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Douglas C. (Douglas Crawford) McMurtrie.

The evolution of national systems of vocational reeducation for disabled soldiers and sailors online

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on April 20, 1918.



Toronto, Ontario . . .

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Dundas, Ontario . . .
Toronto, Ontario . . .

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do :.

Hamilton, Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario. . .
Hamilton, Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario . . .

Do

Do:

Hamilton, Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario. . .

Do

Do

Hamilton, Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario . . .

Do

Hamilton, Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario. ..

Do

Hamilton. Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario...

Do

Hamilton. Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario. ..

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Hamilton, Ontario. .
Toronto, Ontario . . .
Brantford, Ontario .
Toronto, Ontario . . .
Hamilton, Ontario..
Toronto, Ontario . . .

Do

Do

Stratford, Ontario . .
Toronto, Ontario . . .



Hamilton, Ontario..



Bookbinder

Tailor

Plasterer's helper

Waiter

Carpenter

Laborer

Bartender

None

Locomotive repairer

None :

Organist and music teacher .

Linotype operator

Nickel plater

Marine fireman

Weaver

Tool maker '

Farm laborer

Farmer

Carpenter

Box maker

Shipper

Coal miner

Structural steelworker

Steam engineer

Metal polisher .'.

Grocery deliveryman

Boat hand, woo'd planer

Decorator

Laborer

Farmer

Printer

Laborer

Bricklayer

Teamster

Lineman

Dresser

Laborer

Printer, boilermaker

Sheet-metal worker

Railway laborer

Carpeater

Farm machinist

Accountant

Structural ironworker

Auto mechanic

Railroad trainman

Printer

Woodworker

Laborer

Plumber

Farmer

Laborer

Tile setter

Laborer

Steam fitter



Textile worker .



Cement finisher

Sailor

Steam-fitter's helper . . .

Farmer

Tailor, cutter

Soldier

Mason's helper

Electric craneman

Molder and coil maker.

Shipping clerk

Wood finisher

Clerk, auto painter

Farm laborer

Street-car conductor

Bartender

Laborer

Brakeman

Meat chef



Newspaper editor .
Shoe salesman



Linotype operating

Tailor's cutter

Electrical substation work

Wheel truing

Telegraphy

Metal polishing and cut glass . .

Garage man

Machine-shop practice

do

Salesmanship

Piano tuning

Advertising

Garage man

Wheel truing

Machine-shop practice

Shoe repairing

Machine-shop practice

Garage man

Artificial-limb making

Cabinetmaking

Machine-shop practice

Shoe repairing

Machine-shop practice

Oxy-acetylene welding

Wheel truing

Garage man

Artificial-limb factory

Armature winding

Shoe repairing

Machine-shop practice

Monotype operator

Motor mechanics

Machine-shop practice

Shoe repairing

Garage man

Lense grinding

Woodworking

Linotype operating

Oxy-acetylene welding

Electrical work

Piano tuning

Machine-shop practice

Hardware store

Ornamental ironwork

Manufacturing gasoline engine

Piano instruction

Monotype operating

Shoe repairing

Machine-shop practice

Shoe repairing

Machine-shop practice

do

....do

Stationary engineer

Manufacturing gas and electric

fixtures.
Telephone and switchboard

work.

Machine-shop practice

Wheel truing

Garage man

Precious-stone cutting

Piano and violin

Machine-shop practice

Jewelry polishing

Lead glazing

Coil making

Buffing and polishing

Wood finishing

Barber

Tailoring

Machine operator

Metal polishing

Shoe cutting

Barber

Pastry cooking

Shoe repairing

Bookkeeping

Chartered accountant



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 231
Men taking training in industrial establishments in Canada — Continued.



Place of training.



Former occupation.



Training for —



Course.



Port Arthur, Ontario

Somerset, Manitoba

, Souris, Manitoba

Kaministiquia, Manitoba

Brandon, Manitoba

Winnipeg, Manitoba

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

Do

Do:

Do

Do

Kegina, Saskatchewan

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

Alberta, Alberta

Calgary, Alberta

Edmonton, Alberta

Calgary, Alberta

Agassiz, British Columbia

Vancouver, British Columbia

Do

Do

Do

Do



Vancouver, British Columbia
St. John, New Brunswick

Do

Do



Prospector

Farmer

Fireman, farmer

Hotel clerk

Horse trainer

Electric craneman

Farmer

Gas-tractor engineer. .

