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Douglas C. (Douglas Crawford) McMurtrie.

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in new trades, either because of wrong ideas on the subject or through igno-
rance of the thorough tuition that can be afforded them. Some no doubt are
tempted by the immediate offer of good wages; others, although assured to
the contrary, appear afraid that their pensions will be reduced in consequence
of their training. This fear is baseless.

At the present time there is a big demand for labor, but the men must be
induced to look ahead, for when the war is over and the labor market becomes
crowded, unskilled laborers and men holding temporary jobs will find themselves
out of work, but the men who have undertaken a course of training and are
qualified tradesmen will have the best chance of holding their situations.

AGRICULTURAL TRAINING.

For agricultural training arrangements have been made with the
agricultural department to accept a limited number of men for in-
struction at the State farms. Among the various branches of farm
work are dairying, fruit farming, cropping, poultry raising, bee cul-
ture, and market gardening. In scientific training in agricultural
and pastoral subjects the authorities of Lincoln College, Wellington,
have placed at the disposal of ex-soldiers five scholarships of £20
each, and have agreed to take nonresident pupils at a nominal fee.
In deserving cases the returned soldiers' information department is
prepared to supplement the scholarship grants by an adequate
annual allowance. Few soldiers have taken advantage of the oppor-
tunities for agricultural training.



EVOLUTION OP SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 255

CLERICAL TRAINING.

Clerical training for disabled soldiers is being provided free of
expense to the Government or the men by the New Zealand Society
of Accountants. The subjects covered are those prescribed for the
society's bookkeeping examination. The examination fees of pupils
prepared to sit at the university examinations in accountancy are
also met by the society. In addition to the classroom instruction,
courses, are also given by correspondence for the benefit of men who
can not attend in person.

According to the annual report of the Discharged Soldiers' Infor-
mation Department, " a considerable number of men have from time to
time entered for the classes, but it is understood that with few excep-
tions the attendance has been desultory and the progress poor, and it
has lately been intimated to the department by the secretary that the
council of the society is now considering whether it is justified in
continuing the expenditure of some hundreds of pounds for such un-
satisfactory results. The matter is unquestionably one for very pro-
found regret, the scheme having originally been adopted by the
society on its own initiative, and promising, as we all hoped, very
valuable developments."

TECHNICAL TRAINING.

For disabled men who can not return to their former occupations
there is offered free tuition at various technical schools throughout
New Zealand. At the "Wellington Technical College, for example, in-
struction is provided in building construction, painting, decoration
and sign writing, carpentry and joinery, plumbing, machine work,
jewelry making, metal work, plastering and modeling.

Training for disabled men has more recently been inaugurated at
the technical schools at Christchurch, at Dunedin, and at Invercar-
gill. The most popular subjects of instructions in these schools are
wool-classing and machine-tool work.

Up to December, 1917, there had enrolled in reeducational classes
63 men. The subjects were as follows : Machine drawing, 2 ; electri-
cal and machine tool work, 6 ; bookkeeping and commercial work, 25 ;
wireless telegraphy, 1; wool classing, 13; school teaching, 1; agri-
culture (not including men receiving tuition on State farms), 1;
motor mechanics (not including a few men being trained as chauf-
feurs at Auckland), 11; drafting, 2; plumbing, 1.

By arrangement with the Jubilee Institute for the Blind training
is provided for men partially or totally blinded at the front.

MAINTENANCE DURING TRAINING.

To remove any possible financial obstacle to men desiring to under-
take training, the Government some time ago decided to grant main-



256 EVOLUTION OP SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

tenance allowances not in excess of £1 a week — irrespective of pen-
sion payments — to men attending classes. These allowances are con-
ditioned only upon approval of the training subject as suitable to the
individual case and upon good conduct, regular attendance, and satis-
factory progress.

The question of allowing disabled men to accept positions with
private employers at rates of pay less than those fixed by current
awards or agreements and minimum wage legislation was taken up
by the labor department early in 1916, and under an order in council
then approved, 14 under-rate permits prescribing weekly wages of
from £2 10s. to £1 15s. have been issued.

