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congregation stands and worships, leaning on their staves, for the place
is void of seats. At night I preached in the tabernacle on the question:
"What must I do to be saved?" Melki, the native evangelist, translated
for me as I went along, and the congregation paid good attention and
seemed pleased to have heard me. I know I am pleased to have had
opportunity to "preach the word" in the city from whence it was first
published to the world.

One of the first sights beheld when I started out on Monday morning was
a foundation, laid at the expense of a woman who intended to build a
house for the "hundred and forty-four thousand." It represents one of
the many peculiar religious ideas that find expression in and around
Jerusalem. We went on to the railway station, where I saw a young man, a
Jew, leave for that far-off land called America. Next the Leper Hospital
was visited. This well-kept institution is in the German colony, and had
several patients of both sexes. A lady, who spoke some English, kindly
showed me through the hospital, and explained that the disease is not
contagious, but hereditary, and that some lepers refuse to enter the
hospital because they are forbidden to marry. The patients were of
various ages, and showed the effects of the disease in different stages.
In some cases it makes the victim a sad sight to look upon. I remember
one of these poor, afflicted creatures, whose face was almost covered
with swollen and inflamed spots. Some were blind, and some had lost
part or all of their fingers by the disease. One man's nose was partly
consumed.

At Bishop Gobat's school we were kindly received, and given a good,
refreshing drink. The founder of this school, a member of the English
church, was one of the pioneers in Jerusalem mission work, and stood
very high in the estimation of the people. His grave is to be seen in
the cemetery near the school, where one may also see the supposed site
of the ancient city wall. Besides the Leper Hospital, we visited another
hospital under German control, where patients may have medical attention
and hospital service for the small sum of one _mejidi_, about eighty
cents, for a period, of fifteen days, but higher fees are charged in
other departments. We soon reached the English hospital, maintained by
the Society for the Promotion of Christianity among the Jews. It is
built on a semi-circular plan in such a way that the wards, extending
back from the front, admit light from both sides. This institution is
free to the Jews, but I understand Mohammedans were not admitted without
a fee.

The Syrian Orphanage had about three hundred children in it, who were
being instructed in books and in manual labor. Those who can see are
taught to work in wood, to make a kind of tile used in constructing
partitions, and other lines of useful employment. They had some blind
children, who were being taught to make baskets and brushes. On the way
back to Mr. Smith's I stopped at the Jewish Library, a small two-story
building, having the books and papers upstairs. They have a raised map
of Palestine, which was interesting to me, after having twice crossed
the country from sea to sea.

The last Thursday I was in the city I went with some friends to the
Israelite Alliance School, an institution with about a thousand pupils,
who receive both an industrial and a literary education. We were
conducted through the school by a Syrian gentleman named Solomon Elia,
who explained that, while the institution is under French control,
English is taught to some extent, as some of the pupils would go
to Egypt, where they would need to use this language. The boys are
instructed in wood-working, carpentry, copper-working, and other lines
of employment. We saw some of the girls making hair nets, and others
were engaged in making lace. Both of these products are sent out of
Palestine for sale. The institution has received help from some of the
Rothschild family, and I have no doubt that it is a great factor for the
improvement of those who are reached by it. Jerusalem is well supplied
with hospitals and schools. The Greek and Roman Catholic churches, the
Church of England, and numerous other religious bodies have a footing
here, and are striving to make it stronger. Their schools and hospitals
are made use of as missionary agencies, and besides these there is a
Turkish hospital and numerous Mohammedan schools.

On Friday I had an opportunity to see a man measuring grain, as is
indicated by the Savior's words: "Give, and it shall be given unto you;
good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, shall they
give into your bosom. For with what measure ye mete, it shall be
measured to you again" (Luke 6:38). He filled his measure about full,
and then shook it down thoroughly. He next filled it up and shook it
down until he evidently thought he had all he could get that way, so he
commenced to pile it up on top. When he had about as much heaped up as
would stay on, he put his hands on the side of the cone opposite himself
and gently pulled it toward him. He then piled some more on the far
side, and when he had reached the limit in this way, he carefully
leveled the top of the cone down a little, and when he could no longer
put on more grain, he gently lifted the measure and moved it around to
the proper place, where it was quickly dumped. In the evening Mr. Smith
and I walked out on Mount Scopus, where Titus had his camp at the time
of the siege and destruction of Jerusalem, as foretold by our Lord and
Master in the twenty-fourth of Matthew.

