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extra foot and leather calf for best. The man who has lost both legs
at the thigh may choose for his permanent appliance either two
articulated pegs or two articulated legs, but he is advised to take the
former. Extra feet are not given with these, as they are impracticable
for double amputations. When an orthopedic shoe is assigned to a
man, he receives also a regular shoe for the other foot.

For arm amputations the kind of appliance supplied depends upon
the length of the stump. If a man has a stump more than 5 centi-
meters long, he receives a working arm with ring, hook " universal
pincers," or other similar device for holding an object, and in addi-
tion a dress forearm and hand of wood. Articulated hands are con-
sidered a luxury. If a man has a stump less than 5 centimeters long
he has not the leverage to lift a working arm, and he receives a dress
arm only. Men who have lost both arms are entitled to appliances
which will enable them to perform the necessary acts of daily life.
They are, therefore, allowed one or two articulated hands.

Appliances for other injuries are as varied as the injuries. Among
them may be mentioned appliances for radial and sciatic paralysis,
skull plates, abdominal belts, thoraric corsets, etc.

Methods of Procuring Appliances.

The Government procures the appliances which it gives out either
by direct manufacture in workshops attached to the institution of
prosthetic equipment or by purchase from artificial-limb manufac-
turers, whose entire output it can, when necessary, requisition. Shops
in which the Government manufactures its own appliances are
manned in some places by mobilized experts, and in others by dis-



58 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

abled men learning the trade. In the shops where the trade is being
taught some mobilized workmen are usually employed together with
disabled workmen in order to increase production.

Models for all appliances furnished by the Government have been
determined by an Orthopedic Commission (Commission d 'etudes de
l'orthopedie) attached to the ministry of war. This commission has
drawn up an elaborate book of specifications (cahier de charges)
giving descriptions and prices for each type of appliance, tb which
specifications all articles delivered to the Government by private
manufacturers must conform. A committee attached to each insti-
tution of equipment inspects the factories making appliances for
that institution to see that the workmanship and the materials are
up to standard. On their delivery to the institution all privately made
appliances are again inspected by a receiving committee, which
makes sure that they conform to specifications and that they are
perfectly fitted to the men for whom they were ordered. In order
that there may be no mistake about the fit, a man must wear his
appliance eight days before it will be accepted by the committee.

Repair of Appliances.

Not only has the Government engaged to supply every man with
the appliance he needs, but it has also undertaken to repair and
replace that appliance when necessary during a man's lifetime. Offi-
cial announcements have stated that any man who needs to have his
appliance repaired or replaced should send it collect to the institu-
tion where he received it. The needed reparation will then be made
at the Government's expense. If the man's presence at the institu-
tion is judged necessary, he will receive free transportation.

Different Models Used.

The articulated legs furnished by the Government were at first of
leather braced with steel uprights, but they were disliked by the
mutiles because of their weight, and new legs of the American type
of hollowed wood are being more extensively manufactured and dis-
tributed.

Different models for working arms have been invented at the vari-
ous Government workshops. Some are of the type called " universal
pincers"; others are variations of the old-fashioned ring and hook;
others are special devices for different trades. The "universal
pincers " invented by Prof. Amar, the head of the Orthopedic Com-
mission, are highly thought of. In these the forearm consists of a
strong steel rod ending at the elbow in a joint which permits flexion
and rotation and at the wrist in a ball and socket joint to which is
attached a powerful pair of jaws or pincers. All of these joints may



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 59

be fixed in any position. When desired the joints can be detached,
and the wooden hand supplied by the Government for dress wear can
be substituted for them. 12 " Other successful models for "universal
pincers " are the Pince Lumiere, made at Lyons, and the Pince Estor,
made at Montpellier. 126 Among improvements on the old-fashioned
ring and hook are the Aubert turning ring made at Lyons and the
oscillating hook, called the " laborer's hand," devised by Dr. Boureau,
of Tours. 127

