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The great solemnity of the coronation of a king and queen according to the use of the Church of England ; online

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THE GREAT SOLEMNITY
OF THE CORONATION
OF A KING AND QUEEN

ACCORDING TO THE USE OF
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND



WITH NOTES AND EXCURSUSES, LITURGICAL
HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE,

BY

DOUGLAS MACLEANE, M.A.

CANON OF SALISBURY, PROCTOR IN CONVOCATION, RECTOR OF CODFORD

ST. PETER, SOMETIME FELLOW OF PEMBROKE COLLEGE, OXFORD

AUTHOR OF "LANCELOT ANDREWES AND THE REACTION," "oUR ISLAND CHURCH,'

"reason, thought and language," ETC.



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
THE LORD BISHOP OF SALISBURY

> 1 > J 1 J

LONDON :
GEORGE ALLEN & COMPANY, LTD.

44 & 45 RATHBONE PLACE
191 1

[All rights reserved]



1 ' ( ' ~ ' t I , • *



«. »






Printed by Ballantvne, Hanson A' Co.
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh






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^%



PREFACE

Some four-fifths of the original edition of this
.'^ book, published in 1902 by Mr. F. E. Robinson,
having been destroyed, shortly after publication,
by a fire at the printers', it has been suggested
to me to reissue it in a cheaper form.

The somewhat fully annotated Order of Ser-

^ vice now reproduced is the new one for King

^ George V. and Oueen Mary, which has been

put forth while these sheets were passing through

the press. The Excursuses have been somewhat

altered, and the whole book has been revised.

It aims at popularising the results of the
labours of scholars, by whom so much has been
done of recent years for the elucidation of the
august Coronation Rite. D. M.

Easter, 191 i.



^

^






CONTENTS

PAGE

Preface v

Introduction by the Bishop of Salisbury . ix

Sacring I

The Processional Entrance . . . .12
Form and Order of the Service . . -19
Notes on the Coronation Service ... 56

Excursuses —

A. Coronation of the Queen Consort . 201

B. Additional Notes on the Solemnity

OF 1902 ...... 210

C. Two Nineteenth Century Coron.\tions 227

D. The Procession from Westminster

Hall 233

E. The Banquet and Feudal Services . 258

F. The Progress from the Tower . .278

G. The Knights of the Bath and the

King's Vigil 288

H. The Abbey and St. Edward's Shrine . 294

I. The Consecrating Prelate . . . 304
K. "Hallowing to King" and "to

Bishop" 310



vlii CONTENTS

Appendices —

I PAGE

I. The Plantagenet Oath . . . -313

II. Coronation of the King of Hungary . 314

III. Form and Manner of the Coronation

OF King Charles 1 316

INDEX 341



INTRODUCTION

It is natural that a Bishop of Salisbury should
welcome to the foundation of St. Osmund those
clergy who have shown special interest in the
ordinances and liturgical offices of the Church
of England. It has therefore been a particular
pleasure to myself to admit to it, among its
recently created prebendaries or canons, two such
excellent liturgists as our new Sub-dean, Chris-
topher Wordsworth, and our clerical proctor in
Convocation, Canon Douglas Macleane. Both of
them have thrown light on the great solemnity
of the Coronation, to which we are all looking
forward this year, the Sub-dean in the two
learned works which he has edited for the Henry
Bradshaw Society, and Canon Macleane in the
first edition of this book, which is now issued,
on the basis of the service appointed for the
Coronation of their present Majesties, with the
amendments and corrections which make it suit-
able for the occasion.

I shall not be surprised if it should prove one
of the most popular books of the year, and one



tx



INTRODUCTION

which its possessors will most care to preserve
of all the memorials of this solemn rite.

