Donald J Mulvihill.

Crimes of violence; a staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes & Prevention of Violence (Volume 12) online

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CRIMES OF VIOLENCE



A STAFF REPORT TO THE NATIONAL
COMMISSION ON THE CAOSES AND
PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE

PREPARED BY

DonaldJ.Mulvihillft Melvin M.Tumin
With Lynn A. Curtis





A STAFF REPORT
NOT A REPORT
OF THE
COMMISSION




m










The White House




June 10, 1968






EXECUTIVE ORDER #11412






ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL COMMISSION ON






THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE






By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, it






is ordered as follows:






SECTION 1. Establishment of the Commission, (a) There is hereby






established a National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence






(hereinafter referred to as the "Commission").






(b) The Commission shall be composed of:






Dr. Milton Eisenhower, Chairman






Congressman Hale Boggs Senator Roman Hruska






Archbishop Terence J. Cooke Albert E. Jenner, Jr.






Ambassador Patricia Harris Congressman William M. McCuOoch






Senator Philip A. Hart *Dr. W. Walter Menninger






Judge A. Leon Higginbotham 'Judge Ernest William McFarland






Eric Hoffer *Leon Jaworski






SECTION 2. Functions of the Commission. The Commission shall






investigate and make recommendations with respect to:






(a) The causes and prevention of lawless acts of violence in our society,






including assassination, murder and assault;






(b) The causes and prevention of disrespect for law and order, of






disrespect for public officials, and of violent disruptions of public order by






individuals and groups; and






(c) Such other matters as the President may place before the Commis-






sion.






SECTION 4. Staff of the Commission.






SECTION 5 . Cooperation by Executive Departments and Agencies.






(a) The Commission, acting through its Chairman, is authorized to






request from any executive department or agency any information and






assistance deemed necessary to carry out its functions under this Order. Each






department or agency is directed, to the extent permitted by law and within






the limits of available funds, to furnish information and assistance to the






Commission.






SECTION 6. Report and Termination. The Commission shall present its






report and recommendations as soon as practicable, but not later than one






year from the date of this Order. The Commission shall terminate thirty days






following the submission of its final report or one year from the date of this






Order, whichever is earlier.






S/Lyndon B. Johnson






*Added by an Executive Order June 21 , 1968










The White House




May 23, 1969






EXECUTIVE ORDER #11469






EXTENDING THE LIFE OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION






ON THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE






> By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States,






Executive Order No. 1 1412 of June 10, 1968, entitled "Establishing a National






Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence," is hereby amended






by substituting for the last sentence thereof the following: "The Commission






shall terminate thrity days following the submission of its final report or on






December 10, 1969, whichever is earlier."






S/Richard Nixon







Cover: Close fight. Lithography by Willy Jaecfel. Ferdinand Roten Gallery,
Baltimore.



CRIMES OF VIOLENCE



Vol. 12



A STAFF REPORT

SUBMITTED TO THE

NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE

CAUSES & PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE



DONALD J. MULVIHILL
MELVIN M. TUMIN

Co Directors



LYNN A. CURTIS
Assistant Director



OZ6U

December 1969



AM11 3931103 3HONQDIS



/ /

\



Official eauions of publications of the National Commission on the Causes
and Prevention of Violence may be freely used, duplicated or published, in
whole or in part, except to the extent that, where expressly noted in the
publications, they contain copyrighted materials reprinted by permission of
the copyright holders. Photographs may have been copyrighted by the
owners, and permission to reproduce may be required.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 76-604085



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.75



STATEMENT ON THE STAFF STUDIES



The Commission was directed to "go as far as man's
knowledge takes" it in searching for the causes of
violence and means of prevention. These studies are
reports to the Commission by independent scholars and
lawyers who have served as directors of our staff task
forces and study teams; they are not reports by the
Commission itself. Publication of any of the reports
should not be taken to imply endorsement of their
contents by the Commission, or by any member of the
Commission's staff, including the Executive Director and
other staff officers, not directly responsible for the
preparation of the particular report. Both the credit and
the responsibility for the reports lie in each case with
the directors of the task forces and study teams. The
Commission is making the reports available at this time
as works of scholarship to be judged on their merits, so
that the Commission as well as the public may have the
benefit of both the reports and informed criticism and
comment on their contents.




