Fusion 2. ; latent heat of, 70. ; points of, 70 ;

substances which soften before, 77. ; in-

fusible bodies, 82.

Galvanism, 269.

Galvanometer, 382.

Gases, dilatation of, 31 . ; liquefaction of, 55.

97. ; permanent, 97.'; solidification of, 97. ;

under extreme pressures, 99.; non-con-

ductors of heat, 109.

Graduation of thermometers, 9. ; of pyro-

meters, 18.

Gravity, specific, of liquid, 43.

Grove's galvanic battery, 280. 294.; gas

electro-motive apparatus, 284.

Hare's deflagrator, 293.

Hare's spiral galvanic arrangement, 278.

Harrison's pendulum, 28.

Heat, 1. 5. ; sensible, 1.; insensible, 1.,

latent, 1. 65. 101.; heating liquid, 45.;

does not descend in liquid, 45. ; propagation

of, through liquid by currents, 45. ; quan-

titative analysis of, 47. ; specific, 47. 58. ;

uniform and variable, 48. ; development

and absorption of by chemical combina-

tion, 56. 132.; specific of simple gases

equal under same pressure, 57. ; relation

between specific and atomic weight, 57. ;

rendered latent in liquefaction, 65. ; latent

rendered sensible by congelation, 65.; la-

tent, of fusion, 70. ; absorbed in evapora-

tion at different temperatures, 103. ; ra-

diation of, 115.; reflection of, 119. 12^.;

absorption of, 121.; transmission of, 123.;

decomposition of by absorption, 125.; re-

fraction of, 128.; polarization of, 128.;

Quantity of developed by combustibles,

36. ; animal, 138.; experiments to ascer-

tain rate of development of animal, 142. ;

total quantity of animal explained by

chemical laws, 143.; sensation of, 144.;

touch, fallacious measure of, 145.

Heliacal galvanic pile of Paris, 291.

Helices. See Electricity.

Herschel's electro-magnetic researches, 351 .

Hydraulic press, Britannia bridge, casting

of, 113.

Ice, method of preserving, 112.; production

of artificial, 79. 132.

Incandescence, 2.

Induction, magnetic, 156.; electric, 202.;

effects of, 179.; electro-magnetic, 331.

Influence of voltaic currents and magnets,

306. 363.

Influence of terrestrial magnetism on voltaic

currents, 353.

Infusible bodies, 82.

Inlaying, metallic, 27.

Insulating stools, 197. 212.

Insulators, 197.

Isogonic lines, 173.

Jacobi's experiments on electric conduction

by water, 441 .

Kathion, 394.

Kathode, 394.

Keepers, 185.

Kinnersley's electrometer, 252.

Lamp, Argand, 40. ; electric, 445.

Laplace's calorimeter, 48.

Lavoisier's calorimeter, 48.

Leyden jar, 22-1. ; improved form of, 230.

Light, solar, thermal analysis of, 115.; phy-

sical analysis of, 116.; electric, 443.

Lines of equal dip, 171.; agonic, 172.; iso-

gonic, 173. ; isodynamic, 176.

Liquefaction, 2. 67. ; of gases, 55. 97. ; ther-

mal phenomena attending, 63. ; facility of

455

proportional

to latent heat, 72. ; of alloys

Liquids, dilatation of, 42.; effects of tempe-

ratures of different climates on, 106. ; non-

conductors of heat, 109.; materials fitted

for vessels to keep warm, 129.

Loadstone, 149.

Luminous effects of electricity, 253.

Machines, electrical, 207.; parts of, 207.;

common cylindrical, 207. ; Nairne's cylin-

der, 209. ; common plate, 209. ; Arm-

strong's hydro-electrical, 210. ; appen-

dages to, 212.

Magnetic effects of electricity, 264.

Magnetism, 149. ; equator, 149. 170. ; poles,

149.; pendulum, 151.; attraction and re-

pulsion, 152. ; axis, 153.; boreal and aus-

tral fluids, 155. ; coercive force, 156. ; sub-

stances, 156. ; induction, 156. ; decompo-

sition of fluid, 159. ; effects of heat on,

162.; terrestrial, 164.; meridian, 168.

