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Aconitum, 425.
Acorn, 368.
Acorus, 388.

Acrocarpoos mosses, 240.
AcrogynsB (Jungermanniales) , 212, 213,

215, 219.
Act»a, 402.

Actinomorphic flowers, 365.
Adaptation, 44.
Adder-tongae {see "Erythronium,"

•* Ophioglossam ")•
Adenostoma, 549.
Adbesive fruits, 513.
Adiantum, 254, 257, 259, 260, 330; A.

emarginatum. Figs. 219, 224, 225; A.

pedatum. Fig. 218.
Adliimia, 429.

Adventitious branching, 20, 21, 336.
-fflcidiomycetes (see also '* Rust "), 175.
iE)cidiospore, 170.
^Icidium, 176, 179.
Aerating organs, 467.
Aerial roots, 29, 363, 377, 410, 468. 504.
Aerobic Bacteria, 77, 466, 473.
^ijculus, 436; ^. Calif omica, PI. X.;

JS. glabra. Fig. 428.
^thaliura : ^. septicum, 39, 68, 70.
AgaricacesB, 181, 182, 184.
Agaricus: A. campestris, 181, 184, Fig.

148.
Agathis, 332, 338.
Agave, 362, 370, 376, 377, 380, 391, 502.

527, 546 ; A, Americana^ Fig. 347, PI. IX.



Aglaonema, 389.

Air-chambers (of Marchantiales) , 206,

210.
Air-plant {see ** Epiphyte").
Air-vesicles, 127, 131.
Ailanthus, 21.
Aizoaceae, 443.

Akebia: A, ^uinato, 425, 485.
Akiuete, 104.
Alaria, 127.
Albugo, 156-156, 157-158, 160, 168, '170;

A, Bliti, Figs. 121, 1*22; A, Candida,

Figs. 121, 122; A, Fortulacm, 157;

fertilization of, 157.
Albumen. 39; crystals, 54, 55.
Alcohol, 480. 481.

Alcoholic fermentation, 150, 165, 169.
Aldrovanda, 509.
Alder, 417.

Aleurone, 35, 38, 54, 55.
Alga, 4. 6, 7, 15. 16. 30, 39, 41, 42, 43, 46,

64, m, 67. 91, 92, 149, 151, 164, 187, 188,

190, 194, 195, 361, 464, 474, 495, 609, 510,

630,539.
Alga-fungi {see "Phycomycetes").
Alisma, Alismaceae, 379, 381, 536; Alis-

macites, 536.
Alkaloid, 1, 480.
Allium: A, Canadense, 353, Fig. 318;

A. Cepa, 372, Figs. 342, 343, 344;

A, Neapolitanumf 490, Fig. 461;

A . odorum, 358.
Almond. 56.
Alnus, 417.
Aloe, 362, 502.
Alpine flowers, 542.
Alsophila. 280.

Alternation of generations, 31, 195.
Althea. 438.
Amanita: A. phalloides, A. muscaria,

186.
Amarantus, 156, 404, 422, 424 ; A, chioro-

stachya, Fig. 388.
Amaryllis. Amaryllidacea, 379, 380, 31)0,

391. 396, 397.
Amblystegium, 227, 239; A. riparium,

Fig. 189.
Amide, 478, 479.



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INDEX



Ammonia, 3, 39.

AmcBba, 12, 39, Fig. 2; amoeboid moye-
ments, 39.

Amorphophalltu titanum, 389.

Ampelopsis, 409, 438, 488.

Amphigastrium, 216.

Amphithecium, 220, 231. 233.

Anabiena, 80, 81, 82, 83, 285, 287, 328, 496,
510; A. AzolltB, Fig. 57.

Anacardiaceae, 437, 445.

Anacrogynae. 212, 213.

Anaerobic Bacteria, 77, 481.

Ananaa saUva, 393. {See also "Pine-
apple.")

Anaphase, 63.

Anatropous ovnle, 364.

Andressa, 223, 236, 239; A, petrophUa,
Fig. 204.

AndresBales, 236, 239.

AndroBcium, 351.

Andropogon, 546.

Androspore, 105.

Anelatereffi, 213, 214.

Anemone, 412, 422, 425, 517, 518, Fig. 487.

Anemophily, 514, 516.

Anemopsis, 415.

Aneimia, 266, 273, 276, 277, 288; u4. hir-
sutQj Fig. 221.

Aneura, 202, 205, 213, 214, 215, 248; A.
multifida, 202, 214; A, pinguis, Fig.
174; A. pinnati/ida, Fig. 172.

