Donald B. (Donald Budd) Armstrong.

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sort that causes the judicious would-be
employer to grieve. I say "would-be em-
ployer" because it is true that bankers,
merchants, manufacturers, even " soulless
corporations," are quite as anxious to get
good employes as men out of work are to get
good jobs.
" Gentlemen :

"Enclosed you will find my application.

I wish t<i state I am twenty- ('J7} ye -
of age, and would like to receive a salarif
$12.00 per week at start, as I am at presit
holding a situation which pays me $15.00 r
week, but the only objection I find is thatt
is not steady employment.

" Remember, I can furnish the best of f-
erences from the time I left school until e
present day. Any kind of a position wil e
satisfactory to me, providing I recee
steady work. Thanking you in advancetC
your kindness, I am, Yours sincerel ■

This young man says he can, but does 't
"furnish the best of references." Hesis
in one place that he is " twenty " and itmi-
diately afterward that he is " (27) " yean»f
age. He does not give his business exi'-
ience. His English is inexcusably H-
And his handwriting, like the hand-writ g
of the other young man whose letter I h; e
copied, is ragged, labored, and unattract e
to the eye.


Now I have a permanent quarrel with e
modern school authorities practiciy
everywhere because of their inexcusac
neglect of the art of handwriting.

When I was of school age we were oblij^
to learn to write at least legibly. Weld
"copy books" with engraved "copi'
printed at the head of each page. We wC
required to devote a certain space of tie
each day to imitating these copies, wht»
were really beautiful specimens of cb'-

^cUbcc^bter ^

f 650 Students Enrolled from September i, to February i. 475 in Daily Attendance at Latter Date.

nphical skill. Many of us were not able
attain the beautiful in our own liandwrit-
g, I.ut none save the really incorrigible
as allowed to leave school with the un-
rined handwriting that is so common
nontc people of all sorts at the present

Why. even in our own bank the miniberof
erks who can write a good, clear, legible
ind JB ridiculously small. It is simply
^possible to get employes who can write
^ndsomely, and from what I am told this
true of most banks, both in New York and
sewhere. Indeed, I hardly need to be told
le facts in this matter by anybody. I see
luch correspondence written by bank em-
loye^, even in this day of the typewriter's
iniost universal use, and nine-tenths of the
auviwriting that comes before me is un-
lea?ant to the eye, and much of it is posi-
vely illegible.

I have heard it said that the typewriter is
'Sponsible for the ',bad handwriting of the
resent younger generation, but this can
(it he true. In spite of the prevalence of
le writing machine, the families that do
ot j.ussess one are very much in the pre-
nnderance. Anyway, were the subject of
andwriting of the prominence it deserves
1 the public schools, the handwriting of
lie pupil would be formed in spite of the
ypewriter. Its very prevalence should
lake the authorities the more insistent
pon first class chirographical instruction
1 the schools.

I remember very well the good natured
ridicule that used to be poured out in print
upon the copy books of other days and the
goody, goody sentiments of the lines, but
their abandonment has cost too much. I re-
member very well also the beginning of
the "anti-copy book movement," if I may
so term it. This began with the young
women who started in some j'ears ago to
acquire what they termed the " English
hand." The characters thus affected are
long, cramped, sprawling and irregular, and
their production has cost thousands of fair
creatures much pain and trouble and worry
of mind, with the net result of illegibility,
ugliness and the utter ruination of much
good writing paper.


In the old days, too, we gave much time
and attention to spelling. We had written
spelling lessons and oral spelling lessons,
and the spelling school, held on specific
evenings, in which the grown-ups took
active part, was a regular feature every

But now the " word method " has come in.
Children are taught to recognize each word
by its general appearance, without regard
to its component parts. I have heard teach-
ers speak with elation of pupils who had
actually gone through school without
knowing the order of the letters of the
alphabet, without kno^ving anything at all
about *' spelling" as we understood it in mj'
younger days. Those who believe in the

"word method" declare that pupils edu-
cated under the new plan spell quite as
well in actual practice as those who were
educated under the method of yesterday;
but, so far as I can judge, the facts do not
warrant the declaration, and my view of the
matter is borne out by the observation of
many of my friends.