C/i

I







TASK FORCE ON INDIVIDUAL ACTS OF VIOLENCE



STAFF

Donald J. Mulvihill

Melvin M. Tumin

Co Directors

Lynn A. Curtis
Assistant Director



Research Staff Copy Editor

Elizabeth M. Schweitzer Anthony F. Abell

Kenneth E. DeMario

Patricia D. Gurne

James J. Kniceley

Olympia T. Kollias Secretarial Staff

James H. McGregor

Marguerite C. Pellerin Patricia Horan

Robert S. Tigner Loretta A. Wilbourn

Richard A. Weiner Delores L. Hampton

Judith A. Winston



NATIONAL COMMISSION
ON THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE



Dr. Milton S. Eisenhower
CHAIRMAN



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



We are deeply indebted to many persons. By far the greatest
debts are to Dr. Marvin E. Wolfgang and Dr. James J. Short, Jr.,
upon whom we relied in all phases of our work and from whose
previously published works we drew heavily.

William G. McDonald, the Commission's Administrative Officer,
has provided assistance far beyond what his title suggests. Without
him the report could not have been written and published.

Important assistance was also rendered by James E. Campbell of
the Commission staff.

We also thank Jerome J. Daunt and Robert F. Haynes of the
Federal Bureau of Investigation; Walter J. Kenney of the Staff of
the Senate Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee; Frederick S.
York of the Department of State; George E. Young of the U.S.
Military Academy; Peter J. Ognibene and Richard Bucher of the
Air Force Academy; Jerome Garvey of Princeton University, and
Colonel Robert Saltzman, U.S.A.F. (Ret.).

Fred E. Scribner III rendered much assistance in the early stages
of our undertaking.

Frances Blevins made our work much easier by rendering
outstanding assistance on a variety of administrative and technical
problems, and Irene R. Kenlan gave freely of her time for valuable
secretarial work, as did Judith A. White. In addition, many
members of the Commission staff aided the Task Force in
connection with administrative and secretarial problems, including
Lois Brooks, Mildred F. Dolan, Jean Peterson, Cecelia Roots, R.
Christine McKenzie and Margaret S. Enright.

A number of important tabulation assignments were handled by
law students from Georgetown, George Washington, American,
Howard, and Catholic Universities and special assistance on these



VII



and related projects was rendered by Candice H. Conrad, Cynthia
Gurne, and Kay Schweitzer. Secretarial assistance was provided by
Nancy L. Clarke, Mary M. Greeley, Mamie L. Hale, and Evelyn S.
Spaulding. We received valuable assistance in checking source
material and in editing from Dale L. Smith, Daniel J. Boyle,
Thomas R. Callahan, and Thomas R. Jolly.

We further acknowledge with thanks the computer work of
Richard Abbott, chart lay-outs and designs of Sam Pickens, the
pictorial design of Judy Harkison and the original art work for
selected chapters by Pierre LecLere. In addition, we thank
Helmuth Scherer and Jan Shriver for invaluable assistance in
connection with the publishing of the report.

Donald J. Mulvihill

Melvin M. Tumin

Co-Directors

Lynn A. Curtis
Assistant Director



CONSULTANTS

Seymour Baxter, Detroit Psychiatric Institute, Detroit, Michigan
Richard Blum, Stanford University, Stanford, California
Paul Bohannon, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

Virginia Burns, Assistant to the Assistant Secretary for
Community and Field Services, Department of Health,
Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C.

