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Dionysius Lardner.

The steam engine explained and illustrated; with an account of its invention and progressive improvement, and its application to navigation and railways; including also a memoir of Watt online

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID




"WAT T.



HE -TATUK BY CilANT'EKT.



London, TayJ 01 &.- W.iJton, Upp



THE



STEAM ENGINE



EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED;



AN ACCOUNT OF ITS INVENTION AND PROGRESSIVE
IMPROVEMENT,

AND ITS APPLICATION TO

NAVIGATION AND RAILWAYS;

INCLUDING ALSO

ir of



BY



DIONYSIUS- LARDNER, D.C.L. F.R.S.

&c. &c.



SEVENTH EDITION,
ILLUSTRATED BY ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD.



LONDON:
PRINTED FOR TAYLOR AND WALTON,

28. UPPER GOWER STREET.
MDCCCXL.



LONDON :

Printed by A. SPOTTISWOODE,
New. Street- Square.



TO
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

HENRY LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX,

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY,

AND
MEMBER OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCK,



AS A MARK OF PUBLIC RESPECT

AND
A TESTIMONY OF PRIVATE REGARD,

THIS WORK
INSCRIBED, BY HIS ATTACHED FRIFND,

THE AUTHOR.



ADVERTISEMENT.



THE Drawings for several of the Cuts in this
Volume have been taken, by the permission of
Mr. Weale, from the admirable Plates annexed to
the last edition of Tredgold on the Steam Engine
and on Steam Navigation. This acknowledgment is
especially due for the Illustrations which abound in
this Volume.

London, June, 1840.



A3




LONDON ENTRANCE TO THE BIRMINGHAM RAIL-ROAD.



C O N T E NT S.



CHAPTER I.

PRELIMINARY MATTER.

Page

THE Steam Engine, a Subject of popular Interest - -4
Effects of Steam - 5
Great Power of Steam - - 7
Object of this Work - 9
Disputes respecting the Invention - 1 1
Hero of Alexandria's Machine - 13
Blasco De Garay's Proposition to propel Vessels by a Ma-
chine - 16
Solomon De Caus - - 17
Giovanni Branca proposes to work Mills by Steam - 22
Marquis of Worcester - 23
Mechanical Properties of Fluids - 25
Elastic and Inelastic Fluids C 25
Elasticity of Gases 28

A 4



CONTENTS.

Page

Effects of Heat - - 29

Application of these Principles to the Engines of Hero, De

Caus, and Lord Worcester - 30

Sir Samuel Morland - - 34

Denis Papin - 36

Atmospheric Pressure - 38

Weight of Air - 39

Pressure of Air - 41

Barometer - 41

Elastic Force of Air and Gases - 42

Force obtained by a Vacuum - - 43

Common Pump 43

Rarefaction by Heat - 44

Process of filling Thermometers - - - 44

Papin's Method of producing a Vacuum - 44

His Discovery of the Condensation of Steam - 45

Thomas Savery - 47

CHAP. II.

ENGINES OF SAVERY AND NEWCOMEN.

Savery's Engine - 49

Boilers and their Appendages - - 50

Working Apparatus described - 51

Mode of Operation - - 52

Defects of Savery's Engine - 58

Newcomen's Engine described by Papin - - 62
Newcomen and Cawley obtain a Patent for Atmospheric

Engine ^ - - 65

Accidental Discovery of Condensation by Injection - 69

Potter's Discovery of the Method of working the Valves - 71
His Contrivance improved by the Substitution of a Plug

Frame - 72
Advantages of the Atmospheric Engine over that of Savery 72

The Power of Savery's Engine restricted - - - 73

It contained no new Principle - - - .73

Its practical Superiority - - - - 73



CONTENTS. IX

CHAP. III.

EARLY CAREER AND DISCOVERIES OE JAMES WATT.