An editor of my acquaintance, for in-
stance, showed me the other day a manu-
script on a technical subject, b}' an
expert on that subject, who was also
a graduate of a standard university, and
had passed through the best technical
school in his line. The article was admira-
ble as an exposition of the subject, but its
English was labored, unwieldy— in some in-
stances positively ungrammatical— and the
whole was disfigured with many errors of
spelling. As to the handwriting of the ex-
pert I can not speak, since the manuscript
was done on the typewriter. The errors in
spelling were his own, however, for he hart
learned to "use the machine" and had
*' pounded the stuff out " with his own

As a horrible example of " spelling as she
is sometimes spelt," I am going to add a
letter of endorsement which I received the
other day, though it is only fair to say that
I do not know whether the writer was an
old or a young man, a product of the schools
as they are or as they were :

(Concluded on Pa^e 37.)

dRe /^u^irveii^ £d»u»6ci»tor ^

This plate is a good one to s(r?(/.i-. Be careful to avoid the common errors so many make, and which alone make otherwise good
writing poor. Carelessness with a few details of a few letters makes writing illegible and undesirable. No writing is wholly bad. As a
rule it is bad only in places. Watch, therefore, the bad places in your writing and but little else or more will be necessary.

— -^^C^-.'t-'-C-'Ow<^

60 ^£*-e^

. yy, ^^^^.^^^_


"-^Y ^^-^

^ ' -J -^^-

This compound curve exercise requires a graceful motion without stops or pauses. Finish the T'high enough so it will not be mis
taken for TJ. Finish the f7 toward the right so it will not be mistaken for Y. Learn to write w^ell by observing wherein w^riting is poor as
well as wherein it is good. Keep the fingers from acting much, as they prevent writing beinggraceful or easy.

TA 2/- TJ- U- Ty- Ty- 7^ Zt 7^ Z(_ T^C ZC 2^ 7^


e-^cpC^e^^c/ .

This plate illustrates a style of writing specially adapted to correspondence and accounting. Small writing requires less energy to
produce than large writing. In modern accounting, large writing is out of the question. Note the uniformity of the slant in the down
strokes as well as the uniformity of heigiit in the small or minimum letters. See how nearly you can imitate or acquire these qualities.









©rnamental (Capitals by f?. B. €el^man, dlepelanb, ®l)io.

Business Capitals by Joe Barnes, student of W. F. Gieesetnan, Policy Writer for Northwestern Life and Savings Co., Des Moines, Iowa.

9H&f^XHj^lv\sG^&GlMiC&Xi&r ^

A History of Penmen, Early Busi=

ness Education and Educa=

tors in America.

By A. li. Minman, Worcester, Mass.

Commercial Schools in lleiv Orleans

After the purchase of JLouisiana in 1803,
New Orleans was" blessed with some local
and with some itinerant teachers of writing
until about LS'JO. During this period, there
were also special teachers of Mathematics,'
of Languages, of Bookkeeping, of Music^
etc. Writing schools and Writing Acade-
mies commenced about 18*25 to set forth
'their respective advantages, and about
IWj to the Writing School was occasionally
added the subject of Bookkeeping, of Navi-
gation, or of Mathematics. In 1832 the
Dolbear Brothers visited New Orleans as
itinerant teachers of Writing, on the Cas-
tarian system, and later they maintained a
regular Writing Academy in New Orleans
and in New York. About 18S3 they con-
nected Bookkeeping and Arithmetic with
the Writing Schools and opened Dolbear's
Commercial College. This was the first
commercial college in New Orleans. It
had a varied experience for many years
with a low-grade course and bombastic
advertising, l)ut became extinct in IST-t.

From 1855 to the present date, lii02, there
has been upward of forty Commercial Col-
leges, Shorthand Schools, Telegraph
Schools, Literaryand Commercial Colleges,
Commercial and English Academies, etc.,
all of which have ceased to exist. There
are at present writing upward of thirty
Commercial Schools, Shorthand Schools
and Telegraph Schools, including the Com-
mercial Departments of the High Schools,
the Literarj' Schools and the Commercial
Schools connected with the various Catho-
lic institutions. Nearly all of these schools
have short, low-grade and incomplete
courses in the Commercial Sciences.