Car repairer

Farmer

Farmer, mail carrier. .

Barber, farmer

Farmer

Carpenter

Coal miner

Machinist

Dental mechanic

Farm laborer

Concrete engineer

Clerk

Brakeman

Compositor

Railroading

Printer

Machinist

Mining cook

Sailor

Laborer

None



Motor mechanics

Telephone repairs

Telegraphy

Electric switchboard

Veterinary assistant

Armature winding

Grocery business

Switchboard operator —
Moving-picture operator..

Embalming

Typewriter repairing

Pnotography

Harness making

Typewriter repairing

do

do

do

Harness making

Agriculture

Photography

Oxy-acetylene welding. . .

Linotype operating

Armature winding

Linotype operator

Typewriter repairing

Baker and pastry cook . . .
Machine-tool operating. . .

Timekeeper

Carpentering



6 months.

2 months.*
6 months.

Do*

Do.

Do.

3 months.*
6 months.*

3 months.

5 months.

6 months.

4 months.*
6 months.*
8 months.

Do.

Do*

Do.*
6 months.*
12 months.*
6 months.
3 months.*

5 months.*

6 months.*

5 months.*

(*)
2 months.*
8 months.

6 months.*
8 months.



Asterisk (*) indicates that course had been approved and granted but not commenced
on April 20, 1918.

TUBERCULAR CASES.

One of the major problems of reconstruction in Canada consisted
in the treatment of tubercular cases. Many of the men who developed
active pthisis had never been overseas, but had developed the condi-
tion in the training camps. The hurried and superficial medical ex-
amination at the time of enlistment was principally responsible for
the condition, and one of the first items of advice offered by the Ca-
nadians to their friends across the border, when the United States
entered the war, was to take great care in examination for tubercular
conditions prior to enlistment.

Once having accepted a tubercular man in the military forces, it
became incumbent upon the Government to provide for him adequate
treatment and care. The invalided soldiers commission has estab-
lished a considerable number of tubercular sanatoria at points
throughout the dominion, where the climatic conditions are favorable.
Soon after the establishment of these sanatoria the question arose as
to whether the men would profit physically and mentally from the
provision of occupational work and vocational training,. Within
certain limits the medical officers in charge favored such provision.

The procedure at two of the tubercular institutions has been ex-
cellently described 5 by Mr. F. H. Sexton, vocational officer for
Quebec and the maritime Provinces :



• American Journal of Care for Cripples, New York, 1917, v. 358-359.



232 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

Tuberculosis patients were divided Into three classes: (1) Bed cases, (2)
porch cases, and (3) cases which were allowed gradually increasing exercise.
The work was started as an experiment at Laurentide Inn at Ste. Agathe des
Monts, P. Q., in the middle of November, 1916. A special building had been
erected for a workshop and it was fitted up with a modest equipment of wood-
working machinery, carpenters' benches, etc. The reason for putting in power-
driven machinery was to obviate the necessity of the patients putting any undue •
strain upon the muscles of their chests. The windows facing south had the
sashes removed and common cotton cheesecloth tacked in. This afforded free
access of air without drafts. The typewriters were also placed in this
building, and men who had progressed far enough to be taking exercise spent a
certain amount of time here every day. They have done some very creditable
work in wood and are beginning to do something in hammered metal. As the
men become stronger and their strength rises toward normal, they naturally
turn toward education, which will give them wage-earning power. For such
men mechanical drawing, sign writing, typewriting, bookkeeping, motor me-
chanics, etc., is provided.

For porch cases light work such as embroidery, raffia, weaving, basketry,
and study are provided and help the soldiers to pass the time.

For bed cases no educational work is attempted. All the vocational training
is carried on under the direct observation of the medical officer.

Educational work at the Lake Edward Sanatorium, near Quebec City, was
started on January 15, 1917. Here it was found that enough of the patients
had had training and experience in various lines to act as instructors. Therefore
a staff was selected to teach English, French, agriculture, bookkeeping, motor
mechanics, and stenography and typewriting. These men were given $15 a month
each, in addition to their military pay and allowances, and the cost of instruc-
tion was kept down to a very low figure.

