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Douglas C. (Douglas Crawford) McMurtrie.

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EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 263

INDIA.

Orthopedic and electrotherapeutic treatment is given at a number
of hospitals, namely at the military hospitals at Bombay. Cawnpore,
Umballa, and the Red Cross hospitals at Mussorie and Dehra Dun. 5
Artificial limbs are provided at the Marine Lines War Hospital at
Bombay, which takes in all cases requiring these appliances. 8

The imperial Indian relief fund has among its many functions,
that of assisting permanently disabled soldiers and their families.
Bureaus have been formed at various centers for the employment of
disabled men. 7 The Bengal Chamber of Commerce early in the war
addressed a circular to its members, calling attention to the subject
of civil employment for pensioned soldiers and indicating the ways
in which they could be reached through their military units. 8

In May, 1917, through the efforts of Lady Willingdon, wife of the
governor of Bombay, a technical school for disabled soldiers was es-
tablished at Bombay, under the name of Queen Mary's Technical
School for Disabled Indian Soldiers." There is accommodation for
200 men. Seventy-three disabled soldiers were waiting for admis-
sion before the institution was opened. Measures were taken to
make the advantages of the school widely known, and especially to
bring them to the knowledge of those who had already returned to
their homes. Men from upcountry who desire to enter the school
are provided with a return railway ticket and traveling expenses.

The school is under a joint military and civil administration and
is financed jointly. The military authorities defray the charges of
fitting of artificial limbs and teaching of their use. This part of the
work is considered as an extension of that done at the Marine Lines
War Hospital and is under the direction of the same military sur-
geon.

The educational part of the work is under purely civilian auspices.
The costs are provided partly by the Bombay Women's Branch of
the Indian War Relief Fund, and partly by private subscription.
The duration of the training is of six months or more. Each man is
at liberty to select his trade. The men are supplied with clothes,
bedding, food, etc., during their stay at the school. At leaving, they
are in many cases supplied with a set of tools.

There are classes in tailoring, hosiery knitting, dyeing, making of
artificial flowers, carpentering, elementary engineering, motor-car
driving, oil-engine driving, agriculture, poultry farming, etc.

•Pioneer Mail, Aug. 25, 1917, p. 7.
•Pioneer Mall, May 12, 1917, p. 15.
'Recalled to Life, September, 1917, p. 274.
•Pioneer Mall, May 28, 1915, p. 21.

•Recalled to Life, September, 1917, p. 274; Pioneer Mail, May 12, 1917; East and
West (Bombay), August, 1917, p. xvi.



264 EVOLUTION OF systems of vocational reeducation.

A committee of the institution endeavors to find employment for
the men. They are placed as tailors in regiments or at the army
clothing department ; as chauffeurs at the army mechanical transport
department; as turners, fitters, machine men, engine drivers, ammuni-
tion-box makers, in Government dockyards, ordnance factories, and
arsenals; finally, in private factories and workshops.

It has been estimated that skilled men should be able to add from
20 to 100 rupees a month to their pensions.

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA.

For the treatment and reeducation of South African soldiers, of
those mainly who belong to forces engaged in Europe, the South
African Military Hospital in Richmond Park, near London, has been
created. 10 The training is voluntary, but if a man elects to undergo
it, and so long as he elects to continue it, he is obliged to submit to
military discipline and is liable to military penalties if he fails to
conform to the rules.

The percentage of disabled men who go in for reeducation is ex-
tremely high — over 90 per cent at present. The reeducation begins
at a very early stage in convalescence. When a man reaches the hos-
pital he is at once put into one or other of the three categories,
namely: (1) certainly unfit for further active military service, (2)
doubtful, (3) expected to become fit. If the commanding medical
officer is of the opinion that he will not be able to return to active
military service, no time is lost in commencing his reeducation.

The subjects taught include those of general education, including
bookkeeping, shorthand, typewriting, secretarial work, and accounts ;
and also, metal working, carpentry, cabinetmaking, electricity, cinema-
tography and engine working, etc. A bootmaking plant is also being
installed. The arrangements are noticeable in that highly skilled
professional instructors are employed. As the result, not only is
work up to the standards of experts being turned out, but the men
realize that an extraordinary opportunity is being afforded them,
and are proportionately keen to avail themselves of the courses.
Several of them have already passed examinations of the London
Chamber of Commerce, and the National Union of Teachers, first
classes being obtained in quite a considerable proportion of instances.

The training does not stop when a man is discharged from the hos-
pital, a comfortable hostel having been erected in the grounds, where
those no longer in need of hospital treatment can live while they
continue their courses. Such men continue to wear their uniform and
remain under military discipline.

w Recalled to Lite, September, 1917, pp., 271-273.




INSTRUCTION IN TYPEWRITING AND CABI NETM AKING AT THE SCHOOL MAIN-
TAINED BY THE SOUTH AFRICAN UNION, RICHMOND PARK, LONDON.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 265

Soldiers disabled in operations in Africa receive medical care in
institutions in the principal centers in the Union, those of them in
need of artificial limbs being sent ultimately to Richmond to be
looked after while they are being fitted.

With regard to reeducation and placement of the disabled, it does
not seem that any provisions have been made by the Union Govern-
ment. In May, 1916, in connection with the recruiting campaign,
Premier Botha addressed a letter to the recruiting committees, invit-
ing them to provide employment for returning soldiers and to assist
them with cash during the time from their discharge to their return
"to civilian employment. 11 Again, in December, 1916, the Govern-
ment published an appeal to employers to provide work for dis-
charged soldiers. 12

The matter is practically left to local and private initiative. There
are found in Cape Town and in some other places local boards for
vocational education of disabled soldiers, who endeavor to provide
both reeducation and employment. 13 In many places returned sol-
diers' associations have been formed for the general relief of dis-
charged men. The Johannesburg Association is reported to have
obtained, in November, 1916, from the Government a promise that
no man would be discharged from the base hospital until he was
fit to resume civil employment or until his relatives were willing to
undertaken his care. 14

In July, 1917, a Johannesburg and Reef organization for the relief
of returned disabled soldiers declared reeducation to be one of its
chief purposes. It was planned to ascertain for each man the suit-
able form of employment ; training was to be given in technical in-
stitutions and in public or private workshops; employers were asked
to assist in the work. 15

u South African Review, June 9, 1916, p. 10.

u South African Review, Dec. 22, 1916, p. 21.

" South African Review, Mar. 16, 1917, pp. 6 and 9.

" South African Review, Aug. 3, 1917, p. 3.

"SoutA African Review, July 13, 1917, p. 4.



X.
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i Material prepared by Douglas C. MeMurtrie with the assistance of Letty Lucile Davis.

267



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EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 269

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