Angiopteris : A. evecta, 262, 263, 270,
271, 632, Fig. 239.

Angiosperms, Angiospermse, 11, 326, 326,
339, 314, 345, 347, 348, 512, 514, 616, 535,
536; classification of A., 369.

Animal cells, 6.

Anisocarpse, 448, 449.

Annulus, 234, 236, 264, 266, 271, 273.

Anomalous secondary growth in thick-
ness, 408.

AnonaceaB, 443.

Anthemis cotula, 364, 457, Figs. 329, 448.

Anther, 351,383.

Antheridium, 105, 119, 120, 131, 140, 141,
142, 143, 151, 197, 203, 220, 228. 242,
248,267,286,290,293; Anthocerotales,
220; ArchegoniatsB, 197; Characero,
119, 120; Equisetum, 267; Filicales,
248; Fucus, 131; Fungi, 161 ; Hepati-
CSB, 203; Marsilia, 290; Musci, 228;
Nemalion, 140; Ophioglossacese, 267;
Polysiphonia, 142 ; SalviniacesB, 286.

Anthoceros, 79, 201, 204, 219, 221, 223, 224,
231, 233, 241, 242, 263, 510; A. fuM-
formis, Figs. 182, 206; ^. Pearsoni,
Figs. 185, 186.

AnthocerotacesB {see " Anthocerotales "),



Anthocerotales, 200, 203, 204, 206, 219,
220, 231, 237, 242, 245, 248, 249, 251;
cell-structure, 220.

Anthurium, 377, 388, 389.

Anthurus: A. borealis, 185, Fig. 151.

Antipodal cells, 355, 356, 370, 400.

Ants, association with plants, 527, 628.

Apetalffi, 413, 422, 514.

Aphanomyces, 154, Fig. 118.

Apical cell, 16, 20, 117, 131, 216, 266, 482.

Apical growth, 16, 117, 118, 131, 136, 138,
207, 216, 227, 255, 261, 283, 296, 308,
332, 360, 406, 482; Acrogyne, 216;
Angiosperms, 360; Charace», 117;
Conifers, 332; Dicotyledons, 406;
Equisetum, 296; Ferns, 256, 261; Fu-
cus, 131 ; Lycopodium, 308; Muse!,
227; Rhodophycete, 136, 138; Salvini-
acese, 283.

Apiocystis, 98, 99; A. Braunii, Fig. 68.

Aplanospore, 93, 104, 111, 115.

Aplectrum hiemale,3G&, Fig. 338.

Apocarpous flowers, 364, 379.

ApocynacesB, 452, 458.

Apocyuum, 451, Fig. 441.

Apogamy, 200, 245.

Aponogeton, Aponogetonaceae, 382, 388.

Apophysis, 233.

Apospory, 200, 246.

Apostasiese, 396, 397.

Apothecium, 191. '

Apple, 367, Fig. 336.

Apposition, 483.

Aquatics, 539.

Aquifoliaceie, 437, 445.

Aquilegia: A. CanaderuiSt 356, 367,407,
427, 525, Figs. 332, 412.

Araceae, 8, 29, 177, 354, 359, 363, 370, 372,
375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 388, 389,
412, 415, 481, 513, 516, 518, 519, 523.

Aralia: A. racemosa, 364, 442, Figs. 329,
437.

Araliaceae, 442, 448.

Araucaria, 332, 336, 338.

Arbutus: A. Menziesii, 448, 449.

Arceuthobium, 421.

Archangiopteris, 271.

Archegoniate, Archegoniat», 67, 194, 323,
326, 35:5, 400, 510.

Archegonium, 31, 195, 196, 203, 220, 229,
242, 251, 2l>7, 286, 291, 294, 325, 329,
340, 358 ; Anthoceros, 220 ; Cycas, 329 ;
Conifers, 340 : Equisetum, 294 ; Ferns,
251 ; Hepaticae, 203 ; Marsiliaceae, 291;
Musci, 229; Ophioglossaceae, 267.

Archesporium, 199, 221, 231, 232, 233, 263,
264,354.

Archichlamydeae {see " Apetala").



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INDEX



55a



Archidium, 233.

Arctostaphylos : A. Manzanitat^92, 493,

502, 649, Figs. 463, 470.
Arcyria, 70.
Arenga, 387.
Arethusa : A, btdbosa, 868, 397, 540,

Figs. 338, 374.
Argemone, 59, 526.
Aril, 342.
Arisffixna: A. triphyllum, 177, 351, 355,

370, 376, 380, 388, 389, Figs. 315, 352,

363.
Arisarum, 116.
Aristolocbia, Aristolochiales, 414, 421;

A, sipho, 421, 519, 523.
Arrow-head (see also " Sagittaria"), 175.
Arrowroot {see also '* Maranta"), 54, 3QS.
Artemisia, 546.
Arthrospore, 74, 81, 82, 83.
Arum, 388.