Tage

Atmospheric Engine improved by Beighton - -75

Smeaton's Improvements in the Atmospheric Engine - 76

Brindley obtains a Patent for Improvement in - 76

Invents the Self-regulating Feeder - 76

Infancy of James Watt - 77

His Descent and Parentage - 77

Anecdotes of his Boyhood - - - 78

His early Acquirements - 79

Goes to London - 80

Returns to Glasgow - 80

Appointed Instrument-maker to the University - - 81

Opens a Shop in Glasgow - - - 81

His Friends and Patrons - 81

Professor Robison's Remarks on Watt's personal Character 82

His industrious and studious Habits - 82

His Attention first directed to Steam - 83

Experiments on High-pressure Engine - - 83

Repairs an Atmospheric Model - - 84

Experimental Inquiry consequent on this - 84

Its Results - 84

Observes great Defects in the Atmospheric Engine - 85

His first Attempt to improve it - 85

His early Experiments on Steam - -87
Discovery by Experiment of the Expansion which Water

undergoes in Evaporation - - - 90

Discovers the latent Heat of Steam - 91

Informed by Dr. Black of the Theory of latent Heat - 93

His Improvement not due to Black - - 93

CHAP. IV.

EXPOSITION OF PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES.

Construction of Thermometer - - 98

Method of graduating it - - 99

Freezing and boiling Points - 99

Latent Heat pf Water - - 101
Quantity of Heat necessary to convert Ice into Water, first

noticed by Dr. Black - - - 101



X CONTENTS.

Page

Examination of the analogous Effects produced by the
continued Application of Heat to Water in the liquid
State - -102

Process of Boiling - - 104

Reconversion of Steam into Water - 104

Conversion of Water into Steam - - 105

Latent Heat of Steam - 107

Boiling Point varies - - 108

Different in different Places - 109
Inquiry whether a Diminution of Pressure will produce a

corresponding Effect on the boiling Point - 112
Table showing the Temperature at which Water will boil

under different Pressures of the Atmosphere - 113

Mechanical Force of Steam 115

Facts to be observed in - - - - - 117



CHAP. V.

FURTHER DISCOVERIES OF WATT.

Watt finds that Condensation in the Cylinder is incompatible

with a due Economy of Fuel - 119

Conceives the Notion of condensing out of the Cylinder - 120

Discovers separate Condensation - - 121

Invents the Air Pump - 123

Substitutes Steam Pressure for Atmospheric Pressure - 123

Invents the Steam Case, or Jacket - - 124

His first Experiments to realise these Inventions - - 125

His experimental Apparatus _ 125

His experimental Models fitted up at Delft House, in Glasgow 128

Difficulties of bringing the improved Engines into Use - 129

Watt first employed by Roebuck as a Civil Engineer - 130

His Partnership with Roebuck _ 130

His first Patent - - 1 30

Experimental Engine at Kinneal - - 131

Abstract of the Act of Parliament for the Extension of his

Patent - - - - - 132

Description of his single-acting Steam Engine - - 133



CONTENTS. XI

CHAP. VI.

WATT'S ENGINES.

Page

Correspondence of Watt with Smeaton - 145

Failure of Condensation by Surface - 146

Improvements in Construction of Piston - 147

Method of Packing _ - - - - 148

Improvements in boring the Cylinder - 149

Disadvantages of the new compared with the old Engines 150

Greatly increased Economy of Fuel - 150

Economy of the Engine - - 151

Expedients to force the new Engines into Use - - 151

Correspondence of Boul ton - - 153

Correspondence with Smeaton - 155

Efficiency of Fuel in the new Engines - - 156

Discovery of the expansive Action of Steam - 157

Watt states it in a Letter to Dr. Small - 157

Its Principle explained _ - 158

Mechanical Effects resulting from it - - - 1 62
Computed Effect of cutting off Steam at different Portions

of the Stroke - - - - 163

Produces a variable Power - - _ - 163

Expedients for equalising the Power _ - 164

Expansive Principle in Watt's Engines limited - - 165

Its more extensive Application in the Cornish Engines - 165



CHAP. VII.

DOUBLE-ACTING ENGINE.

Common Steam . _ . _ - 168

Superheated Steam - . . - 170

Laws of Dalton and Gay Lussac - - . - 171

Law of Mariotte - _ _ _ -171

Relation between Temperature and Pressure of common

Steam . ^^

Effects of the Expansion of common Steam - - 173

Mechanical Effects of Steam - . . - 173

Method of equalising the expansive Force - - 174

Hornblower's Engine - - _ _ - 175

Woolf's Engine - 175



Xll CONTENTS.