Bernard Chodorkoff, Detroit Psychiatric Institute, Detroit,
Michigan

Jonathan O. Cole, Superintendent, Department of Mental Health,
Boston State Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Robert L. Conner, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford,
California



VIII



Hebert L. Costner, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Jose M.R. Delgado, Yale University School of Medicine, New
Haven, Connecticut

Ithiel de Sola Poole, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Lawrence Dizmang, National Institute of Mental Health, Chevy
Chase, Maryland

LaMar Empey, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California

Frank R. Ervin, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Clinton Fink, Center for Conflict Resolution, University ot
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Mark Furstenberg, International Association of Chiefs of Police,
Washington, B.C.

Gilbert Geis, Department of Sociology, California State College,
Los Angeles, California

David G. Gil, Florence Heller Graduate School for Advanced
Studies in Social Welfare, Brandeis University, Waltham,
Massachusetts

Eli Ginzberg, Director, Conservation on Human Resources,
Columbia University, New York

Robert Gold, Assistant Director, National Capital Planning
Commission, Washington, D.C.

William Goode, Department of Sociology, Columbia University,
New York, New York

Mark Haller, Department of History, Temple University,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

James Johnson, Department of Sociology, Princeton University,
Princeton, New Jersey



IX



Samuel Klausner, Department of Sociology, University of
Pennsylvan Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Malcolm Klein, Youth Study Center, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California

Seymour Levine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford,
California

John R. Lion, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Perry London, Psychological Research and Services Center,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Gerald McClearn, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Turner McLardy, Department of Mental Health, Boston State
Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Edwin I. Megargee, Department of Psychology, Florida State
University, Tallahassee, Florida

Leon Radzinowicz, Institute for Criminology, Cambridge
University, Cambridge, England

Lawrence Razavi, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford,
California

Clarence *C. Schrag, Department of Sociology, University of
Washington, Seattle, Washington

Frederick E. Scribner III, Boston, Massachusetts

Saleem Shah, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency,
National Institute for Mental Health, Chevy Chase, Maryland

Hans Toch, School of Criminal Justice, State University of New
York at Albany, Albany, New York

William J. Turner, Medical Division of the Dreyfus Charitable
Foundation, Huntington, New York



Julian A. Waller, Department of Community Medicine, University
of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont

David Ward, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minnesota

George H. Weber, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency,
National Institute for Mental Health

Charles H. Welford, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania

Robert A. Woetzel, Department of Political Science, Boston
College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

ADVISORS

Walter T. Barnes, Organized Crime Section, Department of Justice,
Washington, D.C.

William W. Barr, Department of Public Welfare, Washington, D.C.

George Robert Blakey, Chief Counsel, Subcommittee on Criminal
Laws and Procedures, Senate Judiciary Committee, United
States Senate, Washington, D.C.

Alfred Blumstein, Director, Urban Systems Intitute, School of
Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie-Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Martin B. Danzinger, Chief, Organized Crime Programs Division,
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, Department of
Justice, Washington, D.C.

Joseph Fitzpatrick, S.J., Department of Sociology, Fordham
University, New York

Vincent J. Fontana, Director of Pediatrics, St. Vincent's Hospital
and Medical Center of New York

William O. Harnisch, New York, New York



Edward F. Harrington, Office of the United States Attorney,
Boston, Massachusetts

John H. Hughes, New York State Senator, Chairman, Joint
Legislative Committee on Crime, Syracuse, New York

Joseph L. Intermaggio, Chairman, Washington Program in Urban
Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia

John Kaplan, University of California, Berkely, California

Donald P. Kenefick, National Association of Mental Health, New
York

John Martin, Department of Sociology, Fordham University, New
York

John S. Martin, Jr., New York, N.Y.

Edward J. McLaughlin, Chief counsel, Joint Legislative Committee
on Crime, New York

Mathias E. Mone, Washington, D.C.

Peter P. Muirhead, Acting Deputy Commissioner of Education,
Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and
Welfare, Washington, D.C.

Brendan Murphy, Department of Sociology, Princeton University,
New Jersey

Brian O'Connell, National Association of Mental Health, New
York

Henry E. Petersen, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, United
States Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.