A whole series of hands for different occupations have been in-
vented by Dr. Boureau. Besides the laborer's hand, he has a hand
for a vine grower, for a postman, a chair caner, a leather cutter, a
solderer, a plumber, a mechanic, a carpenter, a packer, a jeweler, a
priest, and a driver of animals or tractors. 128 At Tourvielle are made
appliances for chair caners, brush makers, coopers, galoche makers,
and agriculturists; at Montpellier for mechanics, designers and en-
gravers, wood turners, and agriculturists; at Bordeaux for me-
chanics, forge workers, carpenters, basket makers, etc. 129

Agriculturists find useful working arms in the tool holders invented
by M. Jullien, of Lyons, which he has called " l'agriculteur " and " le
cultivateur." The first consists of a perforated steel cylinder open
at one end to receive the handle of the tool, which is fastened firmly
in place by a screw through one of the perforations. The other end
of the cylinder is attached by a rotary joint to a gimbal joint, which
is itself attached by another rotary joint to the covering of the stump.
By means of this system of articulation a tool guided by the other
hand can be moved in any plane and turned on any axis. In the
second Jullien tool holder the cylinder is open at both ends, so that
the handle of the tool can be pushed through any distance. 130

Other practical devices for farm workers are Dr. Boureau's hands
for laborers and vine growers, the Aubert oscillating ring and hook,
and an arrangement of straps worked out by two Lyons orthopedists
from photographs of a device used at Vienna. 131 Farm workers with
a leg amputated, whose activities would be hindered by their peg
sinking into soft earth or plowed ground, find it convenient to use a
leg turned with an enlarged end like an elephant's foot or to have a

135 Todd, John L. . A report on how France returns her soldiers to civilian life, In
American Journal of Care for Cripples, New York, 1917, V, 11.
«" Hirschfeld, Gustave. Tourvielle. Lyon, 1917, p. 78.

127 Reeducation fonctionnelle et reeducation professlonnelle des blesses. Paris, 1917,
p. 112.

128 Musee pSdagogique. Melun, 1917, p. 17. Lea mutlles aux champs. Paris, 1917,
pp. 22-24.

vo Hirschfeld, Gustave : Tourvielle. Lyon, 1917, p. 81. Bulletin de l'oeuvre des
mutiles de la guerre de la XVI e region a Montpellier. October, 1916, pp. 26-35. Gour-
don, J. : Rapport general sur l'ecole normale et pratique de Bordeaux. Bordeaux, 1917,

p. 14.

iso Hirschfeld, Gustave : Tourvielle. Lyon, 1917, pp. 76, 116.

131 R^ducatlon fonctionnelle et reeducation professionneUe des blesses. Paris, 1917,
pp. 81-80.



60 EVOLUTION OP SYSTEMS OP VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

light wooden sandal which they can fasten to the end of their peg. 1 "
Certain other devices which can hardly be called prosthetic ap-
pliances have been found useful in some trades. Shoemakers who
have lost one or both legs use a short padded crutch under their
knees. They have found that they can hold their work more firmly
when their knees are supported in this way than when they are wear-
ing a peg or an articulated leg. Harness makers and saddlers with a
leg amputated at the thigh use a heavy curving sheet of metal to
extend their stump so that they can hold their work by pressing their
one knee against this metal. This device was invented by a maimed
saddler and is now made and used at Saint-Maurice. 133 A post seat
which makes bench work easier for a man who has lost his leg at the
thigh has been invented at Mme. Weill's school for woodworkers. 134
For farm workers who have lost their leg at the thigh there has been
devised a mowing-machine seat with an extension at one side of the
front to support the stump ; and for those who have lost an arm a
mowing-machine seat equipped with hooked arms to hold the reins. 18 *

LIST OF REEDUCATIONAL SCHOOLS. 136

Institut national professionnel des invalides de la guerre, Saint-Maurice,
(Seine).'

ficole spgciale des mutiles de la ville de Paris et du DSpartement de^ la Seine,
rue et place du Puits-de-1'Ermite, Paris.