Page

Watt's Attempts to extend the Steam Engine to Manufac-
tures - 178
Papin's projected Applications of the Steam Engine - 178
Savery's Application of the Engine to move Machinery - 180
Jonathan Hull's Application to Water Wheels - 1 80
Champion of Bristol applies the Atmospheric Engine to

raise Water - - 181
Stewart's Application of the Engine to Mill-work - - 1 82
Wasborough's Application of the Fly-wheel and Crank - 183
Reasons why Watt's single-acting Steam Engine was not
adapted to produce continuous uniform Motion of Ro-
tation - - 184
Watt's Second Patent - 186
Sun-and-Planet Wheels - - 187
Valves of double-acting Engine - - 189

CHAP. VIII.

DOUBLE-ACTING ENGINE.

Methods of connecting the Piston-rod and Beam in the

double-acting Engine - 193

Rack and Sector - - 194?

Parallel Motion - - 195

Connection of Piston-rod and Beam - 195

Connecting Rod and Crank - - 203

Fly-wheel - - 205

Throttle-valve - 207

Governor - - 209

Construction and Operation of the double-acting Engine - 216

Eccentric - - 225

Cocks and Valves - - - 227

Single-clack Valves - - 227

Double-clack Valves - 228

Conical Valves .... 228

Slide Valves .... 229

Murray's Slides - ... 229

D Valves - .... 230

Seaward's Slides - .... 235

Single Cock _ . _ 238

Two-way Cock - 239

Four -way Cock ...... 239



CONTENTS. Xlll

Page

Pistons - - 242

Common hemp-packed Piston ... 242

Woolf's Piston - 243

Metallic Pistons - - 244

Cartwright's Engine - 245

Cartwright's Piston - 247

Barton's Piston - - - 248



CHAP. IX.

BOILERS AND FURNACES.

Analysis of Coal - 252

Process of Combustion - 253

Heat evolved in it - - 254

Form and Structure of Boiler - - 255

Waggon Boiler - - 255

Furnace - 256

Method of feeding it - 257

Combustion of Gas in Flues - - 260
Williams's Patent for Method of consuming unburned Gases 260

Construction of Grate and Ash-pit - - 261

Magnitude of heating Surface of Boiler - - 262

Steam-space and Water-space in Boiler - - 263

Position of Flues - 264

Method of feeding Boiler - - - 265

Method of indicating the Level of Water in Boiler - 266

Level Gauges - _ 266

Self-regulating Feeders - 267

Steam Gauge - 270

Barometer Gauge . 272

Watt's Invention of the Indicator - 274

Counter - 278

Safety-valve _ 279

Fusible Plugs - 280

Self-regulating Damper - - _ _ - 281

Brunton's Self-regulating Furnace - 283

Gross and useful Effect of an Engine - 285

Power and Duty of Engines - 287

Horse-power of Steam Engines - 289

Evaporation proportional to Horse-power - - 290

Sources of Loss of Power . . _ 292



XIV CONTENTS.

Page

Absence of good practical Rules for Power 292

Common Rules followed by Engine-makers - 292

Duty distinguished from Power - 294

Duty of Boilers - 294

Proportion of Stroke to Diameter of Cylinder - 295

Duty of Engines ... - 296

Cornish System of Inspection - 297

Table showing the Improvement of Cornish Engines - 298

Beneficial Effects of Cornish Inspection - - 299
Successive Improvements on which the increased Duty of
Engines depends, traced by John Taylor in his " Records

of Mining" . 299

CHAP. X.

LIFE OF WATT.

Watt's Friends and Associates at Birmingham - 302

His Invention of the Copying Press - 302

Heating Apartments and Buildings by Steam 303

Watt's Machine for drying Linen - - 303

His Share in the Discovery of the Composition of Water - 303
The Merit of this Discovery shared between Cavendish,

Lavoisier, and Watt - 305
Anecdote of Watt's Activity of Mind - 309
His Introduction of the Use of Chlorine in Bleaching - 310
One of the Founders of the Pneumatic Institution at Clifton 310
His first Marriage - - - 311
Death of his first Wife - - - 311
His second Marriage - 311
Death of his younger Son - - 311
Extracts from his Letters - 312
Character of Watt by Lord Brougham - - 313
Extract from Sir Walter Scott's "Monastery" on the Cha-
racter of Watt - - - - 314
Sketch of the Life of Watt from the " Scotsman " by Lord

Jeffrey - _ 315
Occupation of his old Age - 318
His Invention of Machine for copying Sculpture - - 318
His last Days - _ . _ - 318
Monuments to his Memory - - . - 319
Inscription by Lord Brougham on the Pedestal of the Monu-
ment in Westminster Abbey - 320



CONTENTS. XV
CHAP. XL

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES ON RAILWAYS.

