Donald B. (Donald Budd) Armstrong.

The Penman-Artist and Business Educator (Volume 6-8) online

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register, written with the same ink, the
same pen in the same penholder, but, back
of it all, the individuality of each writer.
To the student of penmanship a hotel
register is as interesting as a puzzle, to
study what a variety of results can l)e ob-
tained by the same instrument in the hands
of different people.


The slope of penmanship was not brought
about by fashion, but liy high pressure
business needs. Sloping penn^anship has
stood the severest test of time. Xo other
style of penmanship serves its possessor so
well, and no other style of penmanship has
ever given so much inspiration to its
learners. No cramped rules, no limitation,
absolute liberty in style, in size and in char-
acter, it partakes of and bespeaks the free-
dom of the land.


Excellence is the fruit we seek in penman-
ship, and the business community salutes
the magnificent results of penmanship as
taught by business colleges, those which
are the standard schools in the land, and
are above reproach. Gentlemen, slant
writing must stay at the top; the business
world demands it and does not argue the
point. The matter of any particular degree
of slant is taste. It is not necessary to
adhere to a slope of 52. 54. fin), or even 70
degrees, so long as the general building up
of the letter is based upon the natural
adaptation of the style to the writing
muscles. And that natural motion must
conform in whatever style is written to the
requirements of rapidity of execution, com-
bined with legibility of product.



• longhand the pen slips right along
without any eflfort. But the business pen-
manship of the future is likely to slope a
trifle less than some of the writing books
now in vogue. It will probably be about
seventy degrees above the horizontal for
the down strokes, depending largely upon
individual taste.

One cause of unsatisfactory work in slop-
ing writing in the past has been the per-
sistent effort of copy-book makers, as well
as some teachers, to popularize a stjle of
penmanship with tall capitals and tall,
extended letters, and very fine strokes,

which st\-le has the tendency to produce
hesitancy in writing and uncertainty in

The business college man's first duty is
to the young people who come to be edu-
cated. His second duty is to the business
man. We must consider his requirements
and meet them.

Sloping penmanship is the standard hanil-
writing of the civilized world.


Why do all civilized nations write the
sloping hand? Asking the question is
answering it. The behind-the-age nations,
who are still living in the past, write some-
thing of the hieroglyphics, and according
to penmanship history, their next style of
writing would be vertical, and then modern,
sloping hand.

Handwriting, like other Ijranches. passes
through stages of progress. At first the
tadpole, and when he grows his legs he
drops his tail and skips. So in writing,
vertical first then sloping.

We are not living in a Duntonian. Payson
and Hammond, or Spencerian age of writ-
ing, but the age of business writing; not
the theoretical age, but the practical age,
which has adapted sloping penmanship to
muscular movement. As the demand of
the times brought the steamer across the
trackless ocean, so the demand of the times
killed the old style of heavy, slow penman-
ship, and produced what we now have in
our light-line sloping hand.

I champion the cause of sloping pen-
manship, and wield my pen in the defense
of innocent boys and girls. I am a crusader
against the vertical for the welfare of the
thousands of boys and girls who are unable
to judge the merits of any st>'le. Did the
parents realize the real situation, and the
weakness of vertical writing, the return to
sloping handwriting would be speedily
consummated. There is too much blind

following of imimlsiie superintendents,
and not alirars well informed school
committees. With half the degree of care
exercised in writing sloping penmanship
as is exercised in perpendicular it is every
whit as legible. Allow the pupil the same
number of minutes to write sloping, give
him the same attention when he writes,
give him the same encouragement when he
writes the sloping hand as he receives in
writing the vertical hand, and the pupil
will not only write sloping as plain, but
very much swifter and very nuich nu>re
easily, and write as he will not only want
to do. but must write when he engages in
office duties.


In the practical side of education, ciud
that means the public schools as well as
the business college,) we are not alloweil to
do as the artist does, paint in a sky where
there was none, put in a tree here and take
one out there, and so on. In business we
must stick to facts, and the furniture of the
thoughts is but another word tor penman
ship. In sloping writing we direct the effort
to fts exact use, and there is small oppor-
tunity to improve on our very best light-
line writing. Sloping penmanship is like a
family living in a tent, it has no skeleton in
its closet.