L'Aide immediate aux invalides et reformes de la guerre (30 workshops and
courses receiving support from the society), 325, rue Saint-Martin, Paris.

L'Art et la Femme, Lycee Carnot, Paris.

L' Atelier, 5, rue de la Durance, Paris.

L'Atelier des soldats mutiles de la guerre (Union centrale des arts decoratifs),
2, avenue Montespan, Paris.

Les Blesses au travail, 154, avenue Champs-FJysees, Paris.

Chambre syndicale de la bijouterie, joaillerie, orfgvrerie, 2, rue de la Jus-
sienne, Paris.

Chambre syndicale de la bijouterie fantaisie, 25, rue Chapon, Paris.

Chambre syndicale des bourreliers-selliers, 3, rue de LutSce, Paris.

Chambre syndicale des chausseurs, 51, rue des F,pinettes, Paris.

Comite intersyndical d'apprentissage des industries du vehement, 51, rue
des Jtlpinettes, Paris.

Societe pour le developpement de l'apprentissage dans les metiers du batiment,
51, rue des J&pinettes, Paris.

iScoles des mutiles de la Federation nationale d'assistanee aux mutiles, 28,
quai de la Rapge ; 149, avenue des Champs-filysees, Paris.

"* HIrschfeld, Gustave: Tourvielle. Lyon, 1917, p. 114.

lsa Sfie'ducation fonctlonnelle et reeducation professlonnelle des blesses. Paris, 1917,
pp. 45^16.

134 Weill, Mme. David: Les mutiles et estropies de la guerre dans la menuiserie et
quelques autres industries du bois. Paris, 1917. Drawings in appendix.

135 Les mutiles aux champs. Paris, 1917, pp. 53, 54.

189 Office national des inutiles et reformes de la guerre. Bull. No. 1. Paris, 1917, pp.
26-34, 168-184.



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 61

Nicole de reeducation des mgcanlciens de l'ficole dentaire franchise, 29, boule-
vard Saint-Martin, Paris.

Foundation Marcel Hirsch, 9, rue de l'Eperon, Paris.

Annexe de l'Institut national de Saint-Maurice, H6tel-pension, 4, rue Rondelet,
Paris.

Le Jouet lozgrien, 4, rue Lavoisier, Paris.

Maison du soldat du XIII" arrondissement, 47, rue Jenner, Paris.

iScoles de l'Union des colonies etrangSres, Grand Palais, Paris; Maison-
Blanche, Neuilly-sur-Marne, 28, Quai Debilly, Paris; Juvisy (Seine).

FiCOle Rachel, 140, rue de Bagneux, Montrouge (Seine).

ficole professionnelle des mutiies de la guerre, Oyonnax (Ain).

Comite departemental des Alpes-Maritimes, Prefecture, Nice (Alpes-Mari-
times).

•ficole de vannerie de l'Aide aux rgfugies, 14, rue MassSna, Nice (Alpes-
Maritimes).

iScole de reeducation professionnelle, Villa Beauregard, Antibes (Alpes-Mari-
times).

ficole de reeducation professionnelle, Troyes (Aube).

FiCOle de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies et blesses de la guerre, 2, rue
Saint-Lambert, Marseille.

FiCOle departemental de la reeducation professionnelle des blesses et mutil6s
de la guerre, La Deiivrance (Calvados).

Ecole de vannerie de l'Aisne, Pavillons-sous-Bois (Seine).

iScole professionnelle de reeducation des blesses et mutiies, Bourges (Cher).

Centre de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies de la guerre, 9, rue Poitz-
moguer, Brest (Finistere).

ficole pour la reeducation des mutiies de la guerre, 24, rue Colbert, Nimes
(Gard).

iScole departementale professionnelle des mutiies, 4, rue des Recollets,
Toulouse (Haute-Garonne).

ficole pratique et normale de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies et estro-
pies de la guerre, 30, rue du Hamel, Bordeaux (Gironde).