Asarum : A . Canadense, 421, 423, Fig. 406.
Ascarina, 411.
Asclepiadacese, 452, 458.
Asclepias, 402, 461, 462, 512, 522; A, Cor-

nuti, Figs. 378, 441.
Ascobolus, 18, 167, Fig. 8.
Ascogenous hyphas, 170, 177.
Ascogonium, 166, 191.
Ascomycetes {see al^o ** Sac-fungi"),

146, 162, 162, 163, 187, 191.
Ascophyllum : A. nodosum, 130, 133,

Fig. 104.
Ascospore, 64, 163, 164.
Ascus, 163, 165, 172, 191.
Asexual reproduction {see "Non-sex-
ual '♦).
Ash {see also " Fraxinus"), 540, 545.
Ash-elements, 478.
Asiminn triloba, 349, 364, 428, Figs. 313,

414.
Asparagus, 24, 374, 375, 377, 381, 390.-^*^
Asparagin, 478, 479.
Aspen, 538.

Aspergillaceee, 169, 170.
Aspergillus: A. herbariorum^ 169, 170,

171, Fig. 135.
Aspidium, 280; A. spinulosum, Fig. 248.
Aspleninm: A, nidus, 258; A. filix fee-

mina, 280, Fig. 247.
Assimilation {see ** Photosynthesis *')•
Aster, 546.
Atamasco lily, 391.
Atropine, 480.
Auricularia, 179.
AuriculariacesD, 179.
Aoricularineee, 175.
Autobasidiomycetes, 175, 180.
AutCBcious Rusts, 177.



Autogamy, 525.

Autonomous stimuli, 484.

Auxiliary cells, 142, 144.

Auxospore, 89.

Avena : A . fat ua, 550.

Azalea, 448, 460; -4. canescens, Fig. 438;

A. occidentalis, 5^.

AzoUa, 64, 79, 245, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286,
287, 510; A. Caroliniana, 282; A.Jili-
cuioides, Figs. 46, 249, 251 ; A.pinnata,
282. • /

Bacillariales {see ' * Diatom ") .

Bacillus, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 477, 481 ; B.
amylobacter. Fig. 51; B.pf-odigiostu,
73, 77; B. radicicola, 76, 471 l.B- typhi.
Fig. 51. ^ ^

Bacteria X«ee also ." SchHtpinycetes "), 3,
4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 14, 36,.*^,^40, ^, 44, 51,
60, 68, 71, 72;7<i,'7\7Ji, 76, Y7, 78, 79,
328, 466, 46M^; ^Cm, 476, 477, 480,
481,^487,^668, 510, 630; deification,
78; structure and reprMmhbn, 72-74.

Bacteriacese, 78. ;. •'^i '

Bacterium, 73, 78; B. Pdsteurianum,73^

Balanophoraceae, 361, 413, 416.

Balanops, Balanopsidales, 413, 416. •

Bald-cypress (5ee "Taxodium").

Balsam {see ** Impaiiens").

Balsaminacese, Balsaminese, 437, 446.

Bamboo, 386, 485, 538, 540.

Bambusa, 384.

Banana, 394, 395, 541; B. family {see
"MusaceaB").

Bangiace», Bangiales, 135, 136, 138.

Banyan, 28, 363, 420.

Barberry {see also " Berberis"), 26, 179,

Barbula: B.fallax, 235, Fig. 199.

Bark, 334, 408, 409.

Basellaceee, 443.

Basidiolicbenes, 192.

Basidiomycetes, 151, 162, 174.

Basswood {see "Tilia").

Bast (see also ** Phloem ")i 58.

BatidacesB, 443.

Batrachospermum, 16, 139, 140; B. na-
gtm, Fig. lOi).

Bay-tree (Umbellularia) , 425.

Bazzania, 213, Fig. 172.

Bean, 368, 477.

Beech («ee also "Fagus"), 413, 419, 463,
536.

Beech-drops {see also "Epiphcgus"), 7,
29, 476.

Bees, 348, 420.

Beet, 363.

