Donald B. (Donald Budd) Armstrong.

The Penman-Artist and Business Educator (Volume 6-8) online

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need, and what all others who are not at
home in drawing need to make them feel
at home. Any one can learn to draw by the
aid of this book. Only 25 cents postpaid.
The illustrations are lithographed from
actual pencil drawings and are much
finer than photo-engravings.

Sample pages of Portraiture or Sketching from
Nature mailed for 2c stamp. Cash should accom-
pany all orders. Remit by money order, draft,
or stamps for small amounts. Do not send per-
ional checks. Address,


Columbus, Ohio.

Setiol fof Catalogue t^
and Sarpple Writing


lyliiatl, OJiio.

Mention this paper.


of instruction in rapid and ornamental
lettering, for Display Signs. Show Cards
and Tickets, embracing Marking Pen,
Shading Pen and Brush Lettering. A new
field for clerks to increase their earning
capacity. My new Booklet gives full par
ticulars'. Write for it. Address.

W. A. Thompson,

Ponttac, Mich.

YOU ^*" Learn to Dra>,w

Cftrtoons aod n m« •■ «-—

IlIiutrKtionj- oyMail

if you h«Lve hny t&lent for drawing, by
a. short tk.nd pr&cticai method that has
b«en luccejituUy uied for ten yean.

C. L. YOUNG, Jr. Columbuy, Ohio.




Always Ask for Esterbrook's Pens. All Stationers Have Them.


26 John Street, New York,

Works, Camden, N. J.


1 th;


ill 1






at will

{or free book shdwiiit; Imw vuii can take a cmiiplete course i
Departments or Schools of which the Institute is conip(jsed:

Not necessarv to leave home. Will not interfere with your
present employiiient. You may make small monthly payments.
A lar^e corps of professors, graduates of the leading Colleges

the lea
I'ersities, will teach you. You can study i
take a complete course. Everything is


Compress has authorized us to confer decrees. Our Department of Civil Servic
tions will prepare you to olitain a government position under the Civil bervice

subject or

ated catalc
>n request.

jii are interested will be mailed to you


26-40 Second National Bank BuUdiiigf. Washington, D. C.



Our Presidents at the Detroit meeting of the national Commercial Ceacbers' Federation, Dec. 26=29. 1900



teachers' ASSOCIATION.

teachers' ASSOCIATION.

Cessons in Practical Ulriting by e. P. Zaner.


w and cramped, hefori- it ll^^ialahle. On the other hand,
mtidy. i.^ not at all in demand. Business does not demand beauty, liut few
1 therefore be adding dollars to your wage earning and influence wirniing
ng. Be careful lioir you dip ink. dipping neither too much nor too little,
here it \vill not be likely to fall upon or roll over your paper or books. These
little things but they prevent blots and blurs. They cost but a little time, thought and effort to acquire, but they stick to one
mg while, usually forever. Accidents are rare with skilled, proficient, reliable people. Blots, blurs, etc.. are the result of careless-
s and lack t^f skill — clumsiness. Keep a blotter under the hand, but do n<^t write coarse enough to require blotting. Xervous
pie keep mopping the ink frcun writing as fat people perspiration from the face. The otiI\- cHflerence is that tlu- former is sense-

satness Writing, if neat. nui~t be unconin

writing done skillfully but unsystematic i

isiness men will tolerate slovenly kept books, "^'oi
lility by cultivating an orderly, neat, sightly hanil
ave an orderly desk and a place for your pen — a pla




-/^C-t-'^-z - ^*^ _, - i^^-t..-v-^^'^^^ .-. - ^e^'t^-T^n^-'-^^ ,..^^^ - e^-7-TL^>^^-^ „,_-;?^ - i:. - 7 - z - ':;^^-^^^^i>z-

no. 29 Tlie A- is composed of ji loop or extended first part.

to look like any other small letter but sometimes

larjie. Avoid this common error, and endeavor to maintain
lie as difficult as is commonly supposed. Make each part
the tirst part. Keep the first down stroke straight and the
kiinck without raisin:^ the pen. Wide spacing requires


id part that is much like a small capital /?. It is not likely
resembles the capital A*, if the second part is made tan
an angle atid turn at the base line, and the letter will not
quickly, making a short pause if necessary at the base of
last turn at the base line small. Write the word k/iick-
more time but it e.Koi, rai;i- frefd..,,, of action.