As we went along, Mr. Smith pointed out the watershed between the
Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. The view from Scopus is very extensive.
We could look away to the north to Nebi Samwil, where the Prophet Samuel
is supposed by some to have been buried. Ramallah, the seat of a school
maintained by the Society of Friends, is pointed out, along with Bireh,
Bethel, and Geba. Nob, the home of the priests slain by command of Saul
(1 Samuel 22:16), and Anathoth, one of the cities of refuge (Joshua
21:18), are in sight. Swinging on around the circle to the east, the
northern end of the Dead Sea is visible, while the Mount of Olives is
only a little distance below us. Across the valley of the Kidron lies
the Holy City, with her walls constructed at various periods and under
various circumstances, her dome-shaped stone roofs, synagogues, mosques,
and minarets, being "trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of
the Gentiles be fulfilled" (Luke 21:24). Here, with this panorama spread
out in the evening light, I may say my sight-seeing in the City of the
Great King came to an end.

I lacked but a few hours of having been in the city two weeks, when I
boarded the train for Jaffa on my way to Egypt. The most of the time I
had lodged in the hospitable home of Mr. Smith, where I had a clean
and comfortable place to rest my tired body when the shadows of night
covered the land. I had received kind treatment, and had seen many
things of much interest. I am truly thankful that I have been permitted
to make this trip to Jerusalem. Let me so live that when the few
fleeting days of this life are over, I may rest with the redeemed. When
days and years are no more, let me enjoy, in the NEW JERUSALEM, the
blessedness that remains for those that have loved the Lord.

"And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from
God, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a great
voice out of the throne saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with
men, and he shall dwell with them, and they shall be his peoples, and
God himself shall be with them, and be their God: and he shall wipe away
every tear from their eyes; and death shall be no more; neither shall
there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more: the first things have
passed away" (Revelation 21:2-4).




CHAPTER VI.

SIDE TRIPS FROM JERUSALEM.


Early on Tuesday morning, the eleventh of October, I set out by
carriage, with some other tourists, for a trip to Bethlehem, Solomon's
Pools, and Hebron. Bethlehem is about five miles south of Jerusalem, and
Hebron is a little southwest of the Holy City and twenty miles distant.
We started from the Jaffa gate and passed the Sultan's Pool, otherwise
known as Lower Gihon, which may be the "lower pool" of Isaiah 22:9. "The
entire area of this pool," says one writer, "is about three and a half
acres, with an average depth, when clear of deposit, of forty-two and
a half feet in the middle from end to end." We drove for two miles, or
perhaps more, across the Plain of Rephaim, one of David's battlefields
soon after he established himself in Jerusalem. Here he was twice
victorious over the Philistines. In the first instance he asked Jehovah:
"Shall I go up against the Philistines? Wilt thou deliver them into
my hand?" The answer was: "Go up; for I will certainly deliver the
Philistines into thy hand." In this battle the invaders were routed and
driven from the field. "And they left their images there; and David and
his men took them away." But "the Philistines came up yet again, and
spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim. And when David inquired of
Jehovah, he said, Thou shalt not go up: make a circuit behind them, and
come upon them over against the mulberry trees. And it shall be, when
thou hearest the sound of marching in the tops of the mulberry trees,
that then thou shalt bestir thyself, for then is Jehovah gone out before
thee to smite the hosts of the Philistines." David obeyed the voice of
the Lord, and smote his enemies from Geba to Gezer. (2 Samuel 5:17-25.)