Beggiatoa, Beggiatoacese, 71, 73, 77, 78;

B. alba, Fig. 53.



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664



INDEX



Begonia, BegoniacesB, 65, 67, 440, 447,

Pigs. 36, 38.
Bellincinia (see "Madotheca").
BelliDciiiioidee,219.
Bennettiten. 347, 636.
Berberidaces, 425, 433, 486.
Berberis, 179, 425, 427, 622; B, vulgaris,

Fig. 413.
Berry, 368. 381.
Betula, 400, 417, 537.
BetalacesB, 417.
BigDonia, BigDoniaceas, 387, 463, 468, 512,

540, Fig. 387.
Bilateral symmetry, 21, 22.
BUbergia vexillaria, 394, Fig. 371.
Biology, 1, 9, 10.
Biophore, 37.
Birch {see "Betula").
Birds, 513, 516, 524.
Bird's-nest-fungu* (see " Gyathns").
Bittersweet {see "Celastrus")*
Bixaces, 446.
Blackberry, 30.

Black-fungi {see '* Pyrenomycetes ") .
Black -knot {Phwrightia morbosa), 172.
Black-mould {see '*Mucor").
Bladder-kelp {see ** NereocysUs").
Bladderweed {see also "Utricularia"),

26, 362.
Blasia, 18, 79, 211, 213, 214, 215, 610;

B. pwHlla, Fig. 9.
Blattiacese, 447.
Blechnum : B. spicant, 273.
Blepharoplast, 47, 48, 197, 204, 243, 260.
Bloodroot {see also '*Sanguinaria"), 23,

59, 505, 626, 540.
Blue-green Algse {see **8chizophyce»").
Blue-gum {see ** Eucalyptus").
Blue-mould (^ee "Penicillium").
Bodo caudatus. Fig. 1.
Boletus, 181.
BombacaceaB, 446.
Borage {see ** Borraginace» ").
BorraginacesB. Borragininete, 458, 485, 525.
Boschia {see "Funicularia").
Botrychium, 241, 251, 256, 262, 263, 265,

266, 267, 268, 270, 304, 327, 328, 476;

B. VirgirUanum, Figs. 229-234.
BotrydiacesB, 116.
Botrydium : B. granulosum, 12, 112, 113,

114, 115, 194, 498, Fig. 84.
Bougainvillea, 412, 518.
Bract, 26, 363, 377, 518.
Bradypus, 101.
Bramble, 642.
Branching, 20, 21, 119. 217, 316, 332, 336,

376 ; Characese, 119 ; Conifers, 332, 336 ;

Liverworts, 217 ; Monocotyledons, 375.



Brassica, 430; B.Juncea, Fig. 417.
Brazil-nut (Bertholletia), 55.
Bread-fruit. 541.
BrodisBa, 24, 351, 375, 390. 391, 549: B.

capUata, Figs. 315, 366; B, laxa. Fig.

366.
Bromeliaces, SH, 381, 392, 393, 468. 603,

604.
Bromine, 38.
Broom (Cytisus), 501.
Brown Algse {see also ** Pheophycen **),

7, 16, 17, 46, 49, 59, 65, 68, 85, 90, 92,

123, 194, 472, 496.
BruniacesB, 444.
BryacesB, 228.

Bryales, 231, 233, 234, 236, 23a
Bryonia, 390.
Bryophyllum, 21.
Bryophyta {see also "liosses"), 200,

241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 251, 253, 263,

267, 306, 531.
BryopsidacesB, 116.

Bryopsis: B.plumosa, 113, 115, Fig. 86.
Buckeye {see also ^'iEsculus"), 437,

503.
Buckthorn (Rhamnns) , 439.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum), 422, 462.
Budding, 9, 63, 119, 241, 276,299; Char-

acese, 119 ; Equisetum, 296 ; Prothallia,

241 ; Yeast, 64.
Buffalo-berry {see ** Shepberdia'*).
Buflfalo-grass {see "Bulbilis'*).
Bulb, 23, 24, 26, 35, 362, 375, 503.
Bulbil, 119.

Bulbilis dactyloideSf 546.
Bulbochnte, 103; B. intermedia, Fig. 73.
Bulrush (Scirpos), 369.
Bumelia, 451.

Bundle-sheath («ee "Endodermis*').
Bur-clover, 550.
Burdock, 457, 514.
Burmanniaces, BurmanninesB, 370, 396,

397.
Bur-marigold (Bidens) , 513.
Bur-reed (see ** Sparganium ">.
BurseraceoB, 445.
Butomus, 382.
Buttercup {see also " Ranunculus **), 22,

642.
Butternut {Juglans cinerea) , 416.
Buttress-roots, 29.
Butyric acid, 480, 481.
Buxacese, Buxinen, 446.
Buxbaumia, 228.

Cactaceie, 440, 447.