Virgil W. Peterson, Executive Director, Chicago Crime
Commission, Chicago, Illinois

James Posner, Department of Sociology, Princeton University,
New Jersey



XII



Charles Rogovin, Administrator, Law Enforcement Assistance
Administration, Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.

Henry Ruth, Director, National Institute of Law Enforcement and
Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration,
Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.

Ralph Salerno, Woodside, New York

Gerald Shur, Organized Crime Section, Department of Justice,
Washington, D.C.

Anthony Smith, Department of Sociology, Princeton University,
New Jersey

Jan Smith, Department of Sociology, Princeton University, New
Jersey

Leonard Stern, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Youth, Department
of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C.

Harvey J. Tompkins, National Association of Mental Health, New
York

James Vorenberg, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Earl Warren, Jr., President, National Association of Mental Health,
New York



XIII



PREFACE



From the earliest days of organization, the Chairman, Commissioners, and
Executive Director of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention
of Violence recognized the importance of research in accomplishing the task
of analyzing the many facets of violence in America. As a result of this
recognition, the Commission has enjoyed the receptivity, encouragement, and
cooperation of a large part of the scientific community in this country.
Because of the assistance given in varying degrees by scores of scholars here
and abroad, these Task Force reports represent some of the most elaborate
work ever done on the major topics they cover.

The Commission was formed on June 10, 1968. By the end of the month,
the Executive Director had gathered together a small cadre of capable young
lawyers from various Federal agencies and law firms around the country. That
group was later augmented by partners borrowed from some of the Nation's
major law firms who served without compensation. Such a professional group
can be assembled more quickly than university faculty because the latter are
not accustomed to quick institutional shifts after making firm commitments
of teaching or research at a particular locus. Moreover, the legal profession
has long had a major and traditional role in Federal agencies and
commissions.

In early July a group of 50 persons from the academic disciplines of
sociology, psychology, psychiatry, political science, history, law, and biology
were called together on short notice to discuss for 2 days how best the
Commission and its staff might proceed to analyze violence. The enthusiastic
response of these scientists came at a moment when our Nation was still
suffering from the tragedy of Senator Kennedy's assassination.

It was clear from that meeting that the scholars were prepared to join
research analysis and action, interpretation, and policy. They were eager to
present to the American people the best available data, to bring reason to
bear where myth had prevailed. They cautioned against simplistic solutions,
but urged application of what is known in the service of sane policies for the
benefit of the entire society.

Shortly thereafter the position of Director of Research was created. We
assumed the role as a joint undertaking, with common responsibilities. Our
function was to enlist social and other scientists to join the staff, to write
papers, act as advisers of consultants, and engage in new research. The



decentralized structure of the staff, which at its peak numbered 100, required
research coordination to reduce duplication and to fill in gaps among the
original seven separate Task Forces. In general, the plan was for each Task
Force to have a pair of directors: one a social scientist, one a lawyer. In a
number of instances, this formal structure bent before the necessities of
available personnel but in almost every case the Task Force work program
relied on both social scientists and lawyers for its successful completion. In
addition to our work with the seven original Task Forces, we provided
consultation for the work of the eighth "Investigative" Task Force, formed
originally to investigate the disorders at the Democratic and Republican
National Conventions and the civil strife in Cleveland during the summer of
1968 and eventually expanded to study campus disorders at several colleges
and universities.

Throughout September and October and in December of 1968 the
Commission held about 30 days of public hearings related expressly to each
of the Task Force areas. About 100 witnesses testified, including many
scholars, Government officials, corporate executives as well as militants and
activists of various persuasions. In addition to the hearings, the Commission
and the staff met privately with scores of persons, including college
presidents, religious and youth leaders, and experts in such areas as the media,
victim compensation, and firearms. The staff participated actively in
structuring and conducting those hearings and conferences and in the
questioning of witnesses.

