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Douglas C. (Douglas Crawford) McMurtrie.

The evolution of national systems of vocational reeducation for disabled soldiers and sailors online

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on leaving, his grade or standard on leaving, and the reason for his leaving
school. It is of great significance when a man tells you he left school when
he was 13 or 14 to know why he left. Sometimes he will tell you there
was no higher school, or that he could not afford to go on. Another man
will say : " I had to go to work ; I wanted to earn money." The form next
deals with his subsequent education, and I might give you the different heads :
High or secondary school ; trade or technical school ; business college ; college
or university ; evening classes ; correspondence schools and otherwise. Next,
the man's industrial history is dealt with : Trade, or principal occupation, how
long followed ; whether learned by apprenticeship or otherwise, and the average
wages. Then his other work. The answers to these questions are most inter-
esting and often show that our young men have not had the right kind of
education to enable them to earn their living under the prevailing conditions.
Some of them have drifted about in from eight or nine widely different occupa-
tions in the course of four or five years. Then the man is asked this question :
"What occupation do you prefer for the future?" He is asked to give his first
choice and second choice and to state the reasons for his choice. Next he is
asked : "If a course of instruction were provided for you, would you be willing
to follow it earnestly and faithfully ?" Then he says "Yes," and signs his name.
That form is filled out as thoroughly as possible when the man arrives at the
institution or depot of the unit to which he is sent after his arrival in Canada.
We also had this object in view, that there were a number of men who had
passed through our hands and are residing in small towns. The local secre-
tary of the Patriotic Fund, or the Red Cross Society, or the Soldiers' Aid Com-
mission, may report to us. " There is a man here who thinks he wants re-
education." Well, we get him to sign this statement as a preliminary. The
man is then examined by a vocational counseller, one of the specialists of
whom I spoke. The vocational counsellor's sheet contains the identification
particulars and a brief statement of the apparent disability, not in strictly
medical terms, but from the layman's point of view. Then the personal char-
acteristics, as obtained by questions, are set forth, such as his recreations, his
hobbies, his favorite reading, his habits — whether he is a drinker or a smoker,
his appearance and manner, and his general intelligence; then from records
and inquiries, his conduct on service, his conduct in the convalescent home,
and his references from employers. There is also placed on the sheet a record
of his training during convalescence. Then the vocational counsellor sets
down the vocations for which the man's ability and aptitude are evident. Par-
ticulars of the man's educational and industrial history and of his personal
characteristics are obtained in an interview which often takes three or four
different approaches to the man before the vocational counsellor can get inside
his guard. He has been before boards of medical and military officers until
he is sick of them, and he is a little difficult to get at sometimes. But the
vocational officer must penetrate the man's guard to get at his wishes and
feelings. Then the vocational officer, with his knowledge of conditions, the
means of training the man, the man's possibilities, and the subsequent chances
of employment, records his preference for a future vocation and gives the
reasons for his preference, the method of training recommended, and an esti-
mate of the cost of training the man and of supporting his dependents. Next
the medical man comes in. A medical man is especially detailed to make an
examination of the candidate for reeducation, not with a view to his disability
but with a view to his remaining ability. A number of questions are set down,
some in the form in which they are set down for similar examination purposes
in insurance. First of all, an extract from the record of the last medical board,
stating where it was held and when, the nature of the disability, the nature of



224 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OP VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

the wound or affection from which disability resulted, the date and plaoe of
origin, and the medical officers who made the examination. The special medical
officer has that information before him. He then examines the man as to
his present condition: Complications present (if any), treatment, results, if
movement is impaired, degree remaining ; if an amputation has been performed,
he states its nature ; length of stump ; character of stump ; power of stump ;
usefulness of stump. Is an artificial appliance required? Has it been ordered?
Has it been received? Extent of disability (stated in percentage), height,
weight, girth, chest. Then questions as to his mentality. His present mental
condition, whether it is alert or sluggish. His general intellectual capacity —
whether subnormal, normal, or hypernormal. Then he states the precautions
which, in his opinion as a medical officer, should be observed in the choice of
occupation.