TRAINING IN FACTORIES.

A later order in council, of greater importance, provided for the
training of disabled men in private factories or workshops. As this
question represents one of the moot points in the rehabilitation field,
the rulings of the order will be given in full detail.

The order was dated December 3, and appeared in the New
Zealand Gazette of December 4, 1917. The essential sections read
as follows:

EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING OF DISCHARGED SOLDIEES.

Section 2. (1) Application by a discharged soldier to be trained and em-
ployed pursuant to this order in council may be made to the discharged soldiers'
information department in such form as may be prescribed by the minister.

(2) On receipt of any such application the minister, or such person as he
may direct in that behalf, shall cause inquiries to be made, and if it appears
that the applicant is a suitable person to be trained, and that the industry or
the branch or branches thereof in which employment and training are sought by
the applicant are such that the applicant, having regard to his education and
his physical condition, may be expected to attain a reasonable degree of pro-
ficiency therein, the minister or other person as aforesaid may approve the
application, subject to the provisions hereinafter set forth.

(3) The application approved as aforesaid shall thereupon be transmitted to
such inspector of factories as may be authorized by the chief inspector of
factories to receive and deal with the same.

Sec. 3. The inspector shall forthwith issue to the applicant a temporary
permit to be trained and employed in the industry, or in one or more branches
thereof, at such rate of wages as he considers the applicant may be able to
earn. Such temporary permit shall continue in force for one month from the
date thereof, but may be extended by the inspector for not more than one month.

Sec. 4. (1) If at any time before the expiry of the temporary permit by
effluxion of time the applicant desires and the employer is willing to continue
the training and employment, the inspector shall, after giving the union con-
cerned in the award or industrial agreement a reasonable opportunity of ex-
pressing its views, issue to the applicant a permit to be trained and employed
in the industry, or any branch or branches thereof, at such rate of wages as he
thinks fit, and for such period as may be agreed on between the applicant and
the employer. Every such permit shall be subject to the approval of the
mfaijrter, or of such other person as the minister may authorize in that behalf.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OP VOCATIONAL BEEDTJCATION. 257

(2) In fixing the rate of wages tne Inspector may prescribe a scale of increase
for successive portions of the period of training, and he may, not oftener than
once in three months, on being satisfied from the progress made by the appli-
cant that the wages should be advanced in accordance with the scale, increase
the rate of wages accordingly.

Sec. 5. During the currency of such permit it shall be the duty of the employer
to teach, and the duty of the applicant to learn, the work of the industry or
branch or branches thereof specified in the permit, and such duty to teach and
to learn as may be prescribed in the award or industrial agreement for appren-
tices shall apply to the employer and the applicant.

Sec. 6. Notwithstanding anything in this order in council, if the applicant
seriously misconducts himself or is repeatedly absent from his duties, the
employer may notify the minister thereof, and the minister may, if he thinks
fit, cancel the permit.

Sec. 7. In any case where an applicant has, since his incapacity, been em-
ployed in the industry or branch thereof to which his application relates for
not less than one month, the provisions of this order in council as to the issue
of temporary permits shall not apply, and the inspector may, on the approval of
the application pursuant to clause 2 hereof, forthwith issue a permit under
clause 4 hereof.

EMPLOYMENT OF DISCHARGED SOLDIERS OTHERWISE THAN FOB PURPOSES OF

TRAINING.

Sec 8. Application by a discharged soldier for employment not being an
application for employment and training under the foregoing provisions of this
order in council may be made by him direct to any inspector of factories, who
is authorized in writing by the chief inspector of factories to receive and deal
with the same.

Sec. 9. (1) The inspector may, if he thinks fit, thereupon issue a temporary
permit for the employment of the applicant, for a period of not more than one
month, at such rate of wages and upon such other conditions as he thinks fit,
and shall, before the expiry of such temporary permit, make inquiry as to
the fitness of the applicant for such employment, and shall give to the union
which is bound by the award or industrial agreement a reasonable opportunity
of expressing its views upon the application.