Each man who is allowed by the medical officer to take training is given
actual teaching two days a week and enough work to keep him busy studying
and practicing between lessons. When the weather becomes warmer the men
will be able to do much more effective work on the porches. Equipment for
woodworking and handicraft work will be installed if it appears from the
experience at Ste. Agathe des Monts that this should be an integral part of the
plant at each sanatorium.

The statistics of tubercular treatment on December 31, 1917,
showed that 2,871 patients had been cared for. Of these, 1,983 had
been overseas and 888 transferred from training camps in Canada.
Of 1,405 cases under active treatment on that date, 1,180 were from
overseas and 225 from camps within the Dominion.

BLINDED SOLDIERS.

Blinded soldiers of the Canadian forces are by special arrange-
ment trained at St. Dunstan's Hostel, in England. A few men who
returned to Canada without going through the hostel are being
trained at the Halifax School for the Blind.

There has been some discussion regarding the desirability of estab-
lishing in Canada a training school for blinded, service men, but it
continues to be the judgment of the commission that the wise
course is to utilize the excellent facilities developed in England.




I. TRAINING IN MACHINE SHOP, KELVIN TECHNICAL SCHOOL, WINNIPEG.
II. TRAINING IN MACHINE SHOP, McGILL UNIVERSITY, MONTREAL.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 233
MEN OP IMPERIAL OR COLONIAL FORCES.

Vocational training facilities of the invalided soldiers commisskm
are opened to disabled men discharged from the British forces, pro-
viding the disability was incurred in the present war. For such men
training allowances are paid by the representative of the British
minister of pensions at Ottawa.

Courtesies are likewise extended to disabled soldiers of the other
British Dominions. In such instances the Dominion from the forces
of which the soldier was discharged defrays the actual expenses
involved. In the early part of the war a number of disabled negroes
were reeducated for the Government of Jamaica. Some Australians
have likewise come under the care of the commission.

Members of the forces of the allies of Great Britain who were
bona fide residents of Canada at the outbreak of the war are also
given reeducation at the expense of the Canadian Government.

PLACEMENT.

The weakest link in the Canadian chain of rehabilitation has con-
sisted in the facilities for placing disabled men in employment.
Placement was considered to be a provincial matter, and there was
constituted in each Province a commission charged with protection
of the general interests of returned men and securing them employ-
ment. The first function has been excellently discharged by these
provincial organizations ; the second not so well.

When the necessity of establishing machinery for placing returned
men in employment became evident, the Government called an inter-
provincial conference. A report containing certain recommenda-
tions was submitted to the conference. Returned soldiers were classi-
fied, in relation to prospective employment, as follows :

Class 1. — Able-bodied men for whom the situations and positions

they left have been kept open by patriotic employers.
Class 2. — Able-bodied men who were out of work at the time of
enlistment or who have been superseded in their absence; and
invalided and wounded men similarly situated who will become
able-bodied after a period of rest in a convalescent home.
Class 3. — Invalided and wounded men who are unable to follow
their previous occupation by reason of their disability, but who
will be capable, after proper training, to take up other work.
Class 4- — Men who are permanently disabled and will be unable to
earn their own living under any circumstances.



"The provision of employment for members of the Canadian expeditionary force on
their return to Canada and the reeducation of those who are unable to follow their
previous employment because of disability. (Sessional Paper 35a, 1915.)



234 EVOLUTION OP SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

At the conclusion of the conference the following memorandum
was adopted : 7

The representatives of the several Provinces in attendance at the conference
agree to submit for approval to their respective governments the following
suggestions, regarding the various problems involved in taking care of and
finding employment for members of the Canadian expeditionary force who
return to Canada during the period of war.

In case upon consideration the government of any Province deems it ad-
visable to alter or amend any of their suggestions, or make any further sug-
gestions, it shall immediately forward notice thereof to the provincial secretary
of each of the other Provinces of Canada, with a view to haying the same
approved by the governments of such Provinces.

1. The miiltary hospitals commission should undertake to assist and advise
all provincial or local committees or organizations with respect to the best
methods and plans to be adopted to attain the objects in view.