On the southern border of the plain stands the Greek convent called Mar
Elyas. This is about half way to Bethlehem, and the city of the nativity
soon comes into view. Before going much farther the traveler sees a
well-built village, named Bet Jala, lying on his right. It is supposed
to be the ancient Giloh, mentioned in 2 Samuel 15:12 as the home of
Ahithophel, David's counselor, for whom Absalom sent when he conspired
against his father. Here the road forks, one branch of it passing Bet
Jala and going on to Hebron; the other, bearing off to the left, leads
directly to Bethlehem, which we passed, intending to stop there as we
returned in the evening. At this place we saw the monument erected to
mark the location of Rachel's tomb, a location, like many others, in
dispute. When Jacob "journeyed from Bethel and there was still some
distance to come to Ephrath," Rachel died at the birth of Benjamin, "and
was buried in the way to Ephrath (the same is Bethlehem). * * * And
Jacob set up a pillar upon her grave" (Gen. 35:16-20). The spot, which
for many centuries was marked by a pyramid of stones, is now occupied
by a small stone building with a dome-shaped roof, at the east side of
which is a room, open on the north, with a flat roof. For hundreds of
years tradition has located the grave at this place, which is indeed
near Bethlehem, but in 1 Samuel 10:2 it is mentioned as being "in the
border of Benjamin," which has occasioned the belief that the true
location is some miles farther north.

Before long we came to Solomon's Pools. We first stopped at a doorway,
which looks like it might lead down to a cellar, but in reality the door
is at the head of a flight of stairs leading down to what is known as
the "sealed fountain" (Song of Solomon 4:12). The door was fastened,
and we were not able to descend to the underground chamber, which is
forty-one feet long, eleven and a half feet wide, with an arched stone
roof, all of which, except the entrance, is below the surface. A large
basin cut in the floor collects the water from two springs. After rising
a foot in the basin, the water flows out into a channel more than six
hundred feet long leading down to the two upper pools. These great
reservoirs, bearing the name of Israel's wisest monarch, are still in a
good state of preservation, having been repaired in modern times.
The first one is three hundred and eighty feet long, two hundred and
twenty-nine feet wide at one end, two hundred and thirty feet wide at
the other, and twenty-five feet deep. The second pool is four hundred
and twenty-three feet long, one hundred and sixty feet wide at the upper
end, two hundred and fifty feet wide at the lower end, and thirty-nine
feet deep at that end. The third pool is the largest of all, having a
length of five hundred and eighty-two feet. The upper end is one hundred
and forty-eight feet wide, the lower end two hundred and seven feet,
and the depth at the lower end is fifty feet. The pools are about one
hundred and fifty feet apart, and have an aggregate area of six and a
quarter acres, with an average depth approaching thirty-eight feet. The
upper two received water from the sealed fountain, but the lower one was
supplied from an aqueduct leading up from a point more than three miles
to the south. The aqueduct from the sealed fountain leads past the
pools, and winds around the hills to Bethlehem and on to the Temple
Area, in Jerusalem. It is still in use as far as Bethlehem, and could be
put in repair and made serviceable for the whole distance. An offer
to do this was foolishly rejected by the Moslems in 1870. The only
habitation near the pools is an old khan, "intended as a stopping place
for caravans and as a station for soldiers to guard the road and the
pools." The two upper pools were empty when I saw them, but the third
one contained some water and a great number of frogs. As we went on to
Hebron we got a drink at "Philip's Well," the place where "the eunuch
was baptized," according to a tradition which lacks support by the
present appearance of the place.

Towards noon we entered the "valley of Eschol," from whence the spies
sent out by Moses carried the great cluster of grapes. (Num. 13:23.)
Before entering Hebron we turned aside and went up to Abraham's Oak, a
very old tree, but not old enough for Abraham to have enjoyed its
shade almost four thousand years ago. The trunk is thirty-two feet in
circumference, but the tree is not tall like the American oaks. It is
now in a dying condition, and some of the branches are supported by
props, while the lower part of the trunk is surrounded by a stone wall,
and the space inside is filled with earth. The plot of ground on which
the tree stands is surrounded by a high iron fence. A little farther up
the hill the Russians have a tower, from which we viewed the country,
and then went down in the shade near Abraham's Oak and enjoyed our
dinner.