In 1K%, Geo. Soule established the Soule
Commercial College, in New Orleans, and
in 1873 he extended the course of studies to
include English and Academic courses, and
in 1881 Shorthand and Typewriting courses
were connected. Each of these schools or
departments has a separate corps of
teachers and is specially equipped for the
course taught therein.

In the 4*1 years' work of Soule College it
has had various experiences with commer-
cial courses of study and methods of teach-
ing. The questions, ** What shall consti-
tute a course of business study ? and how
shall it be taught? "were born with the
commercial school, and, like Banquo's
ghost, they will "never down." Forty-six
years ago, Soule College confronted these
questions, and has since labored by experi-
ment, investigation, and reason to solve
them. As early as 1856, the founder of this
institution taught the bookkeeping
branches of a business course practically—
in the sense in which the word practically
was then used. J. N. Bartlett, Peter Duff,
and Geo. N. Comer, the fathers of commer-

cial schocils in tliis country, and Jones, of
St, Louis, and Gundry. of Cincinnati, the
leading pioneer disciples of the fathers of
commercial education, and some others of
less fame had already illumined the Amer-
ican business world with their methods of
teaching Bookkeepitig. With these methods
as a basis, Soule College commenced its
work of evolution in methods and in course
of study. In a part of its course it intro-
duced the actual transactions of a mercan-
tile house, and connected therewith all the
business papers, correspondence, etc. It
presented the exiact forms of books used by
the leading houses of New Orleans, and
gjive extended, work in Practical. Arithme-
tic, Commercial Law, English Composition,
Penmanship, etc. It tried the Merchandise
Card System, the Board of Trade System
of buying and Selling, the Sample Mer-
chandiseStoreSysteni of makingpurchases
and sales. It also in vestigated the meri^ts
and demerits of the various fads and fakes
which were fronf time to timctnjected into
the commercial school work by various

Soule College as it exists toda>% is the
growth of nearly half a century. Its attend-
ance is yearly increasing. In 1902, last ses-
sion, 077 students were in attendance. Its
facilities have been year by year increased,
and its courses of study have been each
year extended and made to meet the de-
mands of the continu:il change in business
affairs and in practical education. The
Commercial or Business course of study is
now of the highest grade, and inchides the

the text-book, the individual instruction,
the lecture and the business practice sys-
tems of teaching, combined with actual
store work, wherein real goods are l)Ought
and sold, actual money is received and paid,
and in which the students keep the books
hy the most labor-saving forms, on the
Department System. Loose Leaf Ledgers,
Order Blanks, Triplicate Sales Forms and
Binders, the Reverse Posting and the Check
Figure Systems of proof are used in the
actual store work, and actual cash is bal-
anced by the student daily. This special
feature of vSoule College is not possessed
by anj' other Business school on either

Another distinguishing characteristic of
Soule College is, that in the Bookkeeping
course it presents the special forms of books,
general and auxiliary, that are used in the
leading lines of business, instead of the iiu-
practical forms given in the^ordinary text-
books of the day.

The growth of the college has necessi-
tated the recent erection of a large and ele-
gant building admirably planned for the
present- and future needs of each depart-
ment. The work in the academic depart-
ment is so complete that its graduates are
admitted to Harvard and Yale. S^oule Col-
lege is not only the largest but for many
years it has ranked as the strongest in its
courses of study, its management and in
the thorough equipment of its graduates.
As a scholarly and courteous gentleman
Colonel Soule has for many years been re-
garded by business educators as without an
equal. Socially in his own city and through-
out the south he is a recognized leader. My
wife and I had the pleasure of visiting New
Orleans a number of years ago and arriv^ed
in the city the day before the famous Mardi
Gras festivities which in. February attract
thousands to the city. Hundreds of thous-
ands of dollars are spent in making the
city a fairy land of flowers and gorgeous
decorations. Scores of l.>arges and floats of
marvelous beauty form a part of a royal
procession headed by the Ktng of the Mardi
Gras and his attendants. At night the
King and attendants give public receptions
in immense halls made beautiful beyond
description with evergreens and flowers.
Who was to be King was a close society
secret. We called upon Colonel Soule, and
in stating that we supposed it impossible to
gain admission to the special Mardi Gras
receptions he assured us that nothing
would l)e easier, and writing our names on a
. beautifully engraved card he presented it
tq us in confiflence with the compliments of
Colonel Soule, Kingof the Mardi Gras. Dur-
ing the festivities as King, and later at his
beautiful home, as Colonel Soule, he gave
us royal treatment. While there are today
many worthy schools through the south
imparting business training there are none
so ably managed, so highly esteemed or so
creditable to the cause of Commercial Edu-
cation throughout the country as Soule's
Commercial College, the oldest, largest and
strongest in the south.