JiJcole professionnelle de bless6s de la XVI region, H6pital general, Mont-
pellier (Herault).

Centre de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies et invalides de la guerre,
Tours (Indre-et-Loire).

FiCOle de reeducation professionnelle diamantaire des mutiies de la guerre,
Sainte-Claude (Jura).

jScole professionnelle pour les mutil6s de la guerre (pipiers), Saint-Claude
(Jura).

FiCOle professionnelle des bless6s militaires de la Loire, 17, rue Benoit-Malon,
Saint-fitienne (Loire).

(Euvre orieanaise de reeducation et de placement de mutiies, 10, rue Chap-
pon, Orleans (Loiret).

Comite de l'Anjou pour les mutiies de la guerre, Prefecture, Angers (Maine-
et-Loire).

CEuvre de reeducation des mutiies de la guerre, Sous-prefecture, Cherbourg

(Manche).

iScole de reeducation de l'Association lorraine d'assistance par reducation
professionnelle et le travail aux invalides de la guerre, Nancy (Meurthe-et-
Moselle).

FiCOle de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies de la guerre, rue Jules
Simon, Lorient (Morbihan).



62 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL BEEDUCATION.

Centre de reeducation professionnelle de l'OEuvre nivernaise des mutiKis de
la guerre, 5, rue du Lycee, Nevers (Nifevre).

Ecole professionnelle des mutiies, Calais (Pas-de-Calais).

Ecole professionnelle des blesses de guerre, rue Sidoine-Appollinaire, Cler-
mont-Ferrand ( Puy-de-D6me ) .

]5cole de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies de la guerre, 11, rue Ray-
mond-Plante, Pau (Basses-Pyrenees).

Centre de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies de la guerre, Bayonne
( Basses-Pyrenees ) .

Ecole Joffre, 41, rue Rachais, Lyon.

Ecole de Tourvielle, 25, Chemin de Tourvielle, Lyon.

Ecole General-Pau, 112, cours Gambetta, Lyon.

Association professionnelle du Rh6ne, Lyon.

CEuvre des mutiies de la guerre de Sa8ne-et-Loire, Macon (SaOne-et-Loire).

Comite d6partemental d'aide aux soldats mutiies sarthois, Le Mans (Sarthe).

Ecole de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies, rue Jean-Jacques-Rous-
seau, Annecy (Haute-Savoie).

Ecole de reeducation professionnelle des blesses de la guerre, 56, rampe
Bouvreuil, Rouen (Seine-Infeneure).

CEuvre havraise de reeducation professionnelle, Le Havre (Seine-Infgrieure).
CEuvre tarnaise de reeducation professionnelle des mutiies de la guerre, Albi
(Tarn).

Centre de reeducation professionnelle du Comite d'assistance aux invalides et
mutil6s de le guerre, Limoges ( Haute- Vienne).
Le jouet frangais, Limoges (Haute-Vienne).
Ecole Victor- Vassal, Oran (Alger).

Ecole pratique de commerce et d'industrie, Roanne (Loire).
Ecole pratique de commerce et d'industrie, Agen (Lot-et-Garonne).
Ecole nationale d'arts et metiers, Angers (Maine-et-Loire).
Ecole pratique d'industrie, Cherbourg (Manche).
Ecole de commerce, Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais).
Ecole pratique de commerce et d'industrie, Thiers (Puy-de-D6me).
Ecole nationale d'arts et metiers, Cluny (Sa6ne-et-Loire).
Ecole nationale d'horlogerie, Cluses (Haute-Savoie).
Ecole pratique d'industrie, Elbeuf (Seine-Inf6rieure).
Ecole d'horticulture (en formation), Antibes (Alpes-Maritimes).
Ecole pratique d'agriculture, Aurillac (Cantal).
Ecole pratique d'agriculture, L'Oisellerie (Charente).
Ecole professionnelle de laiterie, Surgeres (Charente-Inf6rieure).
Station-6cole de distillerie, tonnellerie et motoculture, Saintes (Charente-
Inf6rieure).