Mr. Macleane's literary skill is well known
to his friends, and it extends to several rather
separate fields. He is a logician, as well as a
historian and a theologian. But he is above all
a Churchman ; and many will feel thankful, as
I do, that the task of illustrating this splendid
national act of religion has fallen into such
sympathetic hands. In days when the present
satisfaction of material wants and desires is an
absorbing occupation to so many, it is a happy
thing for the country to be reminded of the high
ideal of kingly office which has come down to
us from the past, and to have it set forth by
means of the wholesome and expressive symbolism
of the successive acts of the Coronation drama.
It is a striking spectacle and (I will not say
" but ") a deeply religious one. Books like this,
which turn men's minds to the inner meaning
of what is done, may serve a double purpose.
They may be expected to make that action more
fruitful of blessing to all who take part in it,
and to the country at large. They may also
open men's eyes to the value of a sober, dignified
and solemn ritual, especially on the great festivals
of the Church, and on the great occasions of
individual life, and to the possibility of teaching
even our simplest folk to enter into the spirit



INTRODUCTION

of common acts of worship. I think it is not
too much, for instance, to hope that those Non-
conformists who approve of the solemn promises
made by the King at his coronation, and of the
solemn benediction given to him by the Church
at that great moment of his life — as I believe
most of them do — will also see that the Church
cannot be wrong in treating the individual
Christian at his confirmation in a somewhat
similar manner. The Church is so far in
sympathy with democracy that it wishes all her
sons and daughters to have relatively as high an
ideal with regard to their own lives and callings
as our gracious Sovereign, thank God, is privi-
leged to have for his.

JOHN SARUM.

■^rd April 191 1.



" O wise Helena, thou hast set the Cross upon the
head of Princes that it may be adored in the homage
paid to them." _^^^ Ambrose.

" The pageant of earthly royalty has the semblance
and the benediction of the Eternal King."

— Newman.



THE GREAT SOLEMNITY
OF THE CORONATION

SACKING

"Thou silly fellow, thou dost not know thy own
silly business ! " said an eighteenth-century peer
to Anstis, the king-of-arms ; and Horace Wal-
pole, who records the words, remarks how useless
it is to know anything about "barbarous ages,
when there was no taste." Nevertheless, the
Coronation rite impressed the flippant Horace
himself as " awful." It is crowded also with
interest to the historical student.

" The Westminster Coronations," Stanley says,
"contain, on the one hand, in the Recognition,
the Enthronization, and the Oath the utterances
of the ' fierce democracy ' of the people of Eng-
land ; they contain, on the other hand, in the
Unction, the fatal Stone, the sanction of the pre-
lates, and the homage of the nobles the primitive
regard for sacred places, sacred relics, consecrated
persons, and heaven-descended right, lingering on
through changes in the most opposite direction "
(^Westminster Abbey, p. iio).



2 SOLEMNITY OF THE CORONATION

Since George III. died the subject has been
scientifically studied. Arthur Taylorls-, erudite
Glory of Regality was published in; i82i>— one
of the firstfruits of the romanticist movement.
The writings of Silver and of Palmer drew fur-
ther attention to the Coronation. The first
edition of Maskell's great work, the Monumenta
Ritualia Ecclesi^e Anglicans, is dated 1846. Since
then the early pontificals have been printed,
and the Henry Bradshaw Society has issued the
truly scholarly volumes of Prebendary Words-
worth, the Rev. E. S. Dewick and Dr. J. Wick-
ham Legg. Planche's Regal Records and Mr.
Cyril Davenport's English Regalia deal with non-
liturgical aspects of the subject ; and Mr, WilliarnS
Jones's Crowns and Coronations is a mine of popu-
lar information, not always accurate in detail, of
every possible kind. It is not necessary to men-
tion the picturesque chapter, disfigured, however,
by some blunders, in Stanley's " Memorials " of
the Abbey^. In a different class comes Mr. Leo-
pold" Wickham Legg's.jmonu mental Coronation
Records^ published in 1901I Invaluable, of course,
are the works on this subject of the Stuart anti-
quaries, such as Selden, Sandford and Walker.