An author or a teacher may try his hand
now and then at a different style or slope, a
different character of form, indeed some of
the most skilled penmen have done it, are
doing it, and will continue to do it for
diversion. Such liberties are indulged in
by devotees of all kinds of art and skill, and
this includes the utilitarian art of penman-
ship. Obeying the laws of steam, man has
an engine; obeying the laws of fire, man
has warmth; obeying the law of speech,
man has eloquence; obeying tlie law of the
construction of the arm, man has good
sloping penmanship; and disobeying the
same law. man has poor perpendicular

<^dfU^BeniTuirv-£C4iidt and 6wlwic;>l> &lii6ftW^^

Che liandivHtiiia EKpert and
Ilis mork


Tlie term "handwriting expert," accord
iiig to the dictionary, means "skilled or
experienced in handwriting." In legal
circles and to the general public it has
come to mean "one skilled or experienced
in identifying the individual by means of
his handwriting."

For more than liOO ^-ears (practically since
script writing became at all general) the
handwriting expert has been called upon
to testify iti both ecclesiastical and civil
courts in regard to the genuineness or
spuriousness of writings, and to the iden-
tity of the writer. But it is only
within the past generation that he
has achieved his successes and
prominence. During the last four
> ears several cases, in which hand-
writing played a prominent part,
luive drawn public attention to this
class i>f testimony.

And as a result there has been all
sorts of speculation as to what the
lian<lwriting expert could do, and
how he did it.

The public know next to nothing
about expert witnesses and the
Held of knowledge in which they
"tpcrate. As a rule, nearly every-
b idy is more or less jealous of any
knowledge about an art or science
of which they may be wholly or
pirtly ignorant, being, used by
others in the witness chair. This
jeal(Hisy becomes prejudice, and
you V ill hear people expressing the
most positive opinions about expert
witnesses which a few questions
will demonstrate are founded on
ignorance. But comparatively few
people really know what the hand-
writing expert can do — or what he
claims to do. Many persons think
lie can do more than he is able to
do, while others, because they can't
see through his methods, think he
claims too much.

The professional handwriting ex-
pert W4trksby juxtaposition conipar-
i-^on, that is, he places the genuine
and disputed handwritings side by
side and institutes a comparison of
the peculiarly personal characteris
tics found in the two pieces. Ht-
endeavors to determine whether
or not both were written by one and
the same hand.

Through countless repetitions
every adult handwriting becomes made up
of an almost infinite number and variety of
peculiarities, ihall-marks or trade-marks as
it were,) called by the expert "characteris-
tics." It is the presen<:e or absence of these
characteristics in a piece of writing that
determines its genuineness.

There are but five or six men who devote
tlie major portion of their time to this work,
and these few are able to handle all the
cases of prominence in the I'nited States
and Canada. They are usually located in
the laige centers of population and are
frequently called to distant parts of
America, and even give opinions on cases
arising in Europe, as in the recent Dreyfus

Expertism is a profession which demands
prompt responses to telegraphic requests
calling the expert to distant cities. He can-
not follow any other business in conjunc-

tion with experting, that would be injured
l»y dropping it suddenly.

The courts permit any one who sees or
does nuich writing to qualify as a hand-
writing expert, and as a consequence, in
every trial of case involving handwriting,
there are some amateurs and semi-profes-
sional experts

To prepare for his work the handwriting
expert should first of all secure a good
general education, the better his education
the greater his success. He will be associ-
ated with judges and lawyers who are
among the best read of any of the profes-
sions. A successful lawyer must be a
widely read man and it doesn't heighten
his opinion of an expert, who, no matter
how well informed he may be in his pro-

Exi'Kk'T ivi\sr,E\ Ai Work.

fession. who shows his ignorance f>f general
subjects, English, manners and tact.

Two penmen of whom I have heard, who
essayed to branch out as professional hand-
writing experts, made exhibitions of them-
selves by murdering the English language
("I seen," "I done," "in course," "they
wasn't " are samples) and by silly, landigni-
fied actions, both off and on the witness

But it is not in general education and in
penmanship alone that the handwriting
expert must be trained. He is expected to
be an ink, paper, and typewriting expert as
well. I*f possible, he should have some
knowledge of the chemistry of ink and

He miast have a good education, general
and technical, he must thoroughly under-
stand his business and that means much
more than the ability to write a good hand.