Section agricole pour mutiies, Bourges (Cher).
Ecole d'agriculture, Chatillon-sur-Seine (C8te-d'Or).
Ecole pratique d'agriculture, Genouillac (Creuse) .
Ecole nationale de laiterie, Mamirolle (Doubs).
Ecole d'agriculture, Plougastel (Finistere).
Ecole rggionale d'agriculture, Ondes (Haute-Garonne).
Centre departemental de reeducation professionnelle agricole de Beaullen,
Auch (Gers).

Ferme-6cole, La Hourre (Gers).
Ecole sp6ciale d'agriculture, Blanquefort (Gironde).
Ecole pratique d'agriculture, La R6ole (Gironde).
Ecole nationale d'agriculture, Montpelller (Herault).



EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION. 63

Ecole nationale d'agriculture, Rennes ( Ille-et-Vilaine) .

Ecole nationale de laiterie, Poligny (Jura).

Ecole pratique d'agriculture, Grand-Jouan (Loire-Inferieure).

Ecole nationale d'osiericulture et de vannerie, Fayl-Billot (Haute-Marne).

Ecole pratique d'agriculture, Tomblaine (Meurthe-et-Moselle).

Fruitiere-ecole, Lannemezan (Hautes-Py rentes).

Ecole pratique d'agriculture, Ecully (Rhone).

Institut agricole des mutiles: Ecole Sander, Limonest (Rhone).

Ecole pratique d'agriculture, Fontaines (Saone-et-Loire).

Ecole nationale d'agriculture, Contamines-sur-Arve (Haute-Savoie).

Ecole speciale d'agriculture, Grugny (Seine-Inferieure).

Ecole nationale d'horticulture, Versailles (Seine-et-Oise).

Ecole nationale d'agriculture, Grignon (Seine-et-Oise).

Bergerie nationale, Rambouillet (Seine-et-Oise).

Ecole pratique d'aviculture, Gambais (Seine-et-Oise).

Ecole speciale d'agriculture, Noisy-le-Grand (Seine-et-Oise).

Ecole pratique d'agriculture, La Brosse 'Yonne).

LAW OF JANUARY 2, 1918: REEDUCATION OF DISABLED

SOLDIERS. 1 "

Article 1. Every soldier or sailor or former soldier or sailor disabled by
wounds received in the war or by sickness contracted or aggravated during
the war can demand his enrollment in a school of vocational reeducation with
the object of being retrained for work and placed in employment.

His demand can be addressed directly to a school of reeducation or to the
prefect of the Department where he resided before the war, or to the depart-
mental committee for disabled and discharged soldiers of that Department or
to the national office for disabled and discharged soldiers.

Soldiers undergoing treatment or awaiting their discharge should address
their demand to the head physician of the hospital where they are staying.

Abt. 2. The national office for disabled and discharged soldiers, which is
Lere declared to be a public organization attached to the ministry of labor,
forms a connecting link between the public administrations and the private
societies concerned with the soldiers mentioned in article 1. Its purpose is
to centralize all information about the work of the said administrations and
societies, to aid and facilitate the readaptation to work of the above-mentioned
soldiers, to study laws and rulings which can be interpreted in their favor
and to see that these laws are observed, and in all ways to assure to all dis-
charged and disabled soldiers the continued aid due them from a grateful
nation.

Abt. 3. The resources of the national office for disabled and discharged sol-
diers comprise:

1. The annual credit assigned to the budget of the minister of labor under
the special heading, " National office for disabled and discharged soldiers " ;
and other subventions which may be granted to the national office by the State,
the Departments, and the communes.

2. Gifts and legacies of any kind and from any source which may be made
to the national office as a whole or to any particular category of soldiers among
those mentioned in article 1. Whenever such gifts or legacies are intended
for the benefit of the soldiers or former soldiers of a specified region they shall
be divided among the departmental and local committees of that region.

w Journal des Motiles, R£formes et Victimes de la Guerre. Paris, 1918, no. 50, p. 2.