" It is meritorious," says Carlyle, " to insist
on forms. Religion and all else naturally clothes
itself in forms. . . . Forms which grow round a
substance will be true and good ; forms which



SACKING 3

are consciously put round a substance bad. I
invite you to reflect on this. It distinguishes
true as from false in Ceremonial Form, earnest
Solemnity from empty pageant." And he makes
Teufelsdrockh say : *' The only title wherein I
trace eternity is that of King." Only Carlyle
looks^^^di£_jn^a_n rajtJier..th^ajijo office. All
/)^ig> sovereignty is really one. Majesty is not, as
Milton declares, "a gaudy name," for it is the
reflexion of the "throne and equipage of God's
almightiness." Thus there is an eternal value in
ceremonies, which are neither " chaff" nor "over-
dated." Cromwell and Buonaparte knew their
importance. And a time of revived historic
imagination, like our own, prizes the symbols
of more than millennial transmission of majestic
sovereignty. Such sceptred continuity, resting
on no mere casual mandate of the polls and
implying no triumph of a faction, seems, when
contrasted with the transitory passing of Presi-
dents and Premiers and the see-saw tyranny of
party government, a temporal adumbration of
God's unchanging dominion. Whatever altera-
tion has come about in the practical basis of
politics, the Throne is felt to guard the mystical
foundation of human society, the truth of a
Divine authority outside of, and above, the
(Vicissitude, mutation and caprice of mere opinion.
The English constitution especially needs this



1



4 SOLEMNITY OF THE CORONATION

witness. " Of all democracies," says Professor
Bryce, " ours is that which has been content to
surround itself with the fewest checks and safe-
guards. The venerable Throne remains, and
serves to conceal the greatness of the transforma-
tion that the years have worked."

"Our English Coronation Service," wrote
Bishop Westcott just before his death, " is a
jioble commentary on the idea of_gpvernment.
It can be traced back for eleven centuries^ Itls
a grave loss that it is not printed as an Appendix
to the Prayer-Book." It is a standing protest
against unworthy conceptions of Church and
State. And it seems providential that the
Church of England, so peculiarly in danger,
since the sixteenth century, from Caesarism on
the one hand and parliamentism on the other,
should alone in the West have conserved a Rite
which teaches so loftily the idealism of national
life. It stands between us and a State-established
undenominationalism.

The supernatural in politics is that which the
Benthamite utilitarianism took away from Western
Christendom, and which we are slowly recovering.
It is no longer true that " Englishmen regard the
Throne as an instrument of political convenience,
based on the Act of Settlement," or that the
Crown is to them merely " a metaphor kept in
the Tower." However hedged by constitutional



V



SACKING 5

limitations a modern Sovereign may be, he is not
the removable chairman of a joint-stock company,
a mere Clerk of the Council, a gilded figurehead,
or a State policeman. His life's work is still, in
Aristotle's phrase, to " make men better," or, in
that of St. Ambrose, the "gain of souls."

*'0 loved lord," said Dunstan, addressing one
of the earliest Kings of England at his Corona-
tion, "hear especially and carefully for thyself,
and think of this often, that thou shalt, at God's
judgment, lead forth and lead up to the Shepherd
those over whom thou art made shepherd in this
life, and how thou keep this generation whom
Christ Himself has bought with His Blood."

Had he not placed his whole empire, his people,
his army, his house, and himself beneath the
Cross, how, asked the Emperor William II. not
long ago, could he go on ? " Kingship by the
grace of God, with its onerous duties, its endless
toils and tasks, its tremendous responsibility before
God alone, from which no mortal, no parliament,
no minister can give release" — how else was it.-^-^/V
supportable ? " Tribulation and royalty and
patience " is St. John's striking collocation. The \

ideal of the old heroic kingship, hedged by divinity,
was of one who gave himself for his people, who
toiled that they might rest, waked that they
might sleep, suffered that they might be guarded,
nourished, taught and lifted up. Times have