Page

High-pressure Engines - 322
One of the earliest Forms of the Steam Engine - 322
Description of Leupold's Engine - 323
Non-condensing Engine of Messrs. Trevethick and Vivian 324
Construction of a Machine for moving Carriages on Rail-
roads - - 328
Effects of Railway Transport - 329
Moral and political Consequences of - 334
History of the Locomotive Engine - 337
Construction of Locomotive Engine by Blinkinsop - 337
Messrs. Chapman's Contrivance - 337
Walking Engine - 337
Mr. Stephenson's Engines at Killingworth - 339
Liverpool and Manchester Railway - 342
The Directors offer a Prize for the best Locomotive Engine 344
Experimental Trial - 344
The " Rocket," " Sanspareil," and " Novelty " - 344
Admirable Arrangement in the Rocket - 345
Description of the " Sanspareil " - 347
Description of the "Novelty" - 349
The Superiority of the "Rocket" - 350
Method of subdividing the Flue into Tubes - 353
Progressive Improvement of Locomotive Engines - - 354
Dr. Lardner's Experiments in 1832 - 357
Adoption of Brass Tubes - 360
Great Expense of Locomotive Power - 361
Mr. Booth's Report - - 362
Detailed Description of the most improved Locomotive

Engines - 365

Substitution of Brass for Copper Tubes ascribed to Mr.

Dixon . - 370

Power of Locomotive Engines - - 379

Position of the Eccentrics - 379

Pressure of Steam in the Boiler - - 401

Dr. Lardner's Experiments in 1838 - - 406

Resistance to Railway Trains - 407

Dr. Lardner's Experiments on the Great Western Railway 408

Experiments on Resistance - - 409



XVI CONTENTS.

Page

Restrictions on Gradients - 440

Compensating Effect of Gradients - 412

Experiment with the " Hecla " - - 4-12

Disposition of Gradients should be uniform - 415

Methods of surmounting steep Inclinations - 4-15



CHAP. XII.

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES ON TURNPIKE ROADS.

Railways and Stone Roads compared - 420
Gurney's Steam Carriage - 423
The Boiler of Gurney's Engine - 423
His Method of cleansing Boilers - - 428
Convenience and Safety of Steam Carriages - 432
Two Methods of applying Locomotive Engines upon com-
mon Roads - - 434
Horse Carriages compared with Steam - 435
Extract from Mr. Farey's Evidence before the House of

Commons - - 435

Hancock's Steam Carriage - - 436

How it differs from that of Mr. Gurney - - 437

Ogle's Locomotive Carriage - 438

Dr. Church's Steam Engine - - 439



CHAP. XIII.

STEAM NAVIGATION.

Form and Arrangement of Marine Engines - 441

Arrangement of the Engine-room - - 446

Marine Boilers - 448

Effects of Sea Water in Boilers - 450

Remedies for them - 451

Blow-off Cocks - . 452

Indicators of Saltness - 453

Seaward's Indicator . 454

His Method of blowing out - 454

Field's Brine Pumps - 456

Tubular Condensers applied by Mr. Watt - 457



CONTENTS. XV11

Page

Hall's Condensers - 458

Substitution of Copper for Iron Boilers - 460

Process of Stoking - 462

Watt's Expedient of attaching Felt to the Boiler Surface - 463

Means of economising Fuel - - 463

Number and Arrangement of Furnaces and Flues - 463

Howard's Marine Engine - 464

Application of the expansive Principle in Marine Engines 466

Recent Improvements of Messrs. Maudslay and Field - 467

Humphrey's Marine Engine - 470

Common Paddle-wheel - 472

Feathering Paddles - - 474

Galloway's Patent for a Paddle-wheel with movable Paddles 476

Split Paddle - 478

Proportion of Power to Tonnage - 480

Improved Efficiency of Marine Engines - 482

Iron Steam Vessels - 483

Steam Navigation to India - 484



CHAP. XIV.

AMERICAN STEAM NAVIGATION.