Hebron is a very ancient city, having been built seven and a half years
before Zoar in Egypt. (Num. 13:22.) Since 1187 it has been under the
control of the Mohammedans, who raise large quantities of grapes, many
of which are made into raisins. Articles of glass are made in Hebron,
but I saw nothing especially beautiful in this line. The manufacture of
goat-skin water-bottles is also carried on. Another line of work which I
saw being done is the manufacture of a kind of tile, which looks like a
fruit jug without a bottom, and is used in building. Hebron was one of
the six cities of refuge (Joshua 20:7), and for seven years and a half
it was David's capital of Judah. It is very historic. "Abraham moved his
tent, and came and dwelt by the oaks of Mamre, which are in Hebron, and
built there an altar unto Jehovah." (Gen. 13:18.) When "Sarah died in
Kiriath-arba (the same is Hebron), in the land of Canaan, * * * Abraham
came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her." At this time the worthy
progenitor of the Hebrew race "rose up from before his dead, and spoke
unto the children of Heth, saying, I am a stranger and a sojourner with
you: give me a possession of a burying-place with you, that I may bury
my dead out of my sight." The burial place was purchased for "four
hundred shekels of silver, current money of the land. * * * And after
this Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave in the field of Machpelah
before Mamre (the same is Hebron), in the land of Canaan" (Gen.
23:1-20). Years after this, when both Abraham and his son Isaac had
passed the way of all the earth and had been laid to rest in this cave,
the patriarch Jacob in Egypt gave directions for the entombment of his
body in this family burial place. "There they buried Abraham and Sarah
his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I
buried Leah" (Gen. 49:31), and here, by his own request, Jacob was
buried. (Gen. 50:13.) Joshua, the successor of Moses, "utterly
destroyed" Hebron (Joshua 10:37), and afterwards gave it to Caleb, to
whom it had been promised by Moses forty-five years before. (Joshua
14:6-15.) Here Abner was slain (2 Samuel 3:27), and the murderers of
Ishbosheth were put to death. (2 Samuel 4:12.)

The most interesting thing about the town is the "cave of Machpelah,"
but it is inaccessible to Christians. Between 1167 and 1187 a church was
built on the site, now marked by a carefully guarded Mohammedan mosque.
It is inclosed by a wall which may have been built by Solomon. We were
allowed to go in at the foot of a stairway as far as the seventh step,
but might as well have been in the National Capitol at Washington so far
as seeing the burial place was concerned. In 1862 the Prince of Wales,
now King of England, was admitted. He was accompanied by Dean Stanley,
who has described what he saw, but he was permitted neither to examine
the monuments nor to descend to the cave below, the real burial chamber.
As the body of Jacob was carefully embalmed by the Egyptian method, it
is possible that his remains may yet be seen in their long resting place
in this Hebron cave. (Gen. 50:1,2.)

Turning back toward Jerusalem, we came to Bethlehem late in the
afternoon, and the "field of the shepherds" (Luke 2:8) and the "fields
of Boaz" (Ruth 2:4-23) were pointed out. The place of greatest interest
is the group of buildings, composed of two churches, Greek and Latin,
and an Armenian convent, all built together on the traditional site
of the birth of the Lord Jesus. Tradition is here contradicted by
authorities partly on the ground that a cave to which entrance is made
by a flight of stairs would probably not be used as a stable. This
cave is in the Church of St. Mary, said to have been erected in 330 by
Constantine. Descending the stairs, we came into the small cavern, which
is continually lighted by fifteen silver lamps, the property of the
Greeks, Latins, and Armenians, who each have an interest in the place.
Beneath an altar, in a semi-circular recess, a silver star has been set
in the floor with the Latin inscription: "_Hic de Virgine Maria Jesus
Christus Natus est._" An armed Turkish soldier was doing duty near this
"star of Bethlehem" the evening I was there. The well, from which it is
said the "three mighty men" drew water for David, was visited. (2 Samuel
23:15.) But the shades of night had settled down upon the little town
where our Savior was born, and we again entered our carriages and drove
back to Jerusalem, having had a fine day of interesting sight-seeing. On
the Wednesday before I left Jerusalem, in the company of Mrs. Bates, I
again visited Bethlehem.