The record so prepared by the vocational officer is next submitted
to a disabled soldiers' training board which decides upon one among
the suggested occupations in which it would be wisest for the man
to be trained. Their recommendation is forwarded to the main office
of the Military Hospitals Commission in Ottawa and either ap-
proved or disapproved. Except in unusual instances approval is
forthcoming. The man is then ready to start on his course of
training.

Men taking courses of reeducation are regularly reported upon by
the district vocational officers to the vocational secretary of the com-
mission in Ottawa.

After a man has received instruction in a subject for a month or
two it is sometimes discovered that a mistake has been made in the
selection of the course. In such an instance the soldier may be
allowed to change to a different course. Sometimes these changes
are not due to any lack of interest or application on the part of the
pupil. For example, one man with his leg disarticulated at the
hip, became interested, during his period of treatment in a convales-
cent hospital, in poultry raising. He was entered for a course in
preparation for this work, but within two months found that his dis-
ability restricted his getting about to such an extent that it was im-
possible for him to continue. It was thereupon decided that he
should enter a course in commercial training, and in this he succeeded
well.

The regular progress report on reeducation states the place of
treatment, the name of the institution, the designation of the work-
shop, and describes the progress which the man has made. Remarks
as to any medical attention which might be required are also added.
The attitude of the commission is that these men, although dis-
charged soldiers, are still wards of the nation, and any needed medi-
cal attention is provided at public expense. In some instances men
presumed to be recovered have thrown themselves so vigorously into
their course of training that they have broken down and have been
forced to take some little time off to recuperate.





I. OXY-ACETYLENE CLASS, WINNIPEG.
II. COBBLING CLASS, MONTREAL.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL EEEDUCATION. 225

VOCATIONAL TRAINING STATISTICS.

The vocational training branch of the Invalided Soldiers Com-
mission in March, 1918, had under instruction 3,143 returned soldiers.
Of this total 944 were taking courses of vocational reeducation be-
cause of disabilities which prevent them from resuming their prewar
occupations. Up to the date named, programs for 1,863 such courses
had been approved. Of these 133 had been completed, 186 discon-
tinued or rejected, and 600 deferred until completion of convalescent
'treatment.

There were 2,199 men taking vocational courses designed to be
of therapeutic value as well as of practical utility in facilitating
readjustment to civilian life. Courses in 97 different subjects were
offered by a staff of 259 instructors.

MAINTENANCE DURING TRAINING.

The order in council of April 12, 1917, provided for maintenance
allowances to men taking up or continuing vocational training after
discharge from the military service. 4 These allowances are paid
on the following scale :

1. Single men, " living in," free board and washing, plus $8 per month.
Where the total amount received by way of pension and this allowance is
less than $16 per month, an additional allowance shall be granted, so that the
minimum amount receivable shall be $16 per month in addition to free board
and washing.

2. Single men, " living out," $8 per month, plus $1 per day subsistence allow-
ance. Where the total amount received by way of pension and these allowances
is less than $46 per month, an additional allowance shall be granted, so that
the minimum amount receivable shall be $46 per month.

3. Married men, " living in," free board and washing, plus $8 per month,
with the following additions :

A. For wife having no children, $35 per month, less pension of husband.

B Wife and one child —

(a) If the child is under the maximum age and over 10 years of age $42.50
per month, less pension of husband and allowances for children under the pen-
sions regulations.

(6) If the child is under 10 and over 5 years of age $39.50 per month, less
pension of husband and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

(c) If the child is under 5 years of age, $38 per month, less pension of hus-
band and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

C. Wife and two children —

(a) If both children are between ages of 10 and the maximum age, or if
one is between 10 and the maximum age, and the other between 5 and 10, $57
per month, less pension of husband and allowances for children under the pen-
sion regulations.

(6) If both between 5 and 10, $42.50 per month, less pension of husband and
allowances for children under the pension regulations.

'Canada, Military Hospitals Commission, Report, May, 1917, pp. 82-85.
57710—18 15



226 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL BEEDUOATION.

(c) If one is between 5 and 10 and the other 5 years old or less, $42.50 per
month, less pension of husband and allowances for children under the pension
regulations.