2. The government of each Province should appoint a central provincial com-
mittee consisting of such number of members as each Province may deem
advisable.

3. All expenditure necessary in connection with the organization and adminis-
tration of provincial and other purely local committees should be borne by the
provincial or local authorities, or by voluntary contributions.

4. Bach of the Provinces of Canada working through its central committee
should assume the responsibility of endeavoring to find employment for dis-
charged soldiers, who, upon their return to Canada, are physically and other-
wise fit to assume such employment. All expenditures necessary in undertak-
ing the duty should be borne by the Province.

5. The military hospitals commission should assume the responsibility of
taking care of and providing for all returned soldiers who for any cause are
incapacitated for employment, or who require special training or treatment
before being able to undertake any employment.

6. With a view to assisting the commission in the discharge of its responsi-
bilities in this regard, each provincial central committee should be constituted
as a branch subcommittee of the commission, and should be under its direction.
One of the members of the committee to be designated by the provincial Gov-
ernment should be ex officio a member of the commission.

7. Through its central committee each Province should furnish to the commis-
sion a detailed statement of the institutions and facilities within its borders
which will be available for the purpose of taking care of and providing for the
various classes of returned soldiers referred to in suggestion 5, including all
necessary particulars regarding the accommodation available, and the terms
and conditions under which such institutions and facilities may be made use
of for the purpose mentioned under provincial and local administration.

8. All expenditures necessary in connection with carrying out the responsibili-
ties referred to in suggestion No. 5, should be borne by the military hospitals
commission, except such as are agreed upon by the respective provinces in the
detailed statements to be furnished to the commission under suggestion No. 7.

In the above suggestions the conference has attempted to deal only with those
problems which are pressing for the moment. There are, however, two other
problems which demand attention. The first of them relates to the advisability
of devising a practical method of placing returned soldiers on the land, under
such conditions as will enable them to provide comfortably for themselves and

'Canada, Military Hospitals Commission. Report, May, 1917, pp. 56-57.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 235

families ; tliis problem is so complex in its character that it would seem ad-
visable to make it the subject of a special inquiry to be instituted by the Fed-
eral authorities. The other problem relates to the finding of employment for
the large number of soldiers who, within a short space of time, will return to
Canada upon the conclusion of the war. It is suggested that the commission
as well as the provincial authorities should give the question their considera-
tion with a view to arriving at a possible solution thereof at a subsequent
conference.

In conclusion, the conference desires to assure the military hospitals com-
mission that the provincial Governments of Canada are in hearty sympathy
with the movement for making suitable provision for the returned soldiers,
and will endeavor in every possible manner to facilitate the work of the com-
mission by arranging to place at the disposal of the commission such provincial
institutions and facilities as are available for the purpose.

The action proposed was taken immediately by the various provin-
cial Governments. The titles of the commissions created, and the
addresses of their head offices are as follows :

Ontario. — Ontario Soldiers' Aid Commission, 116 College Street,
Toronto.

Quebec. — Soldiers' Employment Commission, 294 St. Catherine
Street, Montreal..

Nova Scotia. — Returned Soldiers' Employment Committee,
Metropole Building, Halifax.

New Brunswick. — The Returned Soldiers' Aid Commission, 49
Canterbury Street, St. John.

Manitoba. — Returned Soldiers' Manitoba Commission, 185 Lom-
bard Street, Winnipeg.

British Columbia. — Provincial Returned Soldiers' Commission,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria.

Prince Edward Island. — The Returned Soldiers' Commission, Box
306, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island.

Saskatchewan. — Saskatchewan Division Military Hospitals Com-
mission, McCallum Hill Building, Regina, Saskatchewan.

Alberta. — The Central Provincial Committee of the Military
Hospitals Commission, 813-814 McLeod Block, Edmonton, Alberta.

In some instances the procedure of these commissions has been
to impose disabled soldiers upon employers as a patriotic obliga-
tion, with little consideration of the men's fitness for the jobs to
which they are sent out. The technique usually consists of regis-
tering open jobs, registering applicants for employment, and refer-
ring men almost indiscriminately to the positions available. Such
method runs a great risk of discouraging and alienating employers.