171.; declination or variation, 168.; va-

riation of dip, 170. ; lines of equal dip,

171.; agonic lines, 172.; isogonic lines,

173. ; local dip, 173. ; position of mag-

netic poles, 173. ; intensity of terrestrial,

175.; isodynamic lines, 176.; diurnal va-

riation of needle, 177. ; influence of au-

rora borealis, 179.; voltaic theory of, 378.

See Electricity.

Magnetization, 179.; effects of induction,

179.; method of single touch, 181.; of

double touch, 182.; magnetic saturation,

183.; limit of magnetic force, 183. ; effects

of terrestrial magnetism on bars, 184.;

armatures or keepers, 185. ; compound

magnets, 186.; influence of heat on mag-

netic bars, 186. ; astatic needle, 187.

Magnets, electric machines, 348. See Elec.

tricity.

Magnets, natural, 149.; artificial, 149. 180. ;

compound, 161. 186.; with consequent

points, 163. ; best material, form, and

method of producing artificial, 180. ; elec-

tro-magnet, 335. See Electricity.

Marble, fusible, 83.

Mariner's compass, 166.

Matting on exotics, its use, 112.

Mechanical effects of electricity, 241.

Melloni's thermoscopic apparatus, 123.;

thermo-electric pile, 392.

Mercury, preparation of, for thermometer,

7. ; introduction in tube, 8. ; rate of dila-

tation of, 13. ; qualities which render it a

convenient thermoscopic fluid, 15.

Meridian, magnetic, 168. 171.; true, 168.;

terrestrial, 168.

Metals, weldable, 77. ; ignition of, hy elec-

tricity, 250. ; electric conducting power of,

389. ; new, 418.

Mitscherlich's electro-chemical apparatus,

Moisture, deposit of on windows, 129.

Moulds for casting metal, 26. ; electro-me-

tallurgic, 428.

Morse's electric telegraph, 436.

Multiplier, electro-magnetic, 382.

Nairne's cylinder electrical machine, 209.

Napoleon, galvanic pile, 293.

Needle, magnetic, 161.; dipping, 167.; di-

urnal variation of, 179. ; influence of

aurora borealis on, 179. ; astatic, 187.

Nobili's reometer, 383.; Thermo-electric

pile, 392.

Non-conductors, electric, 196.

Oils, congelation of, 76.

Orrery, electric, 240.

Oxygen, its agency in combustion, 133.

Pendulum, compensating, 27. ; Harrison's

gridiron, 28.; magnetic, 151.

Pepys' galvanic pile, 294.

Physiological effects of electricity, 261.

Phosphorus, congelation of, 76.

Piles, galvanic. See Electricity Thermo-

electric, 391.

Pistol, electric, 251.

Platinum rendered incandescent, 135.

Pohl's reotrope, 303.

Point, standard, in thermometer, 9. ; freez-

ing, 10. ; boiling, 10. 99. ; of fusion, 70. ;

of congelation, 74.; consequent, 163.;

electric conductors with, 237. ; consequent,

electro-magnetic, 332.

Polarization, heat, 128.

Poles, magnetic, 149. 168. ; position of mag-

netic, 173. ; electric, positive and negative,

274. ; of galvanic pile, 298.

Potassium, 418.

Pouillet's modification of Daniel's battery,

281 .; apparatus to exhibit effects of earth's

magnetism, 357. ; thermo-electric appa-

ratus, 386.

Pressure, 31."

Proof-plane, 235.

Pyrometer, 3. 18. ; graduation of, 18.

Radiation, 4. 115. ; rate of heat, 120.; inten-

sity of, 120. ; influence of surface on, 120. ;

radiating powers, 121.

Reaumur's scale, 12.

Red-hot, 2.

Regnault's tables of specific heat, 58.

Regulator, electro-magnetic, 343.

Reflection, heat, 4. 119. 128.; reflecting

powers, 121.

Refraction, heat, 5. 128. ; light, 116.

Refractory bodies, 73.