(2) He may thereupon, if he thinks fit, issue to the applicant a permit to be
employed in the industry for such term, at such rate of wages, and on such
conditions as he thinks fit.

TRAINING IN WORKSHOPS, FACTORIES, ETC.

Application by Partially Disabled Soldier Unable to Follow hit Prewar
Occupation and Desirous of Learning a New Trade.

Name in full : Reg. No

Address : Rank :

Date of discharge :

What is your age? Are your married or sin-
gle? Ages of children (if any) : jp... '.

Educational standard passed :

What occupation did you follow prior to enlisting?

57710—18 17



258 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

What were your wages?

Have you had experience in any other trade?

What trade do you now desire to learn?



Is there any particular employer in your own district with whom you would
wish to be trained?

What weekly wages do you think you would be worth to start with? (Leave
entirely out of account your pension and the Government subsidy referred to
on the back hereof)

Name, occupation, and address of previous employer (if any) :

If not seriously disabled, is there any reason why you should not resume work
with your old employer? (Whenever possible the soldier should resume his old

or some kindred trade so as to avoid wasting past experience.)

Names and addresses of two references as to character and respectability :

Mr has known me years.

Mr has known me years.

Signature : ,

Date:

Application approved subject to provisions of Order in Council of December
3, 1917.



(Minister in charge of Discharged Soldiers' In-
formation Department, or other person directed
by the minister in that behalf.)
Date:

INSTRUCTIONS TO APPLICANTS FOR TRAINING IN WORKSHOPS, FACTORIES, ETC.

The application form on the other side hereof should be carefully completed
and signed, every question being correctly answered. The form should then
be posted (no stamp required) to The Officer in Charge, Discharged Soldiers'
Information Department, Aiken Street, Wellington, or, if preferred, it may
be handed to the secretary of the local committee representing the depart-
ment in the town in which the soldier resides.

If inquiries are satisfactory and the application is approved it will be re-
ferred by the Discharged Soldiers' Information Department to the Local
Inspector of Factories, who alone is empowered to issue the necessary permits
in the case of trades subject to industrial agreements or awards. Where no
industrial agreement or award under the industrial conciliation and arbitration
act is in existence the matter will be dealt with by the Discharged Soldiers'
Information Department.

The period of training will be limited to 12 months ; in many cases a shorter
period may be found sufficient. If an extension of the period fixed at the be-
ginning of the training is deemed necessary later on, it will be the subject of
a fresh agreement. In approved cases a Government subsidy may be granted
by the minister. Where an award or industrial agreement is in force this
subsidy may amount to, but in many cases will not exceed, the difference
between the weekly rate of wages first paid pursuant to the permit (not be-
ing the temporary permit) and either (a) the weekly minimum award or
agreement rate for competent workers for a full ordinary week, or (6) the sum
of £3 (3 pounds) per week, whichever is the less. In other cases the subsidy
will not exceed the difference between the weekly rate of wages first paid
pursuant to the permit (not being the temporary permit) and either (a) the
weekly rate of wages usually paid for a full ordinary week to competent
workers in such employment, or (6) the sum of £3 per week, whichever is
the less. This subsidy if granted will be paid in the following manner:



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 259

One half of the subsidy will be paid to the soldier by monthly installments,
and the other half will be retained by the Discharged Soldiers' Information
Department and accumulated to the credit of the soldier until the end of the
period of training. The payment of the subsidy from time to time will be
subject to the minister being satisfied that the soldier's character and conduct
have been satisfactory and that he has worked to the best of his ability
diligently and well. The payment of the portion of the subsidy accumulated
during the period of training will be subject to the minister being satisfied
that the soldier has attained a reasonable degree of proficiency in the in-
dustry in which he has been trained, having regard to his physical disabilities
and the length of the period during which the training has taken place.