In one large city this is done in the most impersonal way, and
there is no follow-up whatever to ascertain whether the disabled man
is satisfactorily and permanently placed. The system here just
misses allowing the man to shift for himself. In view of the ex-
tensive, thorough, and expert attention requisite to the proper place-



236 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OE VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

ment of crippled men, the Canadian work in this respect seems sus-
ceptible of very material improvement.

It is understood that the invalided soldiers commission plans soon
to call a conference of the employment officers of the provincial
commission, with a view to studying the needs of the situation,
and standardizing and improving the practice in force.

PUBLIC RELATION.*

In attempting national work for the physical and economic re-
habilitation of disabled soldiers, one of the absolutely essential fea-
tures of the work is a campaign of public education. Toward the
returned soldier the public means well but often acts unwisely. Were
the principles on which the authorities are working more widely
known, the interest of the community at large could be turned to
good account.

This has been clearly recognized by the military hospitals com-
mission, the Canadian official body charged with welfare of handi-
capped men discharged from military service. The commission has
built up an extensive organization of convalescent homes and indus-
trial training classes, and works in close cooperation with the special
employment agencies under provincial auspices.

The means of publicity are varied — stories and articles sent to the
daily newspapers, the prbvision of magazine articles, the loan of
lantern slides, and moving-picture films accompanied by a supply of
descriptive leaflets for distribution to the audience, and the issue of
posters descriptive of the work.

The objects of this publicity are to disseminate information re-
garding the facilities being provided for the returned soldier, to con-
vince the ex-service man himself that his future prospects are good
rather than hopeless, to disabuse the community of the notion that
the crippled man is necessarily a helpless dependent, and to promote
the most constructive . possible spirit toward the disabled soldiers
themselves.

One of the most familiar evidences of this campaign is a poster,
printed in red and black, which has been widely distributed through-
out the Dominion :

WHAT EVEBY DISABLED SOLDIER SHOULD KNOW.

That there is no such word as " impossible " in his dictionary.
That his natural ambition to earn a good living can be fulfilled.
That he can either get rid of his disability or acquire a new ability to offset it.
That the whole object of doctors, nurses, and instructors is to help him in
doing that very thing.

•See Douglas C. McMurtrie. The Canadian publicity campaign in the interest ol
crippled soldiers ; their reeducation and employment. American Journal of Care lot
Cripples. Npw York, 1!H7. «. 149-160.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 237

That he must help them to help him.

That he will have the most careful and effectual treatment known to science.

That Interesting and useful occupations form a most valuable part of the
treatment in the convalescent homes and sanatoria.

That if he can not carry out his first duty by rejoining his comrades at the
front, and if there is no light duty for him with the Canadian forces over-
seas, he is taken home to Canada, as soon as his condition and the ship-
ping facilities make this possible.

That his strength and earning capacity will be restored there to the highest

degree possible, through the military hospitals commission.'

That if he requires an artificial limb or kindred appliance it will be sup-
plied free.

That every man disabled by service will receive a pension or gratuity in
proportion to his disability.

That if his disability prevents him from returning to his old work he will
receive free training for a new occupation.

That full consideration is given to his own capacity and desires when a new
occupation has to be chosen.

That his own will-power and determination will enable him to succeed, both
in the training and in the occupation afterwards.

That his maintenance and that of his family will be paid for during the train-
ing he may receive after discharge, and for a month longer.

That neither his treatment nor his training will cost him a cent.

That his home Province has a special commission to assist him in finding
employment on discharge.

That hundreds of towns and villages have committees, associations, and
clubs, to welcome him on arrival, and to help in securing a position for
him.

That the Dominion and provincial Governments, the municipal authorities,
and all sorts of employers, give the returned soldier preference in filling
vacant positions.

That the returned soldier wishing to take up land and farm it, will be
helped to do so, under Federal and other settlement schemes.

That the military hospitals commission exists to carry out his restoration
and training in Canada.

That the board of pension commissioners exists to distribute the pensions
provided by his country for him and his dependents.

That the military hospitals commission and the board of pension commis-
sioners are in the position of trustees, appointed for his benefit, and repr»



Online LibraryDouglas C. (Douglas Crawford) McMurtrieThe evolution of national systems of vocational reeducation for disabled soldiers and sailors → online text (page 26 of 38)