Cacti, 6, 24, 370, 424, 427, 440,471,474,
502, 546, 549, PI. IX.



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INDEX



555



CfTsalpinia, 433; C pulcherrima, Fig.

423.
C8Bsalpine8e, 433, 434.
Galadium, 388.
Calamarien, 303, 533.
Calamites, 303, 319, 533.
Calamostachys, 303.
Calamus, 369, 386.
Calcareous alg», 58, 114, 119, 135.
Calcium, 7, 38, 39, 46, 52, 56, 109, 113, 119.
Calcium carbonate, 480.
Calcium oxalate, 56, 479, 480.
Calcium sulphate, 56.
Calcium tartrate, 56.
Callithamnion, 16, 30, 135, 136, 142, 143;

C. corymhosum f Fig. 112; C.dasyoideSf

Fig. 106; Cfloccosum, Figs. 5, 106.
Calochortus, 24, 351. 378, 379, 549; C.

venustus, Figs. 315, 350 ; C. luteus. Fig-

3S0.
Calopogon : C. pulchellua, 396, 397, fig.

374.
Caltha, 400, 425.
Calycauthacese, 443.
Calyeanthu^ floridus, 411, 428, Fig. 414.
Calyceraces, 459.
Calyptra, 204, 236, 253.
Calyx 350 364.

Cambium,'256, 268, 298, 834, 337, 342, 407.
Camellia, 439.
Campanula, 455 ; C. Americana, Fig. 446 ;

C. Carpaiica, Fig. 446.
Campanulaces, 457, 459.
CampanulinesB, 459.
Campanulatfe, 448, 449, 456, 457, 459.
Oampylotropous ovule, 364, 424.
Camptosorus, 20 ; C. rhizcphyllus, Fig. 11.
Camptotrichaces, 84.
Candolleacese, 459.
CanellacesB, 447.
Canna, 54, 55, 377, 380, 395, Fig. 35;

Cjlaccida, 395; C. Indica, Fig. 372.
Cannacee, 395.
Cannabis, 411, 420.
Cantharellus cibarius, 184.
Capillitium, 70, 187.
Capitulum (see also "Head "), 120.
CapparidacesB, 429, 444.
CapparidinesB, 444.
Capsella : C. bursorpastoris, 155, 352,

366, 401, 430, Figs. 316, 317. 332, 377.
Capsule, 367, 381.
Carbohydrates, 3, 7, 478.
Carbon, 2, 7, 38.

Carbon-dioxide, 2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 42, 462, 463.
Carboniferous formations, 303, 331, 346,

531, 532, 537.
Cardamine, 23.



Carex, 368, 385, 386, Fig. 360; C. Asa-

Orayf, Fig. 360.
Caricaces, 440, 447.
Garices, 384, 385.

Garlndovica : C. palmata, 388, Fig. 362.
Camiyorous plants, 7, 478, 507, 506.
Carotin, 50.

Carpel, 27, 32, 325, 349, 360, 363.
Carpinus, 417, 418; C. Caroliniana, Fig.

399.
Carpogonium, 137, 140, 142, 151.
Carrot, 28, 363.

Carya, 416, 417 ; C. microcarpa. Fig. 398.
CaryoceracesB, 446.
CaryophyllacesB, 21, 364, 443.
Caryophyllineae, 443.
Caryophyllum (Clove) , 442.
Caryopsis, 368, 381, 385.
Caryota, 387.
Castilleia, 546, 550.
Castor-bean (see " Ricinus ") .
Casuarina, 400, 414, 501 ; C. equUetifolia,

Figs. 392, 469.
Catalpa, 359, 448, 453, 486, 512, 543.
Catch-fly (see '• Silene ").
Cat-tail («ce"Typha").
Cattleya, 397,541.
C^ulerpa, 14, 114, 115 ; C. plumaris, Figs.

4. 87.
CaulerpacesB, 116.
Caulome {see also '* Stem "), 23.
Ceanothus, 438.
Cecropia, 527.
Cedar {see '* Cedrus," " Juniperus," " Li-

bocedrus").
Cedar-apple, Cedar-rust {see also " Gym-

nosporangium*'), 144, 177, 178.
Cedar of Lebanon {see Cedrus Libani).
Cedrus, 335, 343, 535, 548; C. Libani,

Fig. 298.
Celastrales, CelastracesB, 437, 445.
Celastrinese, 445.
Celastrus, 48, 401, 435, 437, 475, 543; C.

scandens, Fig. 427.
Cell, 4, 10, 34, 44.
Cell-colonies, 14, 15.
Cell-formation, 60.
Cell-plasm {see ** Cytoplasm ").
Cell-plate, 63.
Cell-row, 15.
Cell-sap, 46.