Thursday, October thirteenth, was the day we went down to Jericho, the
Dead Sea, and the Jordan. The party was made up of the writer, Mr.
Ahmed, Mr. Jennings, Mrs. Bates, four school teachers (three ladies and
a gentleman) returning from the Philippines, and the guides, Mr. Smith
and Ephraim Aboosh. We went in two carriages driven by natives. "A
certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho; and he fell among
robbers, who stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half
dead" (Luke 10:30). This lonely road is still the scene of occasional
robberies, and the Turkish Government permits one of its soldiers to
accompany the tourist for a fee, but we did not want to take this
escort, as neither of the guides feared any danger. Accordingly we took
an early start without notifying the soldiers, and reached Jericho,
about twenty miles away, in time to visit Elisha's Fountain before
dinner. The road leads out past Bethany, down by the Apostles' Fountain,
on past the Khan of the Good Samaritan, and down the mountain to the
plain of the Jordan, this section of which is ten miles long and seven
miles wide. Before the road reaches the plain, it runs along a deep
gorge bearing the name Wady Kelt, the Brook Cherith, where the prophet
Elisha was fed by the ravens night and morning till the brook dried up.
(1 Kings 17:1-7.) We also saw the remains of an old aqueduct, and of a
reservoir which was originally over five hundred feet long and more than
four hundred feet wide. Elisha's Fountain is a beautiful spring some
distance from the present Jericho. Doubtless it is the very spring whose
waters Elisha healed with salt. (2 Kings 2:19-22.) The ground about
the Fountain has been altered some in modern times, and there is now a
beautiful pool of good, clear water, a delight both to the eye and to
the throat of the dusty traveler who has come down from Jerusalem seeing
only the brown earth and white, chalky rock, upon which the unveiled sun
has been pouring down his heat for hours. The water from the spring now
runs a little grist mill a short distance below it.

After dinner, eaten in front of the hotel in Jericho, we drove over to
the Dead Sea, a distance of several miles, and soon we were all enjoying
a fine bath in the salt water, the women bathing at one place, the men
at another. The water contains so much solid matter, nearly three and a
third pounds to the gallon, that it is easy to float on the surface with
hands, feet and head above the water. One who can swim but little in
fresh water will find the buoyancy of the water here so great as to make
swimming easy. When one stands erect in it, the body sinks down about
as far as the top of the shoulders. Care needs to be taken to keep the
water out of the mouth, nose and eyes, as it is so salty that it is very
disagreeable to these tender surfaces. Dead Sea water is two and a half
pounds heavier than fresh water, and among other things, it contains
nearly two pounds of chloride of magnesium, and almost a pound of
chloride of sodium, or common salt, to the gallon. Nothing but some very
low forms of animal life, unobserved by the ordinary traveler, can live
in this sea. The fish that get into it from the Jordan soon die. Those
who bathe here usually drive over to the Jordan and bathe again, to
remove the salt and other substances that remain on the body after the
first bath. The greatest depth of the Dead Sea is a little over thirteen
hundred feet. The wicked cities of Sodom and Gomorrah stood here some
place, but authorities disagree as to whether they were at the northern
or southern end of the sea. In either case every trace of them has been
wiped out by the awful destruction poured on them by the Almighty. (Gen.
18:16 to 19:29)

The Jordan where we saw it, near the mouth, and at the time we saw it,
the thirteenth of October, was a quiet and peaceful stream, but the
water was somewhat muddy. We entered two little boats and had a short
ride on the river whose waters "stood, and rose up in one heap, a great
way off," that the children of Israel might cross (Joshua 3:14-17), and
beneath whose wave the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ was baptized by the
great prophet of the Judaean wilderness. (Matt. 3:13-17.) We also got
out a little while on the east bank of the stream, the only time I was
"beyond Jordan" while in Palestine. After supper, eaten in Jericho, we
went around to a Bedouin encampment, where a dance was being executed - a
dance different from any that I had ever seen before. One of the
dancers, with a sword in hand, stood in the center of the ground they
were using, while the others stood in two rows, forming a right angle.
They went through with various motions and hand-clapping, accompanied
by an indescribable noise at times. Some of the Bedouins were sitting
around a small fire at one side, and some of the children were having a
little entertainment of their own on another side of the dancing party.
We were soon satisfied, and made our way back to the hotel and laid down
to rest.

The first Jericho was a walled city about two miles from the present
village, perhaps at the spring already mentioned, and was the first city
taken in the conquest of the land under Joshua. The Jordan was crossed
at Gilgal (Joshua 4:19), where the people were circumcised with knives
of flint, and where the Jews made their first encampment west of the
river. (Joshua 5:2-10.) "Jericho was straitly shut up because of the
children of Israel," but by faithful compliance with the word of the


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