(d) If both are under 5 years of age, $41 per month, less pension of husband
and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

D. Wife and three children —

(a) If all three children are between the ages of 10 and the maximum age, or
if two are between 10 and the maximum age and the third under 10, or if one
is between 10 and the maximum age and two between 5 and 10, $50 per month,
less pension of husband and allowances for children under the pension regu-
lations.

(6) If all three are between the ages of 5 and 10, or if two are between the
ages of 5 and 10 and the third younger, or if one is between the ages of 5 and
10 and two are younger, $45.50 per month, less pension of husband and al-
lowances for children under the pension regulations.

(c) If all three are under 5 years of age, $44 per month, less pension of hus-
band and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

E. Wife and four children —

(a) If one child is between 10 and the maximum age, and a second child
between 5 and the maximum age, no matter what be the ages of the other two,
$53 per month less pension of husband and allowances for children under the
pension regulations.

(6) If one or more children are between 5 and 10 and the others younger,
$48.50 per month, less pension of husband and allowances for children under
the pension regulations.

(c) If all four are under 5 years of age, $47 per month, less pension of hus-
band and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

F. Wife and five children —

(a) If one child is between 10 and the maximum age, and a second child be-
tween 5 and 10, no matter what be the ages of the other children, the maxi-
mum allowance may be given, which is $55 per month, less pension of husband
and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

(6) If one or more children are between 5 and 10 and others younger, $51.50
per month, less pension of husband and allowances for children under the pen-
sion regulations.

(c) If all the children are under 5 years of age, $50 per month, less pension
of husband and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

G. Wife and six children —

(a) If one child is between 10 and the maximum age, and a second child
between 5 and the maximum age, no matter what be the ages of the others, the
maximum allowance may be given, which is $55 per month, less pension of
husband and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

(6) If one or several children are between 5 and 10 and others younger,
$54.50 per month, less pension of husband and allowances for children under
the pension regulations.

(c) If all the children are under 5 years of age, $53 per month, less pension
of husband and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

H. Wife with 7 or more children under the maximum age, no matter what be
their ages, may be given the maximum allowance of $55 per month, less pension
of husband and allowances for children under the pension regulations.

Note. — In all the foregoing cases, payment of allowances for the wife and
children of a man undergoing vocational training will be made direct to the
wife, unless otherwise deemed advisable by the commission in individual cases.

4. Married men living in their own homes, $1 per day extra.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OE VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 227

5. A widowed mother, if she be dependent entirely for support on an un-
married son who is receiving vocational training, and if the son made an
assignment of his pay to his mother and also arranged for her to receive
separation allowance during the time when he was in service, may be paid on
the same scale as the wife of a married man with no children.

6. A widowed mother, or a mother who is not widowed, if she be dependent
entirely or partially on an unmarried son who is receiving vocational training,
and if the son made an assignment of his pay to his mother, or can prove to
the satisfaction of the Military Hospitals Commission that he has regularly
sent a portion of his pay to his mother ; or a sister or other dependents, if the
soldier who is receiving vocational training made an assignment of his pay to
her or to them or can prove to the satisfaction of the Military Hospitals Com-
mission that he has regularly sent a portion of his pay to her or to them, the
said mother, sister, or other dependents, may be paid an amount equal to the
assignment made or payment sent by the soldier, provided that such amount
shall not exceed the amount which would be paid under the authority of this
order in council to the wife of a married man without children.

7. The parents of a man undergoing vocational training, if both are old and
incapable of work, and if they -are entirely or partially dependent on the son
in question, may be paid on the same scale as the wife of a married man with
no children.

8. Widower's children. The guardian of a widower's children who are under
the maximum age shall be paid the following rates :

(a) One child, $10 per month.

(6) Two children, $17.50 per month.

(c) Three children, $22 per month.

(d) More than three children, $3 per month for each child in excess of three
with a maximum payment of $35 per month.

9. When a child reaches the age of 5 or 10 or the maximum age between the
first of the month and the last day of the month, the birthday shall be regarded
as on the last day of the month.

10. Payments under these regulations shall be coninued for one month after
the completion of vocational training, whether the man has secured employ-
ment or not.

11. In the preceding clauses, wherever the term " maximum age " occurs, it
means 16 years old in the case of a son and 17 years old in the case of a
daughter.