64 EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF VOCATIONAL REEDUCATION.

3. All other resources which may be assigned to the national office by law.

Abt. 4. In the event of the abolishment of the national office or of a depart-
mental committee, the value of gifts and legacies made to the office or the com-
mittee shall be assigned by a decree of the council of ministers and on the report
of the minister of labor to public organizations of recognized public utility
which are in a position to execute the intentions of the donors.

Abt. 5. In every department there shall be founded departmental and local
committees for disabled and discharged soldiers. A decree issued after consul-
tation between the general council of the department and the national office
shall fix the districts in which these committees shall have control and the
number of their members.

These committees may receive subventions from the State, from Departments,
and from communes, and also gifts and legacies, under the conditions prescribed
by article 910 of the Civil Code concerning organizations of public utility.

They may not, however, possess other buildings than those required for their
meetings or for work on behalf of the soldiers mentioned in article 1.

Art. 6. A decree issued by the council of ministers shall determine how this
present law shall be carried into effect, namely :

1. What shall be the personnel of the national office and of the departmental
committees and under what conditions private societies will be represented in
these organizations.

2. Under what conditions subventions from the State shall be granted to
departmental committees and to reeducational institutions and how the dispo-
sition of these subventions shall be controlled.

3. What papers must be presented to departmental committees by the soldiers
mentioned in article 1 who wish to benefit from the provisions of the first
paragraph in article 7. ,

Art. 7. During the vocational reeducation of a soldier whose pension is pend-
ing his family continues to draw their separation allowance. If a man is
drawing his pension, and if the twelfth part of the pension is less than the
monthly sum previously granted to the family as a separation allowance, the
difference will be paid to the family during the man's reeducation.

The departmental committee determines the length of the period of training
during which the family benefits from the provisions of the preceding para-
graph. A man can make an appeal to the national office from the departmental
committee's decision on this point. He must make his appeal within one month
after being informed of the committee's decision.

Art. 8. In no case may the amount of the pension be reduced because of
vocational reeducation or readaptation to work.

Art. 9. The minister of labor shall present to the president of the Republic
an annual report on the work of the national office, the results obtained by
vocational reeducation, the placement of disabled and discharged soldiers, and
the distribution of State funds.

This report shall be published in the Journal OfficieL



III.
BELGIUM. 1



The outstanding fact about vocational reeducation for Belgian
war cripples is that it is absolutely compulsory. According to a
decree issued by the minister of war, November 5, 1914, Belgian
soldiers who are incapacitated by their wounds from following their
former trade or occupation are not discharged and sent home at the
end of their hospital treatment, but are declared " candidates for
discharge " and sent to a reeducational school. They remain nomi-
nally soldiers, under army control and subject to all military laws
and regulations. 2

Compulsory reeducation has been accepted without dispute by
Belgians because the majority of the soldiers have no homes to which
they can return. With the larger part of the country occupied by
the enemy, it is impossible for them to go back to their old way of
life. There is no counter attraction to make reeducation distasteful.

In the early days of the war before reeducation had been decreed,
many disabled soldiers were discharged from the hospitals and from
the army and left to shift for themselves. Those who were strong
enough and had ambition readily found work in France or England,
but many were so shattered in body or so demoralized by their ex-
periences that they wandered from place to place, bewailing their lot
and begging for charity. In order to rescue these men from their
distress, the decree which made reeducation compulsory for men still
in the army was extended to all discharged Belgian soldiers. All
discharge papers were revoked, and all discharged soldiers were re-
quired to undergo a new physical examination. Those that had
found steady work were allowed to remain where they were, on leave
of absence without pay; those that were drifting about the country
were sent to the military hospitals and to the reeducational schools. 8

There are in Belgium — that is to say, in exiled Belgium, on
French soil — two large schools which provide vocational training for



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