During the period of the temporary permit a subsidy will be paid sufficient
to raise the soldier's wages to the sum of £2 10s. per week, subject to the
foregoing provisions as regards character, conduct, and diligence.

TEMPORARY PERMIT.

Under the Provisions of an Order in Council Dated December 3, 1917, Issued
Under Section 25 of the Regulation of Trade and Commerce Act, 1914.

Mr. (Name in full.)

(Address. )

a discharged soldier within the meaning of the above-described order in
council, is hereby authorized to accept training and employment with

in the trade or business of (Indicate, if necessary, branch

or branches of trade) at a weekly wage of for a period not

exceeding one month, from to

Dated at this day of 191



(An Inspector of factories authorized by the
chief inspector of factories to receive applica-
tions for permits under the order in council.)



Note. — If the circumstances require it the inspector may extend this tem-
porary permit for a further period not exceeding one month.



Under the Provisions of an Order in Council Dated December 3, 1917, issued
Under Section 25 of the Regulation of Trade and Commerce Act, 1914-

Mr. (Name in full.)

(Address.)

a discharged soldier within the meaning of the above-described order in
council, is hereby authorized, subject to the approval of the minister in charge
of the Discharged Soldiers' Information Department, to accept training and

employment with in the trade or business

of (Indicate, if necessary, branch or

branches of trade) for a period of months at a weekly wage as

follows :

For a period of three months from

, being the termination of the

employment under the temporary permit

issued by me on .



per week.



260 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

For a further period of three months froml week
to J

* For a further period of three months froml week
to /

t For a further period of three months f roml . wee ]j

to J

Dated at this day of 191 —



Approved :



Date , 191—



(An inspector of factories authorized by the
chief inspector of factories to receive applica-
tions for permits under the order in council.)



(Minister in charge of the Discharged Soldiers'
Information Department, or other person
authorized by the minister in that behalf.)



AGREEMENT BETWEEN EMPLOYER AND DISCHARGED SOLDIEB.



Whereas (Name in full)

f (Address)

a discharged soldier within the meaning of the above-described order in
council (hereinafter referred to as "the discharged soldier"), has applied in
the terms of the said order in council to be trained and employed in the trade

or business of . (Indicate, if neces-
sary, branch or branches of trade).

And Whereas (Name in full)

of (Address)

(hereinafter referred to as "the employer"), has agreed to take the discharged
soldier into his employ and to teach him the said trade or business ;

And Whereas an inspector of factories, authorized under clause 3 (3) of the
said order in council of December 3, 1917, has issued the permit prescribed by
clause 4 (1) of the said order in council:

Now This Agreement Witnesseth :

1. That the employer will teach the discharged soldier the said trade or busi-
ness in such manner as to train him therein as efficiently as possible during the
period prescribed by the aforesaid permit.

2. That the employer will permit the inspector of factories, or other person
representing the Discharged Soldiers' Information Department, to have access
at reasonable intervals to the premises in which the discharged soldier is em-
ployed, with a view to satisfying himself as to the facilities offered for the
learning of the trade or business and the progress which the discharged soldier
is making therein.

• To be canceled unless the, period of training is estimated to exceed six months,
t To be canceled unless the period of training is estimated to exceed nine month!!.
N. B. — The advances in wages shown in this permit will be conditional on the dis-
charged soldier's progress justifying the increased pay.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OP VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 261

3. That the discharged soldier will obey the instructions of the employer,
and will discharge the duties allotted to him diligently and assiduously, and
will do his utmost to learn the said trade or business during the period pre-
scribed by the permit aforesaid, and will not absent himself during working
hours except with the permission of the employer or through sickness or other
unavoidable cause.
4.* That the discharged soldier will regularly attend the classes relating to

the said trade or business at the technical school, , under

the arrangement by which free places for discharged soldiers are provided by
the Government.

5. That the period of training and employment and the scale of wages shall
be those set out in the aforesaid permit issued by an inspector of factories.

As Witness the hands of the parties hereto, this day of ,

191__.

Signature of employer:

Signature :

Address :

Occupation :

Signature of discharged soldier :



Witness to
employer's signature.