Steam Navigation first established in America - 487

Circumstances which led to it - 488
Attempts of Fitch and Rumsey to apply the single-acting

Engine to the Propulsion of Vessels - 489

Stevens of Hoboken commences Experiments in Steam

Navigation - 489

Experiments of Livingstone and Fulton - 489

Fulton's first Boat - - 490

The Hudson navigated by Steam - 491

Extension and Improvement of River Navigation - 492

American Steamers - 494

Difference between them and European Steamers - 494

Steamers on the Hudson - 494

American Paddle-wheels - - 495

Sea-going American Steamers - 496

Speed attained by American Steamers - 497

Lake Steamers - - 499

The Mississippi and its Tributaries - - 499



xviii CONTENTS.

Page

Steam-boats navigating it - 500

Their Structure and Machinery - 500

New Orleans Harbour - 503

Steam Tugs - 503



APPENDIX.

On the Relation between the Temperature, Pressure, find Density of
Common Steam.

Empirical Formula of Biot, showing the Relation between the Pres-
sure and Temperature - - 505
Empirical formula of Southern - - 506
Tredgold 506
Mellet 506
De Pambour 506
MM. Dulong and Arrago - 506
Law of the Expansion of elastic Fluids, discovered by Dalton and

Gay Lussac - 506

Formula for the Relation between the Volumes and Temperatures 507

Law of Mariotte - - 507
Table of Pressures, Temperatures, Volumes, and Mechanical Effects

of Steam - 509
Empirical Formula for the Relation between the Volume of Water
and that of the Steam produced by its Evaporation under given

Pressures - - - 511

Formula of Navier - 511

Modified by De Pambour - - 511

On the Expansive Action of Steam.

Mechanical Effect produced during a given Extent of Expansion 511
Mechanical Effect produced during Evaporation and subsequent

Expansion - - - - - 512

Application to double-acting Engines - 513

Formula for Pressure of Steam in Cylinders - - 514

Formula for total Mechanical Effect per Minute of Steam when cut

off at any proposed Part of the Stroke - - 514

Formulae exhibiting the Relation between the Resistance of the

Load, the Resistances of the Engine, the Evaporation, the Speed

of the Piston, and the Magnitude of the Cylinder - - 515



CONTENTS. XIX

Page

Formulae showing the Relation between the Power of the Engine,

the Evaporation, and the useful Load - - 516

Formulae for the useful Effect and the Duty - 517

Estimates of the several Sources of Resistances - - 518
Tables to facilitate the Computation of the Effects of Expansive

Engines - - - - - -519

Table of the Areas of Pistons - 520

EXAMPLES of the Application of these Formulae - - 521




VIADUCT, NEAR WATFORD, BIRMINGHAM RAIL-ROAD.



THE



STEAM ENGINE.




H.ERO OF ALEXANDRIA,



CHAPTER I.

THE STEAM ENGINE, A SUBJECT OF POPULAR INTEREST. THE OBJECT

OF THIS WORK. DISPUTES RESPECTING THE INVENTION. HERO. DE

GARAY. DE CAUS. BRANCA. MARQUIS OF WORCESTER. PHYSICAL

PRINCIPLES. ELASTIC AND INELASTIC FLUIDS. THEIR PROPERTIES.

APPLICATION OF THESE PRINCIPLES TO THE ENGINES OF HERO, DE

CAUS, AND LORD WORCESTER. SIR SAMUEL MORLAND. PAPIN.

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. THE WEIGHT OF AIR. LESS AT GREATER

HEIGHTS. BAROMETER. PRESSURE OF AIR. ELASTIC FORCE OF

AIR AND GASES. FORCE PRODUCED BY A VACUUM. COMMON PUMP.

RAREFACTION BY HEAT. PAPIN's METHODS OF PRODUCING A

VACUUM. HIS DISCOVERY OF THE CONDENSATION OF STEAM.

SAVERY.

(1.) THAT the history of the invention of a piece of me-
chanism, and the description of its structure, operation, and

B 2



4 THE STEAM ENGINE.

uses, should be capable of being rendered the subject matter of
a volume, destined not alone for the instruction of engineers
or machinists, but for the information and amusement of the
public in general, is a statement which at no very remote
period would have been deemed extravagant and incredible.