Reometer, 380. ; differential, 384.

Reoscope, 380.

Reotrope, Pohl's, 303.

Repulsion, magnetic, 152. ; electric, 189.

241.

Ritter, secondary galvanic piles, 296.

Rod (discharging), 213.

Roofs, metallic, 27.

Scale: thermometric, 9.; centigrade.il.;

Reaumur, 12.

Schb'nbein's modification of Bunsen's bat-

tery, 284. ; experiments on the passivity

of iron, 419.

Sensation of heat, 144.

See-saw (electric), 249.

Simple voltaic combination, 267-

Smee's galvanic battery, 282.

Snow, perpetual, line of, 55. ; effect of on

soil, 111.

Sodium, 418.

Solar light, 115.

Solids, dilatation of, 22. ; contraction of, 26.

Solidification, 2. 63. ; of gases, 97.

Sonometer, application of electro-magnetic

machine as, 343.

Specific heat, 47. ; relation of to density, 53.

456

Standard points (thermometer), 9.

Steam, high pressure, expansion of, 54.

Steel, tempering, 86.

Stools, insulating, 197. 212.

Stoves, 39. ; unpolished, advantage of, 129.

Stratingh's galvanic deflagrator, 293.

Structures, metallic, 27.

Substances, magnetic, 156.

Sulphur, fusion of, 74.

Syringe, fire, 53.

Temperature, 5. 31.; methods of computing

according to different scales, 12. ; of great-

est density, 44. ; method of equalization of,

51. ; in liquids and gases, 109. ; of globe of

earth, 114. ; necessary to produce combus-

tion, 134. ; of blood in human species,

138. ; of blood in animals, 140. See Heat.

Terrestrial magnetism, 164. ; influence of on

voltaic currents, 353.

Thermal unit, 47.

Thermo-electricity, 384. See Electricity.

Thermometer, 3. ; mercurial, 6. ; tube, 7. ;

bulb, 7.; self-registering, 16.; spirit of

wine, 16. ; air, 16. ; differential, 17.

Thermometry, 5, 47.

Thermoscopic bodies, 3. 6. ; apparatus, 123.

Torpedo, electrical properties of, 449.

Tree of Saturn, 420.

Tube (thermometric), 7.

Unit (thermometric), 11. ; thermal, 47.

Vaporization, 2. 86.

Vapor, 86. ; apparatus for observing proper,

ties of, 86. ; elastic, transparent, and invi-

sible, 88. ; how pressure of indicated and

measured, 88. ; relation between its pres-

sure, temperature, and density, 91.; me-

chanical force of, 92. ; dilatable by heat,

95. ; properties of super-heated, 95. ;

cannot be reduced to liquid by mere com-

pression, 96. ; compression of, 96. ; latent

heat of, 101.

Variation, 16S. ; diurnal of needle, 177.

Ventilation of buildings, 38.

Vernier, 21.

Voltaic batteries, 285. See Electricity.

Voltaic currents, 296. 363.

Voltaic electricity, 67. See Electricity.

Volta's first galvanic combination, 278. ; in-

vention of the pile, 285.

Voltaic piles, 285.

Voltaic theory of magnetism, 378.

Voltameter (Faraday's), 407.

Warming buildings, 38. 46. 106.

Water, solidification of, 63. ; liquid below

32, 68. ; pressure, temperature, and den-

sity of the vapour of water, 91.; vapour

produced from at all temperatures, 91. ;

mechanical force of vapor of, 93.; tempe-

rature, volume, and density of vapor of,

corresponding to atmospheric pressures,

95.; latent heat of vapor of, 103,104. ; a

conductor of electricity, 199. ; composition

of, 394. ; electrolysis of, 395.

Weight, atonic, 57.

Wheatstone's galvanic system, 283.

Wine coolers, 112.

Wires (electric), 301. 304.

Wollaston's galvanic combination, 278290.;

thimble battery, 440.

Zamboni's galvanic pile, 295.

Zero of thermometric scale, 10.

THE END OF THE SECOND COURSE.

LONDON :

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New-street-Square.

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