Second, he nuist make a good witness. I
don't know which of the two requirements
— to know your business completely, and
to be able to demonstrate it on the witness
stand, is of greater importance, since both
are so vitally essential. No one can suc-
ceed who is not a master of his profession
and himself.

Several days of tantalizing, aggravating
cross-examination is likely to worry and
annoy anyone so much that he will want to
throw up the work in disgust. A lawyer
with a bad c^se will often do his best to
"rattle" the [expert witness and to abuse
him to the full limit, and the expert must
know how to parry such onslaughts with-
out losing his temper.
In a recent case the lawyer asked the
writer, "As a matter of fact you
experts are just like lawyers, in
that you can be hired to take either
side of a case, are you not?"

The answer. " No, we are not like
lawyers. We must believe what
ife say," brought a smile from the
judge, a roar of laughter from the
crowded court-room, turned tables
on the lawyer (who was well known
locally) and put everybody in good

In another case, a lawyer, know-
ing the writer was a poultry fancier,
remarked, during cross-examina-
tion, "We'll make a Minorca
chicken of you before we're through
with you."

"Don't crow about it too soon,"
was the answer.

A second tilt between the same
lawyer and the writer was: "Do
you claim that you cannot be mis-

Witness: "No, I do not claim to
be infallible."

Lawyer: " Oh, then you're not a
descendent of the Pope?"

Witness: "No, the Pope has no

While the witness will see many
opportunities for repartee and tell-
ing verbal hits, he must restrain
himself, as a court room is a digni-
fied place.

There are all grades of men
among lawyers, as in other profes-
sions and occupations. Some law-
yers are willing to do everything
they can to prevent the expert (and
other witnesses) from telling " the
whole truth and nothing but the
truth." They believe, with Aaron
Burr, that "Law is' anything that
can be forcibly stated and plausibly

Honesty is absolutely essential if the
expert would win lasting success, to say
nothing of the ethical and moral questions
involved. Many persons believe that ex-
perts, like lawyers, can be hired on the
wrong as well as the right side of cases.
This is not so of course.

I know a young penman who endeavored
to become a handwriting expert, and who
informed a friend of the writer that his
plan would be to always get on the side
with the most money. So far, the career of
this would-be expert has not been such as
to attract world-wide notice.

Handwriting experts, as a rule, differ very
seldom, and not " frequently " as some
lawyers like to put it. There may be cases
where honest differences of opinion may
Assistant District Attorney James W

Good nrt in Tllustration — Ulbat It 1$, liow to Hecodnize, Enjoy and Appreciate It

t a good illustration because it represents skillfully (rapidly) made lines but because it typifies and expresses
human nature which crops out in excited controversy, impetuous debate, and heated argument. How the central
liug his point! How tense are the other's feelings as evidenced by his tense hand and ready-to-speak-his-piece
countenance. Notice how the little patches of black are placed here and there so as to bring out or accent the figures. See how
the figures near the outer edge are merely suggested — the details having been omitted. This helps to centralize , the vision on
the two principal figures.

This drawing is by Mr. Carl Strehlau, pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and now
He excels in Mural Painting — Allegorical subjects. We have more of this kind of work for future use.

This ii

that quality
figure is clincl:

the Drexel Institute.

Osborne, of Xew York, the man who man-
aged the prosecution of Molineux, Patrick
and others, in the Rice will and murder
case, the third trial of Dr. Kennedy, and
many other criminal trials, and the man
who is the best posted on the laws and
decisions covering handwriting expert tes-
timony, and who has tried more cases
Involving disputed handwriting than any
other man in the world, has a high opinion
of expert handwriting testimony. Recently
he said: " Expert witnesses are more care-
ful about what they swear to than any
other class of witnesses. They are like
women in one respect — extremely careful
and jealous of their reputations, because
they realize that when their reputations
are lost, their future is gone, too."