12. The provision of this order-in-council shall apply to all members of His
Majesty's naval, military, and auxiliary forces, who were bona fide residents
in Canada at the outbreak of the present war, who are unable to return to
their previous occupations by reason of their disability incurred in service in
the present war.

13. The provisions of this order-in-council shall be operative from April 1,
1917.

TRAINING IN INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS.

Increasing attention is being paid to the reeducation of men in
industrial establishments. The number of subjects that can be taught
even in a well-equipped technical school is small in comparison with
the large number of occupations in the industrial world. There are
those who feel very strongly that the most effective training for



228 EVOLUTION OP SYSTEMS OP VOCATIONAL BEEDTJCATION.

men is that which they may receive in a factory or shop where there
is a disposition on part of foremen to take the trouble to instruct
the men committed to their care. The training takes place under
actual production conditions, and all that is purely theoretical and
extraneous is eliminated.

The possibility of this type of training is conditioned by the
willingness of employees to receive handicapped men into their fac-
tories and train them. This willingness on the part of Canadian
concerns has been abundantly proved by the offers to train men in
their establishments. The appended list of men who are registered
for training in industrial establishments in Canada represents the
willingness of more than 100 firms and individuals to give men
training under their supervision and care.

When the plan for a man's training is approved by the vocational
branch of the commission at Ottawa, he is placed in a factory and is
visited every week by the vocational officer to see how he is getting
along. This follow-up work is very necessary for the best interests
of the man. During the period of his training the discharged man
receives no wages, but is paid his pension, if he be entitled to one,
and a training allowance. The minimum amount which a single'man
living in. an institution receives, in addition to free board and wash-
ing, is $16 a month. If living out, the least a single man is entitled
to is $46 a month. If the man is married he receives $35 a month,
less the amount of any pension he may be receiving plus $1 per diem
for subsistence and $8 per month pocket money. Provision is made
also for any children he may have.

In view of this liberal allowance during training, it is thought best
that the man should not be paid wages. , If the employer gives him
anything it is in the way of a bonus and is not considered by the
commission. Before a man has completed his course of training his
work should be of some net value to the employer, and this should
afford some remuneration to the employer who receives no other com-
pensation for his services in training the man.

The following is a list of occupations for which men are actually
in training in industrial establishments in Canada or who are about
to begin as soon as they are in physical condition. There are 123
actually in training and 60 more will begin their courses as soon as
they are physically fit.

A few concerns are giving training to several men, notably the
Angus shops of the Canadian Pacific Eailway, Montreal, which has
6 ; the Kussell Motor Car Co., Toronto, which is training 28 ; the Allis
Chalmers Co., Toronto, 4; the Canadian General Electric Co., Peter-
boro, 4; the Canadian Linotype Co., Toronto, 4; the Lanston Mono-
type Co., Toronto, 3.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OP VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 229
Men taking training in industrial establishments in Canada.



Place of training.



Montreal, Quebec

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Penacook, N. H., United

States of America.
Montreal, Quebec

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

St. John's, Quebec

Montreal, Quebec

Quebec, Quebec

Montreal, Quebec

Wellington Station, Nova
Scotia.

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Peterboro, Ontario

Do

Shawville, Quebec

Peterboro, Ontario

Ottawa, Ontario

Peterboro, Ontario

Do

Hamilton, Ontario

Toronto, Ontario

Port Carting, Ontario

Toronto, Ontario

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Hamilton, Ontario

Toronto, Ontario

Do

Do

Do

Do

Hamilton, Ontario

Rossland, British Columbia. . .
Hamilton, Ontario.
Toronto, Ontario..

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Hamilton, Ontario
Toronto, Ontario . .

Do

Do

Do



Former occupation.



Steam fitter

Machinist, timekeeper.

Shoemaker

Machinist

Miner

Laborer, sailor

Craneman. carpenter. . .

Music teacher

Pastry cook

Boilermaker

Farmer, machinist



Fireman

Molder

Bricklayer's helper

Salesman

Seaman

Seaman, machinist

Painter

Rough carpenter

Bricklayer

Plasterer

Laborer

Electrician

Teamster

Machinist ,

Laborer

Commercial traveler . .