no. 30 The capital Z begins the sa
It is best to keep the h

ids like the small x. It
all. however. Keep the loop below the line

11; neither long

retrace exercise at the end of the first line is beneficial as it encourages steadiness aud sureness of action. Watch spacing in and
between words in writing the sentence. Practice the words and letters you write the poorest. Review former lessons frequently,
always endeavoring to do better than previously. Watch turns and angles closely, never makingone for the other. Keep the fingers
from acting much. They hold the pen, that is nearly enough for them to do. They can assist to do the rest, but they should not be
e^ ..o.-t.^d r,r nii.iwed to do even half. Co-operation is better for all concerned than idleness or overwork.

Qlp3h6^ktm\>m\i'&^^ and &ulMn€!^£«Ui(;al(^^^l^

no. 31 'I'Ik' I'»m> l)flii\v the line is the s;iiiie iis the one above, except tluit it is reversed. The crossing sliould occur near or on the

base line. The loop need not be hirjje or long, just long enough so that .; will not be mistaken for /, which letter it respin-

liles above the line. Keep the. dot over and near {\ie letter, neither too high nor to the right. Do not raise the pen in writing the
words given. Write the word .;o;« well twenty times in a minute. You ought to be able to write it legible thirty times in a minute,
which Tnclndes the dots also. The word juhilcr should be written well fifteen times in a miiuite. .\ot that iTian\- times eacli miniitn
l.iTl .-.t that rate of speeil while practicing. When I say ire//, I do not mean merely legibly.

no. 32 The Q is not uidikc the figure 1'. It begins like .^ ami finishes like /,. Keep the loop s.nall and the liiiishing slickc just

beneath the liase line. Do not stop or pause in making this letter, but use a rapid, continuou.s motion, easy in appearance.

Absorb the thought of the sentences and learn to practice as therein suggested. There is no royal road to good writing — just the
plain, old, universal highway of application. Observe the copy and its details, plan a mode of practice, then go to work and realize
your wishes. Ideals become realities when they are worked out. You are the one to determine whether your andiitions shall remain
such, or btcome facts. If your desire is to write well, you can convert that desire into good writing by proper effort.

^'Zj^^ ^-Tj^:^ ,'-1^^. - ' ^-Lj^^^- ^''^ — ^5*^ — ^^::^'^~''^^^'''~^^^''^''^'^^^

no. 33 Begin .i- like n aud finish it like .;. The g i

loop and proportion. These letters arefre

their essentials. The Hrst part of j- should contain
ure to maintain two turns in tlie former, and to
second letters herewith illustrated, and as will bt
for two different letters. Loops need lie neither long
from the short or mininuini lett

.f the ;/ aTi.l.r. He sure you observe all of the details of angle and tun
iiueiitly written illegibly through failure to observ
two tunrs aiul the K should always be closed. ' Fai
close the oval in the latter, leads to the Hrst an
seen they look uuich the same though were intende
nor largf, just large enough to distiTigoish the lettei
Long loops encourage finger action and take time and effort to make; more of all than slior


small loops, h'edi

ttended letters to tli(

dd attain th


nuike it the same

style is one used by many people.

The -V begins the same as /f, and is liiushed nmch the same as the //without the lo,>p or cross. Keep the two parts clos
together. Use little or no finger action. Watch your position. See that it is healthful at all times. Do not grip the holder. Hold
Hrmly. neither tightlx nor lo..sely.


-T-^C^ o-iy-cLJL

QJpShG^^&unsui-^iJ^ cmd fintwiKi^l) ^ductitgr^ll^

no. 35 Liiok i>ver your pL'tunanship critically. Examine some of your work that was doue when you were thinking of somethiusf
else than writing. Are the ii's and n's unlike? Are your /'.s always. looped and your fCs without loops? Are your o's
unlike your I's? Is the last upper turn of iii as rounding as the one in the center? Are turns and angles always distinct? These,
;ind many more, are the questions you need to ask. Xo one learns to write without effort. Some enjoy penmanship more than others.
Those who enjoy writing do not consider practice work, but pleasure. Learn to write well and then you, too. will tiiid it jileasurable.

Smallness Tl


le accoi



riting c

dU h

F, H



igular at ti


ought I


H, I.