The field of work for an expert in hand-
writing is one offering many opportunities
of doing good. The property, liberty and
lives of persons are in his hands at times,
and his profession requires that he bring to
it, broad knowledge, through special train-
ing and a well balanced, conscientious
desire to do what is right and just by his
fellow man. Fortunes, liberty and life may
|.be saved or lost by his testimony and it
behooves him to do his work thoroughly and
honestly. He should live with himself the
balance of his life, and has a future beyond
that, so nothing should tempt him to swerve
Crom the path of justice and right in his

10,000 TEiiCtlERS WHHTEO r,'

M. C. ]'lan mill iniikf an. I ^av^■ money. S
erty bought, sold and exohanped. Wri

■ Sept. 1st
our P C
loul prop-

HALF PRICE— A full ten months course in Busi-
ness and Artistic Writing, Flourishing, Drawing
and Lettering only $7.50. Fresh from pen. Crit-
icised and returned. A limited number at this
price. Come quick. Dozen cards or set Caps.,
10c. Satisfaction guaranteed. E, W. .\nderson.
Penman, Summitville, Tenn.





Cards written (any name), either plain, medium or
flourished at 15 ets. per dozen. Colored cards written in
white ink. all the rage, ai cts. per dozen, fifteen
experience. Hundreds of Testimonials
convince you that we are leaders

A trial oi-dei
the profession,
and lessons by

Practical. . .


peslen; Bookkeeping;: Methods of Teach-
inej Shorthand; Steam. Klectrical, and

Civil Engineering. IfrUf .Or urcttAir menCioiung
iMbj(,-t ivhi,:n intexsts you

The International Correspondence Schools,

Box 1375, SCRANTON, PA.

Not the Oldest.
Not the Largest.


The most practical and up-to-date method ever devised for teaching bookkeeping, accounting and office practice
the drawing of all forms of business papers and vouchers, the dlingof incoming papers and vouchers, and the actual
performance of the duties of the bookkeept;r and accountant, by practical methods similar to those that are in genera^
use in counting houses.


It is the outgrowth of many yeai-s' experience in pr icCical Dusine? - arrangeii in teachable form for the i-lass louni.
Your students should be familiar with special ruled hooks and the modern method* that are beiog adopted by the lead-
ing business houses in the largest cities throughout the countrj'. This new work fully explains the working^ of these
up-to-date methods now in general use. You can't atford to be without the system. Address THE PRACTICAL
S't, Chicago.


The above represents the countenance of
Mr. E. E. Evans, the Automatic Pen Artist,
of Streator, 111. He first saw the light of
day in Wales, in IMSO. The same year he
came to this countrj', first to Pennsylvania
and then to Illinois. In '95 he entered the
commercial department of Streator High
School and received instruction in penman-
ship from A. C. Reeder. From Mr. Reader
he also got his start in Auto. work. For a
couple of years he kept hooks and perfected
himself in Auto. work. He finds it an e.x-
cellent thing with which to earn money as
his work is in constant and increasing
demand. He understands the practical
side of the art (the desirable side) from A
to Z. He begins a series of lessons in this
number, which, for a I)eginning, is second
to none other. You will do well to folhiw
Mr. Evans to the end of the series. Let him
know how you are progressing, now and
then, I.>y sending him work for criticism.


We regret to learn of tlie death of Mr. F.
H. Sweet of Strong, Me. Mr. Sweet con-
tributed the October, ISKJO title page to the
P. A. & B. E. He was an artist of consider-
able ability. We hope he is now painting
as never before.


'* Keadinj; and Writinjj Exercises in Gregg
Shorthand" for student and amanuensis
l>v \V. E. Van Wert, Wheeling. W. Va., is a

laMet containing facsiinilie repriKluctioiis




-cercises t.
coacli the student easily from one lesson U
another and therefore succeesftilly fron
start, to linisli constitute the key or char
acter of the publication.

"Instruction in Legal Work," bv Henr
W. Thorne. published by Isaac Pitman J
Sons. ;i*t Union Square, >^.Y., price t\vent>
five cents, is a neat little booklet of irnp<»r1
ant information to those who desire to bt
come reporters.

William J. Ki

proves the st:itemrnts made and tht-'reb\
places honest, competent, expert hand-writ
ing upon a more secure plane than ever

*' Learners' Lettering Lessons." by W. F.
Giesseman, Des Moines, Iowa, is a compact,
simple, plain, to-the-point booklet for stu-
dents in practical lettering. The preface is
worth considering: '" In every school there
is someone hungrv for inst ruction in letter-
ing, with talent easy to .Irvelop. In ever\
communitv there is i>rotitabk- emplovment
for one wh>. can do this kind of work well.
Try it." The price is but tuent v-llve cents.
Address as above. It is worth looking into.