As Research Directors, we participated in structuring the strategy of design
for each Task Force, but we listened more than directed. We have known the
delicate details of some of the statistical problems and computer runs. We
have argued over philosophy and syntax; we have offered bibliographical and
other resource materials, we have written portions of reports and copy edited
others. In short, we know the enormous energy and devotion, the long hours
and accelerated study that members of each Task Force have invested in their
labors. In retrospect we are amazed at the high caliber and quantity of the
material produced, much of which truly represents, the best in research and
scholarship. About 150 separate papers and projects were involved in the
work culminating in the Task Force reports. We feel less that we have
orchestrated than that we have been members of the orchestra, and that
together with the entire staff we have helped compose a repertoire of current
knowledge about the enormously complex subject of this Commission.

That scholarly research is predominant in the work here presented is
evident in the product. But we should like to emphasize that the roles which
we occupied were not limited to scholarly inquiry. The Directors of Research
were afforded an opportunity to participate in all Commission meetings. We
engaged in discussions at the highest levels of decisionmaking, and had great
freedom in the selection of scholars, in the control of research budgets, and in
the direction and design of research. If this was not unique, it is at least an
uncommon degree of prominence accorded research by a national
commission.

There were three major levels to our research pursuit: (1) summarizing the
state of our present knowledge and clarifying the lacunae where more or new



XVI



research should be encouraged; (2) accelerating known ongoing research so as
to make it available to the Task Forces; (3) undertaking new research projects
within the limits of time and funds available. Coming from a university
setting where the pace of research is more conducive to reflection and quiet
hours analyzing data, we at first thought that completing much meaningful
new research within a matter of months was most unlikely. But the need was
matched by the talent and enthusiasm of the staff, and the Task Forces very
early had begun enough new projects to launch a small university with a score
of doctoral theses. It is well to remember also that in each volume here
presented, the research reported is on full public display and thereby makes
the staff more than usually accountable for their products.

One of the very rewarding aspects of these research undertakings has been
the experience of minds trained in the law mingling and meshing, sometimes
fiercely arguing, with other minds trained in behavioral science. The
organizational structure and the substantive issues of each Task Force
required members from both groups. Intuitive judgment and the logic of
argument and organization blended, not always smoothly, with the
methodology of science and statistical reasoning. Critical and analytical
faculties were sharpened as theories confronted facts. The arrogance neither
of ignorance nor of certainty could long endure the doubts and questions of
interdisciplinary debate . Any sign of approaching the priestly pontification of
scientism was quickly dispelled in the matrix of mutual criticism. Years
required for the normal accumulation of experience were compressed into
months of sharing ideas with others who had equally valid but differing
perspectives. Because of this process, these volumes are much richer than they
otherwise might have been.

Partly because of the freedom which the Commission gave to the Directors
of Research and the Directors of each Task Force, and partly to retain the
full integrity of the research work in publication, these reports of the Task
Forces are in the posture of being submitted to and received by the
Commission. These are volumes published under the authority of the
Commission, but they do not necessarily represent the views or the
conclusions of the Commission. The Commission is presently at work
producing its own report, based in part on the materials presented to it by the
Task Forces. Commission members have, of course, commented on earlier
drafts of each Task Force, and have caused alterations by reason of the
cogency of their remarks and insights. But the final responsibility for what is
contained in these volumes rests fully and properly on the research staffs who
labored on them.

In this connection, we should like to acknowledge the special leadership of
the Chairman, Dr. Milton S. Eisenhower, in formulating and suppoting the
principle of research freedom and autonomy under which this work has been
conducted.

We note, finally, that these volumes are in many respects incomplete and
tentative. The urgency with which papers were prepared and then integrated
into Task Force Reports rendered impossible the successive siftings of data
and argument to which the typical academic article or volume is subjected.
The reports have benefited greatly from the counsel of our colleagues on the



XVII



Advisory Panel, and from much debate and revision from within the staff. It
is our hope, that the total work effort of the Commission staff will be the
source and subject of continued research by scholars in the several disciplines,
as well as a useful resource for policymakers. We feel certain that public



Online LibraryDonald J MulvihillCrimes of violence; a staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes & Prevention of Violence (Volume 12) → online text (page 1 of 55)