CeU-wall, 4, 12, 44, 45, 50, 461.
Cellulose, 4, 5, 6, 12, 44, 45, 372, 478.
Celtis, 319.

Cenomanian formations, 536.
Ontral body of SchizophycesB, 36, 71.
CJentricie, 90.
Centrosome, 35, 46, 47, 62, 197. 24.?.



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556



INDEX



Centrospermie, 422, 423, 424, 443, 448.

Century-plant {see " Agave ")•

Cephalanthera, 377, 396.

Cephalanthos, 454.

GephalotacesB, 444.

Cephalotaxus : C. Fortunei, 342, 343, 535,

Fig. 308.
Gerastium, 21, 426 ; (7. vulgatum. Fig. 410.
Cereals, 385.

Ceratiom, 85 ; C tripos, S5.
Ceratophyllacese, 425, 443.
Ceratophylliim, 404.
CercUopteris thalictroides, 273, 280.
Cercis, 433, 434 ; C. CanadensU, Fig. 424.
Cereus, 24, Fig. 15; C. giganteus, 440,

546, PI. IX.
Cetrarla, 191; C. Ulandica, 192.
ChiBtoceras : C. horeale, 88, 89, 497, Figs.

62,465.
Chaetocladium, 160.
Chntophora, 42, 49, 102, 220.
ChsBtophoracesB, 107.
Chalaza, Chalazogamy, 401.
Cham»cyparis, 343.
ChamieropB, 386, 387.
ChamsBsiphonacese, 82, 84.
Champia, 136, 138, 140; C. parvula, Fig.

116.
Chantarelle, 184.
Chantransia, 139, 140; C. macrospora,

Fig. 109.
Chaparral, 438, 549.
Chara, 40, 52, 63, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122,

123, 139, 482, 530, Figs. 28, 34, 90-94;

C. coronatQy Fig. 94; C. crinita, 122;

C. fragilis, Fig. 90.
CharaceBB, 47, 63, 66, 92, 93, 94, 96, 116,

117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 530.
Chareae, 122.
Cheirostrobus, 533.
Chemical changes in cell-wall, 51, 52.
Chemical elements, 461.
Chemical stimuli, 487.
Chemosynthesis, 475, 477.
• Chemotaxis, 43, 487.
Chenopodiace8B,443; ChenopodiineflB,443.
Chenopodium, 424, 425; C. album, Fig.

408.
Cherry, 172, 357, 360, 367, 368, 443, 527,

Fig. 334.
Chestnut (Castanea) , 319, 536.
Chimaphila: C macu/a^a, 351, 449, Figs.

315, 438.
Chionanthus Virginica, 451, Fig. 441.
ChlsBnacesB, 446 ; ChlseninesB, 446.
Chlamydobacteriacese, 78.
ChlamydomonadinesB, 96.
Chlamydomonas, 4, 96, 98, Fig. 1.



ChloranthacesB, 415.

Chlorochytrium : C. Lemnm, 93.

Chlorococcum, 14, 100, Fig. 3.

Chlorogoniom, 96.

ChlorophycesB {see also " Green Alg» **),

91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 125, 126, 134, 137, 145.

151, 155, 188, 194.
Chlorophyll, 2, 3, 4, 6, 50, 472, 473, 475.
Chloroplast, 12, 16, 17, 46, 48, 49, 50, 472,

473.
Chlorosphfera, 99, 100.
ChlorosphseracesB, 100.
Cholera-germ {Microspira Comma), 73,

Fig. 51.
Chondromyces : C apicu to{u«, 79, Fig. 54.
Chondrus, 135; C. crispus, 141.
Chorda, 128; C. Jilum, Fig. 99.
Choripetal»,412, 413. 422, 424, 443, 448.
Chromatophore {see also '* Chloroplast,"

" Chromoplast ") , 4, 12, 13, 36, 36, 41.

45, 46, 48, 87, 92, 102, 108, 110, 113,

120, 125, 135, 220.
Chromatin, 48, 61.

Chromatium Weissii, 60, 77, Figs. 42, 53.
Chromoplast, 36, 48, 49, 50.
Chromo.some, 61, 62, 199.
Chromulina ovalis, 68, Fig. 48.
ChroococcacesB, 82, 83, 84.
Chroococcus, 80, 81 ; C. turgidus. Fig. 65.
Chrysopogon, 546.
Chytridium, ChytridiacesB, 152, 153; V.

oUa, Fig. 117.
Cibotium : C. Menziesii, 279, Fig. 246.
Cichoracee, 457.
Cilia, 4, 5, 8, 13, 37, 40, 74, 510.
Circnmnutation, 484.
Cirsium : C, arvpnsp, 456, 457, Fig. 447.
Ci88us,488.