When all i he otlier systems fail,
And troubles come as thick a:^ hail,
Don't say touch typing is not right,
For Rutherfoiil's charts are " out of sight."
50 cents. Sample sent free to schools.

P. U. Box H6, New Yuik City.



' New Education," Luditigton, Mich.

" Speiiceriaii College News," Cleveland, ().

"The Advertising World," Columbus, O.

"The Penman's Art Journal," 202 Broad-
way, N. Y.

"The Electric Railway Interchange,"
Cleveland, O.

" Heald's College Journal," San Francisco,

"The Heftley Educator," Brooklyn, N. Y.

" Western Penman," Cedar Kapids, la.

" Our Young People," Mt. Morris, 111.

"The Butte Business Educator," Butte,

"Charles Commercial Instructor," Brook-
lyn, N. Y.

" Spare Time Study," Washington, D. C.

" Pitman's Phonographic Journal," Lon-
don, Eng.

" The Pilgrim," Battle Creek, Mich.


202 Broadway, New York.


promotion, write

If you need a first class Com-
mercial Teacher, we should like
to make a recommendatioQ.


^ Corrects the position of the hand, writes E

3 the easiest and gives the best satisfaction of »

3 any Fountain Pen on the market. Price t

« only $2.50 each. Fully guaranteed, »

: Address PERCY E. PIERCE. I

j 348 Riverside Ave. Cleveland, Ohio. I


.\NTED A well prepared, energetic, experi-
enced, able teacher ol Penmanship, Book
keeping, and Rapid Calculations for a business
college in a large Kastern city. (Jive full inl'or-
niatiun in first letter as to age. education, exper-
ience, ability, salary desired the first year, and
whether you would rather begin work now or
toward Fall. Address " Established." care Pen-
man-Artist and Business Educator. Col iiiubiis, O.

The First Prayer in Congress

is a 14x17 specimen of Engrossing by C. P. Za>kr
and represents his best Roimdliand.'Letterine and
Drawing. Independence Hall is drawn artistic-
ally in the heading. Price, postpaid, in tube.



Hddress, W. G. FEES, Dunkirk, Iqiiiaiia.

FiicRlnoer's Writlna Lessons.

fl.OO a set, including, for a short
time, a written letter by the author,
of whom it has been said, "he has
no superior." It isn't true, but
judge for yourself.



A thorough course of ten (10) lessons in Plain
or Business Penmanship only $2. 00. payable in
advance. Improvement and perfect satisfaction
guaranteed TRIAL LESSON SOc (silver). The
Best penholder 2"c. Finest Written Cards 12c
Quickest Addition .Method 10c. Address,


<^9h6%nimmi-CtM> and QtiUfwto&tiwMittr'^

\,\ , >-> W >v\\\


H Unique Gatalooue lor 1902

Will probably find your business college com-
petitors sleeping and enable you to outdistance
them in securing a large attendance. An attrac-
tive cover, some decorative lieadings a few tail
pieces* and an ornate grouping of tlie photographs
will only require an expenditure of $20 or$25and
wilt be the means of bringing you many times
that amount. Now. if you agree to the above, it
remains for you to make a wise choice of an
artist and I request that you correspond with me.
allowing me to furnish estimates and sketches
before you place your order.


215 W. 57th Street, - - NEW YORK.




Succ-esslully taii^tit by mail
l)t;st pi-nman. fourteen years
ship-fourt^en yr.ns nffarenil,

ly West Viiginia's
1 teachint; penman-
•ritieal study of the


J. F. CASKEY, Penman
Elliott School of Bnsiness and Shorthand




Our new illustrated work on Perspec-
tive Drawing will teach you. Special
introductory price, testimonials and
further particulars on receipt of re-



modern Publications for Penmen, Hrtists
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Our publications are universal'y recog
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are very low considering the quality and charac-

Online LibraryDonald B. (Donald Budd) ArmstrongThe Penman-Artist and Business Educator (Volume 6-8) → online text (page 68 of 225)