U, W

, I.


•fore pn


R, F



)od. So

ne 1

C, V



irk is s


J, E.



.. Hue 1


D, C



luii stri


e days of scientific accounting, when much is condensed into little space, it becomes necessary on the part of the
accountant to write a small, plain, compact hand. You will therefore do well to see how neatly, how plainly, and how
u can write the above well. Use a finer pen than usual, or a new one at least, and see how small you can write readably,
panying hand is but about a thirty-second of an inch in height. You ought to be able to write that small at least. Small
■ executed in less time than large writing, and with less energy if yon possess the necessary skill.

iou are on tlie right road — travel on. Exercise greater care and more watchfulness for details. Last part of in too
p and too narrow. Small ir and u too rounding at bottom. Continue to practice freely but endeavor to focus your
control of movement as it is .somewhat wild (but not too fast) and uncontrolled.

ir figures are first-class. They are about as perfect as they can be to be made quickly. Exercise care in arrangement.
Your work is very skillful. Be more systematic in your practice. You ought to till at least one page of each copy
ing to the next. Retrace small t further. Letters a trifle angular. Come again.

Close small u. Make small e more rounding. Small a too large for other letters. Your movement an<l work are verv
lonth. Come regularly.

is the best

i-ed th

inder perfect cii

(/ too

Work good in general — right motive power but no
did — small a too narrow in your rapid work.

.Snuill II and lu too angular at top. Loops too slender and tall. Capitals too flightv — not tirm. Too i
for business. Small Ji looks like li. Don't loop t. Practice faithfully from copies.

till too heavy. Last part of ;; and «j larger than first part. Work is good and firm

ut b;


.1 it

ill be

The aliove is the Hrst plate of a series of auxiliary copies by Mr. S. M. Blue, assistant penman in the Zanerian Art College. Mr. Blue
will presetit a graded course of copies which will cover consideral>le ground, and we advise all to practice from tiiem as well as from
the copies in our re.gular lessons.

In this lesson the small letters are presented for practice in two ways: in medium and wide spacing. The mastery of lioth
styles will produce much better results than if but one style is practiced. The wide spacing encourages a free, strong action to the
right, and if it is tlioroughly mastered it will aid wonderfully in giving a firm and forceful effect to the medium spacing— something
that is so much desired. Practice tliis lesson faithfully so that you will be read}' for the next, which will consist of words made up
of these same small letters. Do not miss these plates.

^dh^^^mmAm'&j^iJid oi^d &uy>n€i^£«Uiait(v'^



■=.<C>?^^?2-«Z-2>^«-;?^yr C-'-»^..-f-y2.-i;^7^l^-^-i^€^->'-y:^, ^^''^A^rZ-Jz^gZ^j^^


' i:n7-g?-<rT7^l^^dy



Cessons in Professional Busi=
ness Ulriting


In this lesstiii we have the entire alphabet
of capital letters. Capitals should be con-
nected with the small letters when it is
convenient to do so, but in some cases it is
just as well witliout the combination, but
see that you always begin your small writ-
ing close enough to tlie capitals so as to
make no break in tlie spacing between let-
ters whicli sliould be uniform.

By Professional Business Writing we
mean notliing more nor less than ^(tod,
pJaiii iirititia, so it should be your higliest
aim toff)rm the lettersaccurately and never
write so fast that you have no time to com-
plete eiich letter, in fact, no one can l>econie
a good writer without paying the utmost
attention to the completeness of each letter.
In course of time it will tie necessary for
you to apply speed in order that you nun-
become a rapid writer, but you need not
lose the form of the letter: far from it, but
apply speed and retain a good substantial
form in making each letter. By beginning
slowly and familiarizing yourself with the
true forms it will be an easy matter to re-
tain such forms in rapid writing if you only
keep the standard constantly in mind. It is
by far better to devote a little more time to
your writing when you write letters or an\'-
thing else and turnout a respectable piece
of work, rather than to hurry over it and be
ashamed of >'our own writing when you are
through with it. In nearly all cases where
the writer is too much in a hurry he will
have 1o rewrite the whole matter , and, l)y
so doing, spend much uuire time than would
be required to do the work right, going over
it the first time. Time and time again the
writer has received letters from so-called
penmen who inade a fair start in writing
the letter, lint at the close of the same letter
it was almost impossible to decipher the
writing and then had to guess at the signa-
ture. Unless a letter is very important,
bu-siness men do not stop to decipher poor
writing. Time is too valuable. I wish to
say to you as a stiident of writing that suc-
cess can not come in any other way than
by earnest and faithful study and practice.