3obn D. ttlilliams
Was born in Pittsburgli in 1829, but his boy-
hood days were spent in Newcastle, Pa. He
showed an early love for ^'riting and draw-
ing, and it is said that a piece of chalk or
charcoal and a board fence would come as
near making him perfectly happy as any-
thing could. Those were the days of itiner-
ant writing masters, wherein wonderful
results were achieved " in ten lessons," by
candlelight, with quill pens.

The traveling writing master was as much
a curiosity to the country boy as the xnenas-


erieor circus, and was possessed of as many
antics— chirograph ically speaking— as the
monkey or the clown. In fact, the "show"
orfranied "specimens " was quite as curious
in general and in detail as any circus bill
that was ever printed. And it never ceased
to be the topic of wonder that any mere
mortal could attain to such sublime skill of
portraiture through the instrumentality of
a quill pen ; and in fact, it is an even thing
whether, as mere objects of curiosity, the
world has ever prodxiced the equal of the
"kit" of the traveling writing master of
sixty years ago. Impossible elephants in
red and blue ink, carrying their cork-screw
trunks l>etween their striped legs ; flying
horses, birds of gaily mixed plumage (.hlue
and red) with out-stretched wings and fan-
like tails, of species unknown to naturalist
or taxidermist ; angels with wings and
trumpets, proclaiming to the world that
"the unrivalled chirographist, Mr. Seth
Jones, is about to start a writing school, at
the frame school-house at Dixon's Cross
Roads, on Monday night nest, at early
candle-lighting, to continue for ten lessons,
at a dollar a head, each pupil to bring his
own candle and to furnish his own paper,
ink and quills. Success guaranteed in
every instance."

It was just such a show as this that
attracted the boy. John D. Williams, and
just such inspirations that started him on a
career wherein he finally made his mark as
the best off-hand penman of his time.

At the age of twelve he came under the
notice of Peter Duff, of Duff's Commercial
College of Pittslfurgh, who gave him his
first writing lessons.

Mr. Duff knew how to utilize Williams'
skill, and not being afraid to puff him gen-
erously in the Pittsburgh papers, he soon
made him famous and gave him the incite-

ment which he needed to push him forward
in his artistic field. At that time the famous
and eccentric C). K. Chamberlain was run-
ning an opposition school in Pittsburgh.
He was a pupil of Spencer's, though by far
too egotistical to acknowledge any mere
man as his master, and nothing pleased
Williams or Duff better than to stop the
louder boasting of Chamberlain by the
superior work of Williams. Williams was a
rapid and tireless workman, and he fairly
"flung" his specimens about with an ex-
travagant liberality that awakened won-
der. Chamberlain was far more skill-


ful with his tongue than with his pen,
and it began to be pretty well understood
that while he could beat Williams
blowing, Williams could surpass him
in penmanship skill. The influence of
those early and sometimes bitter contests
never left him. He was always a
competitor; always noticing the work of
others and deterniningto beat it. No where
was he so truly in his element as at a State
Fair, where there was plenty of competition
and a chance to win the premium as
a " Champion Penman." He omitted none of
the accessories, and was untiring in his
efforts to secure the most advantageous posi-
tion to display his skill, the best recognition
from officers and men of influence, and the
best chances of winning the premium.
While he ^^'as always anxious to deserve the
first place in the final award, he was just as
anxious to secure it, and left no stone un-
turned to this end.

As a practical penman, Mr. Williams made
no claim for great excellence. Owing to an
accident which almost totally disabled his
right thumb he was unable to make use of
what is known as the " finger " or " mixed ''
movement, and while he was able to draw
for the engraver with great accuracy, !»y
holding the pencil as in the position for
flourishing, and using the arm movenient
entirely, he could not use the pen with any
marked skill in ordinary writing. This fact
was the source of much regret to him, the
more especially as it left open to conjecture
whether the copy lines which appeared in
his published books were the engraver's or
the author's. It is saying no new thing to
state that no author who ever prepared
copies for an engraver did it with more care
or more exactness, an<J whatever work of

(Continued on Pa^e -10.)