c



6 SOLEMNITY OF THE CORONATION

greatly changed. A king of Castile leading his
chivalry to battle against pagan wrong is a picture
of the past. But the sacredness of a vast and solemn
trusty under different forms, remains the same as
in the days of an Oswald or Edmund or Alfred
or St. Louis. All structural growth is towards
a head, and it is the felt need of monarchy which
makes it to be, throughout the saner parts of
Christendom, the growing power, as Mr. Balfour
has observed, of our complex times. It is im-
portant, then, that it should lose nothing of the
impress of religion and the hallowing of Heaven,
In the Coronation Solemnity the King is not seen
receiving his regality from the Church in the sense
of the Hildebrandine theory, but yet as conse-
crated by her anointing ministry, and not taking
up his sword, his sceptre or his crown till they
have been laid upon the altar of God.

In the abeyance of the French monarchy, the
English Coronation Service survives almost by
itself. It is in all essentials and much of its
language the form which we find in the Ponti-
fical of Egbert, who became Bishop of York
in 732, and which was doubtless used for the
Coronation of his brother Eadbert in 737. There
is no reason to suppose that Egbert composed this
service, which had probably been used for the hal-
lowing of earlier Northumbrian monarchs. It is



SACKING 7

headed " The Mass for Kings on the Day of their
Benediction," and merely gives the additions for
that day to the ordinary Eucharistic service. It
contains no popular " recognition " and no oath ;
only a declaration at the end of the principles on
which the King means to govern. It is essentially
benedictory, and centres round the unction. The
earlier view of a royal sacring was " anointing to
King " rather than investiture and coronation.

A later Anglo-Saxon Order, which has come
down to us in full, dates from the union of the
Seven Kingdoms in one, and is called by Ethelred's
name. " Benedictio " has now become " conse-
cratio," as though the King's office were com-
mitted to him by the Rite itself. Before it he is
" rex futurus," but after being anointed he is
" rex," or " rex ordinatus." The King now pro-
mises to observe the precepts of rule traditionally
laid down. This service is marked by lofty theo-
cratic language, and grace is asked for the King to
" nourish and teach, to defend and instruct, the
Church of the English." ^ Borrowed from Eng-
land through Alcuin, the French rite followed
this prayer verbally, and continued to speak of
the sway of Saxons, Mercians and Northumbrians.
The Mass now followed the Coronation.

A third Order, Norman or early Plantagenet,

1 So in the " Laws of the Confessor" it is said that " the Vicar of
the most High King is set for this that he may rule and defend the
kingdom and people of the land, and, above all, Holy Church,"



8 SOLEMNITY OF THE CORONATION

is marked by the first appearance of the sacred
chrism as distinguished from the oil.

A fourth, that of the famous Liber Regain
preserved at Westminster, though in some res-
pects returning to an earlier model, brought the
service to an elaborate perfection, which set the
standard for France as well as England, and has
remained the basis of all subsequent Coronations.

Strange though it may seem, the English Refor-
mation, when indeed the tendency was to magnify
kings, and the Revolution left little mark on
the service. The Tudors were all crowned with
the Latin Mass and the ancient rites. Some of
these may have been omitted for Edward VI.,
in order, it was said, to shorten the service, and
for Elizabeth ; but if so, they were revived by
the Stuart Sovereigns. Archbishop Whitgift, in
1603, "faithfully observed the forme sett doune
in the auncient Booke kept at Westminster," and
Charles I.'s was an even more careful and con-
servative Coronation. " My Lords," said Laud
at his trial, " I had liturgies all I could get, both
ancient and modern." From the seventeenth
century, however, dates the use of the English
tongue and of the reformed Order of Holy
Communion, as well as the disuse of the double
anointing with oil and chrism. Charles II. 's
Coronation, Clarendon says, was performed "with
the greatest solemnity and glory that ever any



SACKING 9

had been." That learned liturgiologist, the late
Marquess of Bute, in his Scottish Coronations,
1902, though greatly prejudiced against Anglican
Sacrings, observes that " the variations in the
pre-Reformation times w^ere greater than those
which separate the form used for Queen Victoria
from that embodied in the Liber Regalis!'