In regard to the use of capitals, I would
say that if you have another style now and
then which you prefer to the style used in
this lesson, there is no reason why you
should not use it, so long as it is a substan-
tial and approved letter. Something the
business world can use. I admit, in com-
mon with other good teachers of penman-
ship, that some capitals may lie made in at
least two styles and the one as good as the
other, but permit me to discourage you in
the use of odd and mystified styles which
are diiiHcult to read. Some penmen are in
the business of numnfacturing new st.vles
of letters which, as models, are entirely
unfit to present to students. Learn to make
a sound letter. One which will stand the
test and meet with approval everywhere.
You will never be a good writer until you
get vour writing into systematic form, leav-
ing but all curious notions as to perplexnig
stvles. Space enough between the small
letters to show each letter distinctly.



'-^ -^i^-C£-^.-,it^ ^.^s-f-i..^^

Please accept our congratulations on t
inipro\'ement you have made in yo

Oct. S, liKKI. :H Union Square, N. Y. City

Cessons in Jlrtistic Penmanship

number Tour


This is the time of the year for itiiprove-
nient and advancemei?t along penmanship
lines. Take advantage of tlie long even-
ings and spend as many of them as possilile
in hard, earnest, honest practice. Later on
in tlie year when the daj-s Ijecome longer
and the evenings hot, you will not feel as
tnucli like work of this kind, and, in truth,
you cannot do as good work. So dig in
NOW. Keniember, your advancement de-
pends entirely upon yoursetf. As you work,
so you climb.

H)01'.'^ ABO\"E THE LINE

I think 3'ou will have but little trouble
with the loops above the line if you apply
the same movement and principles sug-
gested in Lesson Three for loops lielow the
line. Keep tlie paper in such a position
that the arm will beat about right angles
to the connective slant. With the paper and
arm in this position, you should cause the
pen to move to the right andlupward. This
will necessitate a slight backward and
then forward action of the arm in the sleeve
in connection with the hinge motion.
Witliout stopping the pen at the top, allow
it to turn a1:)ruptly and descend toward tlie
line, to l>e raised from the pa'per at or near
the crossing. Then place the pen carefully
on the unfinished stroke and complete tlie
letter. Ycm cannot make loops successfully
if your arm is at right angles to the liase
line without a good deal of tinger action.
Whereas, witli the paper turned as liefore
advised, you cannot use the lingers much,
but the muscles of the arm instead. Of
course you must discover for yourselves
just what position of the paper and arm
seems to produce the best results. This you
will find by trying the different positions
and by placing the paper at different angles.

By close observation you will notice that
the down strokes in loops are not quite
straight, or should not he so at least. It is
generally supposed that they are straight
and are usually so taught, but none of our
best penmen or engravers make thtyii so.
You can raise the pen to advantage twice
in making the f, near the crossing coming
down and at the base line going up.

Bear in mind that a light, easy, \-et firm
and delicate movement is necessary at all
times. Do not allow your muscles to be-
come so tightened by nervous anxiety that
they cannot act, or do not go to the other
extreme and allow them to '* flop around.'"
Keep them tuned to such a pitch that the\'
will do their very best,

Xow don't l^e afraid to practice c]uite vig-
orously at times on the work given. It will
help you along if you will doulile tlie size of
the copies at times, and at others reduce the
size a half and double the spacing. The
latter style, especially, will put force and
strength into your work. After practicing
the different styles 3'ou should coniplete
your work by practicing the size and spac-
ing given in the copies. Keepyourink and
pens in good condition, and avoid using
poor paper. Good material costs but little
more than poor.

\V. T. L., Enville— .Small letters m
ter tlian capitals. Shade too high
stroke of B and K. Make initial a

tine lines stronger if possible. Shade on L
too long. Drop it lower. Thin ink down.
Come again.