Cistus, Cistaceffi, 4;)9, 446.
Citrus, 358. 4;J6.

Cladonia pyxidata, 191, Fig. 156.
Cladophora, 12, 40, 47, 51, 60, 101, 102,

Figs. 27, 42, 101.
Cladophoracese, 107.
Cladosporium, 172.
Cladothrix, 77, 78.
Clarkia, 442.

Classification, 11, 32, 66, 67.
Clathrus, 186.

Clavaria, 181, 184; C. eri%tatn. Fig. 149.
Claviceps, 172; C, purpurea. 173, 511.
Claytonia, 23, 424, 426, 545 ; C. Virginioa,

Fig. 410.
Cleistocarpn, 239.
Cleistogamous flowers, 526.
Clematis, 26, 404, 422, 504, 545; C viti-

cella, Fig. 382.
Clethra, 448, 449.



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INDEX



557



Glethraoete, 460, 457.

Climate, factor in distribation, 537, 538,

539.
Climbing plants, 24, 504.
Clintonia, 390.

Closterium, 108, 109 ; C. lunula^ Fig. 79.
Clostridium Pcuteurianunit 76, 477.
Clover (see also " Trifolium "), 409, 477,

492.
Club-moss (see also " Lycopodium,"

*' Lycopodiales ") , 32, 242, 303, 304, 544.
Cneorace», 445.
CobsBa, 485, 488, 527.
Coccaces, 78.
Coccogone», 84.

Cocconeis, 87, 89; C. placenttUa, Pig. 64.
Coccospheres, 86.

Cochlospermine», Cochlospermaceie, 447.
Cocoanut, 359, 368, 375, 381, 512, 541.
Cocos nuci/era^ 387.
Codiaces, 116.
Codium, 113, 114, 115; C. tomentosum,

Fig. 85.
Coenocyte, 12, 14, 60, 112.
Cold, protection against, 506.
Coleochffitacese. 107.
Coleochaete, 49, 51, 93, 102, 106, 107, 137,

138, 196, 220; C. pidvinata, Fig. 78;

C. sctUata, Fig. 77.
Collateral vascular bundles, 266.
Collema, 187, 189.
Collemaceae, 191.
CoUenchyma, 57, 271.
Columbine (»ee " Aquilegia")-
Columella, 220, 231, 233, 239.
ColumelliacesB, 458.

Column (see also " Gynostemium ")|364.
Comandra umhellatay 421.
CommelinacesB, 392.
Companion cells, 407.
CompositSB, 53, 349, 357, 365, 368, 400, 412,

449, 457, 458, 459, 512.
Coroptonia (see *' Myrica'*).
Conceptacle (of Fucus), 131.
Concentric vascular bundles, 266.
Conducting tissues, 59.
Conditions for plant life, 6.
Conferva, 15, 102, 104.
ConfervacesB, Confervoidese, 94, 100, 101,

102, 103, 104, 107, 116, 137, 138, 188,

194, 220, 496.
Conidium, 82, 166, 157, 167, 169, 171, 172,

181, 190.
Conifer, Coniferse, 256, 325, 326, 328, 330,

331, 343, 368, 405, 407, 408, 475, 506, 533,

534,536.
Coniin, 1.
ConjugatflB, 94, 96, 108, 111, 168.



Conjugation, 64, 111.
Connaracese, 444.
Connate leaves, 26.
Conocepbalus, 207, 211.
Contact stimuli, 488.
ContortsB, 449, 451, 452, 468.
Contractile vacuoles, 4, 12.
Convolvulaces, Convolvulineso, 458.
Convolvulus, 401, 452.
Coprinus, 181, 182, 184, Fig. 147; C. logo-
pus, Fig. 147.
Copper, 39.
Cora, 191.
Coral, 5, 9, 52.
Coral-honeysuckle (Lonicera semper-

t?irerw),636.
Corallina, 139, 144, 146; C. Mediterranean

Fig. 115.
CorallinesB, Coralline Algse, 52, 135, 136,

144, 147, 630.
Corallorhiza, 23, 28, 377, 378, 396, 398;

C. mnltiflora. Fig. 376.
CordaitesD, 346, 347, 634.
Cordyceps, 172 ; C. militarU, 172.
Cordyline, 390.
Corel la, 191.
Coreopsis, 546.