Witness to

discharged soldier's

signature.



Signature :

Address :

Occupation :

* N. B. — It is considered desirable that this provision should be made ; but, if
there are any material difficulties in the way of carrying it out, the clause may
be modified or canceled by the parties with the approval of the Discharged Sol-
diers' Information Department.

DECISION REGARDING SPECIAL SCHOOLS.

The establishment of special reeducational institutions for war
cripples has been urged by various individuals and organizations.
The recommendation has elicited from the minister in charge of the
Discharged Soldiers' Information Department the following comment :

During the last few weeks the question of the establishment of special
training colleges for disabled men has been urged on the attention of the
department. The gentlemen concerned in this movement have shown most
praiseworthy interest in the welfare of our returned men, and which, in so far
as it manifests a lively interest in our soldiers, must command the sympathy
and respect of us all. I gather from the correspondence which has come under
my notice that the promoters of the scheme have in mind the provision of
training colleges and farms for men still undergoing hospital treatment, and if
this is correct the question more properly appertains to the work of the Depart-
ment of Public Health than to the Discharged Soldiers' Information Depart-
ment. So far as the latter department is concerned, I regret that I can not
at present see my way to support a scheme of the character suggested. The
small extent to which existing facilities have been availed of would not, in
my opinion, justify the large expense which the institution of special training
colleges with expensive buildings, apparatus, and staff would involve. I am
supported in this view by the attitude taken up by the statutory war pensions
committee, which has been established by legislation in the United Kingdom,
and which amongst other functions deals with the training and employment of
disabled men. In addressing its local committees on this particular subject it



262 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.



urges them to make use as far as possible of existing Institutions, specifically
mentioning the technical schools, and adds that " as the number of men for
whom training is needed will diminish year by year after the war, expenditure
on the provision of buildings and apparatus, which will only be required for a
temporary period, should be kept within strict limits."

In addition to the foregoing, I doubt whether an institution of the char-
acter proposed, involving a considerable measure of control and discipline,
would be appreciated by the men for whose benefit it is designed. I am in-
clined to think that the younger men would before very long find the necessary
restraint distasteful and irksome. In this opinion I am supported by the
views of a prominent member of the medical profession in New Zealand — one
who I may say has had special opportunities of forming an opinion through
daily contact with the inmates of one of our large convalescent homes.
Speaking on this very subject of a training college for men out of or nearly
out of the doctor's hands, he says, " I am a little dubious as to whether the
men would be content to remain long under institutional control ;" and again,
" I feel sure that the feeling of independence from control, impossible in any
institution, is an essential factor in any scheme designed to appeal to the
average man, and not to the exceptional returned "man." I am entirely in
accord with these views, and for the reasons given I could not, for the present
at any rate, see my way to support the schemes which have been put forward.

While the experience in the matter of training has been disap-
pointing the results in obtaining employment for disabled men have
been unusually successful. The latter may go far to explain the
former, especially in view of the great present demand for labor
in New Zealand, and the natural desire on the part of the men to get
back at once to remunerative and productive occupation.

The amount of pension award, based as it is on medical evidence
as to physical condition, is a fair criterion of the extent of disability.
A tabulation has been prepared showing the number of men draw-
ing pensions of £1 5s. per week and upward for whom the Discharged
Soldiers' Information Department obtained remunerative employ-
ment. As loss of sight in one eye carries with it a pension of £1
per week it is evident that the range of pensions represented in
the tabulation embrace only cases of grave disability. A summary
of this tabulation gives the following totals:

Number of
Weekly pension : placements.

fl 5s_^ 80

fi 10s 146

£i 15s 47

In some amputation cases the placement results were as follows:



Amputation.


Employment.


Pension.


Amputation.


Employment.


Pension.


Left thigh


Artificial limb making.



Online LibraryDouglas C. (Douglas Crawford) McMurtrieThe evolution of national systems of vocational reeducation for disabled soldiers and sailors → online text (page 29 of 38)