F. W. J., Missouri— Glad to hear from you.
Your work shows that you have taken quite
a stride since last we met. .Study last part
of Hand K morecloseU-. You can improve
~ apital D. Fine lines


lith fo

;ik at

not sacrifice
lelicacv. In other words, en-
It" your lines. Add a little

Jennie C, New York -You liave made an
excellent start on capitals. Movement
seems a trifle weak at times. Put strength
and force into j'our strokes. Endeavor to
make all sluides shorter. Keep on.

" ■/.;• .Mancliester-
fessional petiman
lack freedom, touch
Japan Ink. ililuted, i


ik I ad-s

J. B. W., 111. -Practice indicates that you
are working in the right direction. Simply
persevere. I fail to locate any serious difli-
cultj-. Practice should reach me b>- the
first of eacli month.

Clinton.Ky.— Capitals too sprawling. Don't
hustle small letters the same as in business
writing. Pick pen oftener. Practice seems
thouglitless and rapid.

W. B. (;., Xewark — Use oblique holder.
Confidence will come by practice. You did
quite well.


ness Y(

D. W. J., Spring Garden— I congratulate
you on your results under the circumstan-
ces. Use lietter paper. Work shows that
vonr movement is wild and uncontrolled.
Shades too l.mgon all capitals. 'Get more
contrast between liglit line and shaded
strokes. Small letters good. Send work
regularlw Xotime just now for specimen
work. .Sorry.

Wilton. Conn. — See no reason why you
can't become a goiid penman. You certainly
have a good start. Try to put more strength
and force into your shaded capitals. Get

^* -^'^-



L-liohirs huw sjii.l. in (lispar
;jeineiit ot business sclmols,
that they teach, ainotiK other
things, sotne merely elemen-
tary hookkeepin^, em])hasizing "elemen-
tal-." We who teach coaumercial branches
have been disposed to resent this
assertion. It indicates a hick of familiarity
with the work of worthy business schools,
manj' of which might readily be named.
Nevertheless, there is a sense in which this
statement made by college men is true.
Nothing could more forciblj' demonstrate
the truth of it than would the attempt to
answer the list t»f sample questions, un
another page, given to candidates for the
Certitied Public Accountants' Certificate,
in New York. We believe that they would
stagger many commercial teachers.




To be sure, the average busi
ness college does not pretend
to fit its students for profes-
sional work in accounting,
such as is done by those who make a busi-
ness of expert accounting. Nevertheless,
in the best schools, there are always ad-
vanced students who would enjoy such a
course as our list of questions would re-
quire. For them the ambitious teacher
wlio reads these questions will be eager to
delve into the books that provide the infor-
mation necessary to answer these questions.


paiiers- right for each <mi the Tlie».iy nf
Accounts, Practical Accounting. Auditing,
and Commercial Law. Our sample ques-
tions were selected from these papers. Send
fifteen cents to Secretary James R. Parsotis,
University of the State of New York,
Albany. New York, and yoii will get a veri-
table revelation of the possibilities of ac-
counting, probably not yet touched upon in
your teaching.

In 18'J(;, New York passed a
law creating the title Certified
Public Accountant, and three
expert examiners were ap-
pointed by the regents of the
Tnivcrsityof the State of New York. This
board of examiners holds examinations in
January and June of each year.

Hitherto, no guide, other than the printed
examination papers, has been available, but
this year the University is sending out, to
those who are interested iti these examina-
tions, College Bulletin Number 15, Certified
Public Accountant Syllabus. It contains a
brief statement of the history of accounting-
the importance of m(Klern accounting, and
the relation of the public accountant to bus-
iness men and to the public.

Ati excellent summary of the topics for
the examinations is given. The sugges-
tiveness of these is worth much to an> alert

A valuable list of books on accounting and
commercial law is given. Some of them are
familiar to our readers. Several are not,
and these are chiefly English works. Our
British friends are said to be nuich in ad-
vance of us in the science c)f accounting,
and many of our reader^ will be glad tu
have an opportunity to obtain unbiased ad
vice as to what books to buy.

The most interesting feature c»f the S\Ila
biis, however, is the sets of examination


The article, '■ Kroin the Busi-
ness Man's Point of View," be-
gun in this number, is an ad-
dress given by Mr. Henry Miles in Montreal
a short time ago. He very graciously per-
mits us to use it. The address is so nuicli
to the point and aroused so much favorable

Online LibraryDonald B. (Donald Budd) ArmstrongThe Penman-Artist and Business Educator (Volume 6-8) → online text (page 29 of 225)