CoriariacesB, CoriariinesB, 445.
Cork, 52, 68, 268, 409, 461.
Cork-cambium (see also "Phellogen")t

334,408.
Cork-oak (Quercus suber), 63, 409.
Conn, 23, 24, 362, 375.
CornacesD, 442, 443, 448.
Corn-smut ( UstUago Maydis) , 174, 175.
Cornus, 27, 363, 442; C.florida, Figs. 19,

437 ; C. stolonifer. Fig. 437.
Corolla, 361, 364.
Corsinia, 209.
CorsiniacesB, 207, 209.
Cortex, 117, 118, 256, 266.
Corypha Taliera, 387.
( 'orylus, 417.
Coscinodiscus, 88, 89; C. concinnus^ Fig.

63.
Cosmarium, 109, Fig. 80.
Cotton, 359, 612.
Cottonwood (Popnlus) , 640.
Cotyledon, 252, 253, 271. 287, 330, 342,

345, 346, 360, 372, 385, 401, 402, 403.
Crabapple, 149.
Cranberry, 180, 450, 639.
Crassulaceae, 424, 431, 444, 474.
Creeping stems, 24.
Crenothrix, 78.

Cretaceous formations, 631, 535, 536, 637.
Crinum, 379.
Crocus, 24, 486, 540.



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658



INDEX



CrossosomataceQ, 444.
Cro88-pollination, 365.
Crowberry (Empetrum) , 530.
Cruciferffi, 155, 354, 429, 444.
CruBtaceani, 7, 27.
Grostaceoos lichens, 189.
Cryptoglena, 83.
Cryptomeria, 324, 343, 535 ; C. Japonica,

Fig. 287.
Cryptomonas, 83.
Cryptonemiales, 140, 144.
Cryptostomata, 130, 131.
Crystals, 35, 38, 46, 55, 56, 461, 479.
Cucumber (see also ** Cucumis ")» 362.
Cocumis, 403; C. sativus, 455, Fig. 446.
Cucurbita ; C. Pepo, 402, 470, Fig. 379.
CacurbitaceaB, 457, 459.
Cucurbitiue», 459.
Canninghamia, 332.
Cunoniaceffi, 444.
Cup-fungos {see also " Ascobolos,"

"Peziza"), 64, 167, 168, 191.
Cupressus, 338, 343, 344 ; C. rhacrocarpa,

Fig. 310. PI. XV.
Cupule, 318, 319.
Curl of Peach leaves («ee also ^'Exoas-

cu8"),166.
CurraDt, 360.
Cuscuta, 29, 453, 488, 506; C. Gronovii,

Fig. 474.
Cuticle, 53, 58.
Cutleria, 65, 125, 129; C. mtUtyida, Figs.

47, 100.
CntleriaceaB, 129, 134.
CyanophycesB {see also ** Schizophyce» ") ,

72, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 135.
Cyathea, 273, 280.

Cyatheacese, 264, 273, 276, 279, 280, 532.
Cycad, Cycadales, 8, 271, 319, 323, 326,

332, 334, 346, 347, 510, 512, 634, 535,

537.
Cycado-filices, 319, 326, 346, 534.
Cycadospadiz, 346.
Cycadoxylon, 346.
Cycas, 79, 325, 326, 327, 330, 341, 342;

C. circinaliSt Figs. 290-292 ; C. revo-

luta, Figs. 289-292.
Cyclamen, 451.
Cyclanthaceae, 388.
Cyclosporeae, 126, 130, 134.
Cylindrocapsacese, 107.
Cylindrocystis, 110.
Cylindrospermum, 81, 82, 83; C. catena^

turn. Fig. 57.
Cymbella lanceolatay 86, Fig. 60.
Cymose inflorescence, 366, 367.
Cynara. 457.
Cynocrambacen, 443.



Cynomoriinen, Cynomoriaoese, 448.

C3nperus : C. papyrus^ 385.

Cypress {see ** Cupressus ").

Cypripedllins, 397.

Cypripedium, 377, 306, 397, 523 ; C. pube^

cens. Fig. 374; C. spectabile, 397.
Cyrillace», 445.
Cystidinm, 183.
Cystobacter, 79.
Cystocarp, 137, 142, 143.
Cystophyllum, 130, 133.
Cystopus (see ** Albugo").
Cytinus hypocistis, 422, Fig. 405.
Cytisus, 520, 522, Fig. 489.
Cytoplasm, 4, 5, 12, 35.

Dactylis, 383, 384; D. glomerata. Figs.

367,368.
Dahlia, 410.
Daisy, 365.



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