Advanced as we are in the art of rendering knowledge
popular, and cultivated as the public taste is in the appre-
ciation of the expedients by which science ministers to
the uses of life, there is still perhaps but one machine of
which such a proposition can be truly predicated : it is need-
less to say that that machine is the STEAM ENGINE. There
are many circumstances attending this extraordinary piece of
mechanism which impart to it an interest so universally felt.
Whether we regard the details of its structure and operation,
the physical principles which it calls into play, and the beau-
tiful contrivances by which these physical principles are ren-
dered available ; or, passing over these means, we direct our
attention to the ends which they attain, we are equally
filled with astonishment and admiration. The history of the
steam engine offers to our notice a series of contrivances
which, for exquisite and refined ingenuity, stand without any
parallel in the annals of mechanical science. These admirable
inventions, unlike other results of scientific inquiry, have also
this peculiarity, that, to understand their excellence and
to perceive their beauty, no previous or subsidiary knowledge
is necessary, save what may be imparted with facility and
clearness in the progress of the explanation and development
of the machine itself. A simple and clear exposition, divested
of needless technicalities and aided by well-selected diagrams,
is all that is necessary to render the construction and oper-
ation of the steam engine, in all its forms, intelligible to
persons of plain understanding and moderate information.

But if the contrivances by which this vast power is
brought to bear on the arts and manufactures, be rendered
attractive by their great mechanical beauty, how much more
imposing will the subject become when the effects which
the steam engine has produced upon the well-being of the
human race are considered. It has penetrated the crust
of the earth, and drawn from beneath it boundless treasures



EFFECTS OF STEAM. 5

of mineral wealth, which, without its aid, would have been
rendered inaccessible ; it has drawn up, in measureless quan-
tity, the fuel on which its own life and activity depend ; it
has relieved men from their most slavish toils, and reduced
labour in a great degree to light and easy superintendence.
To enumerate its present effects, would be to count almost
every comfort and every luxury of life. It has increased
the sum of human happiness, not only by calling new
pleasures into existence, but by so cheapening former enjoy-
ments as to render them attainable by those who before could
never have hoped to share them : the surface of the land, and
the face of the waters, are traversed with equal facility by
its power ; and by thus stimulating and facilitating the inter-
course of nation with nation, and the commerce of people
with people, it has knit together remote countries by bonds of
amity not likely to be broken. Streams of knowledge and
information are kept flowing between distant centres of po-
pulation, those more advanced diffusing civilisation and im-
provement among those that are more backward. The press
itself, to which mankind owes in so large a degree the rapidity
of their improvement in modern times, has had its power
and influence increased in a manifold ratio by its union with
the steam engine. It is thus that literature is cheapened,
and, by being cheapened, diffused ; it is thus that Reason has
taken the place of Force, and the pen has superseded the
sword; it is thus that war has almost ceased upon the earth,
and that the differences which inevitably arise between people
and people are for the most part adjusted by peaceful nego-
tiation.

Deep as the interest must be with which the steam engine
will be regarded in every civilised country, it presents pecu-
liar claims upon the attention of the people of Great Britain.
Its invention and progressive improvement are the work of
our own time and our own country ; it has been produced
and matured almost within the last century, and is the ex-
clusive offspring of British genius, fostered and sustained by
British enterprise and British capital.

The steam engine is a mechanical contrivance, by which
coal, wood, or other fuel is rendered capable of executing any

B 3



() THE STEAM ENGINE.

kind of labour. COALS are by it made to spin, weave, dye,
print and dress silks, cottons, woollens, and other cloths ; to
make paper, and print books upon it when made ; to convert
corn into flour; to express oil from the olive, and wine from
the grape; to draw up metal from the bowels of the earth ;
to pound and smelt it, to melt and mould it; to forge it; to
roll it, and to fashion it into every desirable form; to trans-
port these manifold products of its own labour to the doors
of those for whose convenience they are produced ; to carry
persons and goods over the waters of rivers, lakes, seas, and
oceans, in opposition alike to the natural difficulties of wind
and water; to carry the wind-bound ship out of port; to place
her on the open deep ready to commence her voyage; to throw
its arms around the ship of war, and place her side by side
with the enemy; to transport over the surface of the deep
persons and information, from town to town, and from country



Online LibraryDionysius LardnerThe steam engine explained and illustrated; with an account of its invention and progressive improvement, and its application to navigation and railways; including also a memoir of Watt → online text (page 1 of 47)