ShQt^viUilrhG^&dU^Qf&Xii&rr ^

Entered at the Fost Office at Columbus, Ohio, as Second
Class Matter. September 1, 1902.

Edited and Published Monthly (Except July
and August.) by Zaner & Bloser, 118 N. High
Street, Columbus, Ohio.

Vol.. Viir. No. 7. Whole no. 52



Change of Address— If you change your address
be sure to notify us promptly (in advance, if pos-
sible) and be careful to give the old as well as the
new one We lose many papers each issue
through negligence on the part of subscribers.

Hates to Hgcnts and Club Haisers

Sent upon application. Whether you are in a
position to send a few or many subscriptions, let
us know, so that we can favor you with our low-
est possible terms and a few sample copies.

Considering the fact that we issue no partial or
cheap editions ; that our journal is high-grade in
every particular; that the color feature of the
cover alone costs hundreds of dollars; that "les-
sons that teach" are a distinctive feature of our
magazine ; that the art presented is the best ever
given in a journal of this nature; and that the
department of business education is upon a more
comprehensive and truly representative plan than
ever before attempted ; you will readily see that
the Business Eddcator is not only the best but
the cheapest, because the best is always the

€be Best ndverlisiitg medium of Its

The Business Educator being the most pop-
ular and widely read journal of its kind, it fol-
lows that it is also the best advertising medium.

It reaches practically all persons interested in
comtuercial education and in penmanship, in
both this country and in Canada. It covers the
commercial school field completely, going as it
does to the heads of Commercial Colleges. Com-
mercial High Schools. Commercial Departments
in Parochial Schools, Colleges, etc., as well as to
a large number of office workers, public school
teachers, home students, etc. Then it is pre-
served as but few journals are, many subscribers
having it bound in book form. Our rates for
space are extremely low— lower than the

nbout TIdvertisitid Hgain.

This is the day of advertising, and what
advertisers are looking for is mediums that
will bring the most business, cost consid-
ered. There are many good reasons why
The liUSlNESS Educator is the best ad-
vertising medium of its class. One is, that
being the most beautiful, it is most pre-
served, and is most attractive to old and
young. No cheap student's edition is pub-

Some of our advertisers have been keep-
ing careful records of returns received, and
have reported them to us, for which we are
very thankful.

H A. Rounds, who is advertising his new
T Square, received $45 from his first adver-

H. O. Keesling, who is advertising colored
cards, in an unsolicited testimonial, writes
as follows : " From my ten months' adver-
tisement in your paper I have received over
1,00T answers, and made 750 sales to date."

Evidently he who has an article of inter-
est and value to penmen, business educa-
tors, office people and home students, the
medium to etnploy in advertising it is THE

Business educator.

facts-Historical and Scientific.

About the time that Columbus discovered
America the scribes discovered that the


was too slow for the then awakening com-
mercial needs. In their endeavors to write
more rapidly, though somewhat less legi-
bly, they naturally drifted into connecting
their letters, and the result was the devel-
opment and creation of the

w _. ..c«?>c*^ opceii, icieaocu tne tension

of the fingers, and encouraged the use of
the arm movement. Progress was brought
about by discarding disconnected charac-
ters, and creating connecting lines.

This style of writing continued to be
taught and used until about the time the
American people declared their independ-
ence. Times began again to move more
freely, and the people felt the need of greater
speed in penmanship. As a consequence

came into use, and from 180O to 1850 increased
in popularity. As concerned speed, it was a
decided improvement over the round style
it superseded, but it was less legible. So
much so that at times it was inclined
toward illegibility. The round hand was
slow but legible ; the angular was rapid but
illegible, unless unusually well written.

The strenuous times of 1850 began to dis-
close the fact that a more legible hand than
the angular was needed ; and one that
was. if possible, still swifter. Father Spen-
cer and his contemporary laborers came
upon the scene and discerned the new need
and endeavored to meet it in the evolution
of the

or Spencerian hand, which soon proved so

Online LibraryDonald B. (Donald Budd) ArmstrongThe Penman-Artist and Business Educator (Volume 6-8) → online text (page 193 of 225)