Electrician

Machinist, loom fitter.

Painter

Printer

Boilermaker

Laborer

Coal miner

Granite cutter

Tailor, soldier

Baker

Farmer



Meat cutter, trainman

Lather

Farmer

Machinist, farmer

Bank clerk

Chauffeur

Farmer

Telephone lineman

Grocery clerk

Cork cutter

Harness maker

Electrical steelworker

Printer

Teamster

Machinist, carpenter

Laborer

Locomotive engineer

Printer

Laborer

Machinist

Chef

Plumber

Motor mechanic

Manufacturing music plates

Butcher ,

Bricklayer

Mine driller

Quarryman

Short-order cook ,

Hydraulic surveyor

Derrick hand....*

Electrical engineer ,

Plasterer's helper

Helper in sawmill ,

Steam fitter, farmer

Slate roofer

Carpenter

Riveter ,

Locomotive fireman.



! Training for-



Armature winding

Bench machinist

Harness fitting

do

Tinsmithing

Carriage striper

Reed and basket work .

Saxophone player

Engine turning

Pneumatic tool repair .
Machine-tool making. .



Harness making

Inspector of castings

Harness machine stitcher.

Mechanical drafting

Motor mechanics

Lathe hand

Watchmaking

Bench carpenter

Harness fitting

do

Brush making (blind)

Electrical course

Elevator operator

Mechanical drafting

Furrier

Dental mechanics

Armature winding

Weave-room clerk

Dental mechanics

do

Mechanical drafting

Shoe repairing

Storage-battery repair

Watchmaking

Tailor

Reed working.

Telegraphy



Meat cutting

Electrical work

do

Electric power plant . -

Electrical work

Machine-shop practice.
Electrical engineering . .

Motor repairing

Shoe repairing

Bicvcle-wheel truing . - .

Boat finishing

Bronze finishing

Linotype operating

Motor mechanics

Artificial limb maker. .

Electric-lamp work

Motor mechanics ,

Monotype operator

Machine-shop practice.

Tire repairing

Linotype operating

Bicycle-wheel truing . . .
Machine-shop practice .

Piano tuning

....do

Shop repairing

Milling and assaying . . .

Oarage man

Furniture assembling . .

Brass finishing

Machine-shop practice.,

....do

Haroess making

Machine-shop practice..

Auto-tire repairing

Machine-shop practice.,

Pattern making

Machine-shop practice..
Bronze firnshing..



Asterisk (*) Indicates that course had been approved and granted but not commenced
n April 20. 1918.



230 EVOLUTION" OP SYSTEMS OP VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.
Men taking training in industrial establishments in Canada — Continued.



Place of training.



Former occupation.



Training for—



Course.



Toronto, Ontario

Do..

Hamilton. Ontario —

Toronto, Ontario

Hamilton, Ontario . . .
Toronto, Ontario

Do

Do

London, Ontario

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Preston, Ontario

Bt. Thomas, Ontario..
Winnepeg, Manitoba .

Do

Do

Do



3 months.
2§ months.
6 month?.*
3 months.*

2 months.*
6 months.*

3 months.
6 months.

Do.

Do*

Do.

Do.
3 months.

Do.
6 months.

3 months. *

4 months. *

3 months. *
12 months.
6 months.

4 months.
6 months.*
4 months.

2 months.

3 months. *
Do.

6 months.
Do.
Do.

4 months.
2\ months*
3 months.*
6 months.*

Do.

3 months.
Do.

6 months. *
10 weeks.

2 months.
6 months.

Do.

4 months.
6 months.
4 months.
. 6 months.

Do.
4 months.*
6 months.

Do.

Do*

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.
4 months.

6 months.

4 months.

3 months.
Do*

6 months.*
Do.*
Do.*

6 months.

3 months.
Do*
Do.
Do.
Do*

6 months.

3 months.
Do.

4 months.
Do.

3 months.

Do.
6 months.

Asterisk (*) indicates that course had been approved and granted but not commenced



Online LibraryDouglas C. (Douglas Crawford) McMurtrieThe evolution of national systems of vocational reeducation for disabled soldiers and sailors → online text (page 25 of 38)