Whatever lowering there may have been of the
tone and ceremoniousness of the Rite has to be
ascribed to a Roman Catholic Sovereign, James II.,
and to his dislike of such high pretensions in the
Church from which he had perforce to receive
consecration. At the Coronation of four years
later parties were too delicately balanced to allow
William, even if he wished it, to mutilate the
service any more. It was not till William IV.
that further serious changes were made. The
Reform agitation was then at its height ; the
Whig Government were afraid of their demo-
cratic supporters, by whom the Rite was freely
denounced as puerile and superstitious mummery.^
Earl Grey wished the King to tell the Council
that the mystic ceremonies were altogether at
variance with the genius of modern times ; but,
under pressure from Wellington,^ Brougham and

^ See Memoirs of the Courts and Cabinets of William IV. and
Victoria^ by the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, i. 332. In 1838
also the barbarous and antiquated nature of the Rite was urged in
official quarters as a reason for parsimony; ibid., ii. 336.

" One example of this is the alteration from 1685 of the phrase
" administer the Body " into " administer the Bread."



lo SOLEMNITY OF THE CORONATION

Archbishop Howley, the King announced that he
would be crowned to satisfy tender consciences,
desiring, however, that his Coronation might be
short, and everything dispensed with except the
service in the church. He especially wished the
Homage not to take place. The cost was fixed
at a sixth of that of the preceding Coronation.
The Rite suffered a number of disfigurements, but
the greatest loss was that of the solemn liturgical
Procession of the Estates from Westminster Hall
to the choir of the church, with which omission
economy can have had little to do. To wrap up the
insignia of monarchy in brown holland and green
baize seemed, throughout the earlier nineteenth
century, a statesmanlike wisdom, against which
the Gothic and romanticist movement of the time
only slowly made head. The opposing Cobdenite
and mediaeval enthusiasms are both rather out of
fashion now; but few will desire that the unim-
pressive precedents of the thirties — a time when
Churchmanship had reached its nadir of decay
and civil pageantry its lowest point of slovenli-
ness — should be stereotyped as the exemplar and
model for future Coronations.

The Coronation of 1902 was carefully drawn up
in a conservative and reverent, though somewhat
timid, spirit, but the service suffered some fur-
ther impairments, such as the loss of the First
Oblation, of the Proper Preface, the Princely



SACKING II

Largess, and the uncurtailed Homage, against
which must be set the restoration of the anoint-
ing on the King's breast and a number of minor
improvements. The main losses of the Rite,
however, were not repaired. The 191 1 Order
follows the same lines, except for the restoration
of an ancient prayer, Coronet te Deus, the re-
insertion of the Proper Preface, in an enfeebled
form, the restoration of the duty of consecrating
the Consort to the Primate of All England, and
certain lesser changes. The tense is altered
throughout — e.g. "shall begin" for "beginneth."
A point of much delicacy and difficulty arises
in the present day owing to the continued follow-
ing of the precedent set in 1689, whereby the
consecration of the King, instead of preceding the
celebration of Holy Communion, is part of it.
This, a great gain in some respects, has the grave
drawback of the enforced presence of large num-
bers of invited non-Christians at the performance
of " these holy Mysteries." Nor can it be said
that due proportion is observed between the im-
pressiveness of their celebration and the Solemnity
which, rightly understood, is a subordinate incident
therein.^

1 One newspaper account of the last Coronation recorded that, after
the resumption of the Eucharistic Offering, " the rest of the proceedings
were of comparatively little interest."



THE FORM AND ORDER OF
A CORONATION

ROYAL CORONATION

OF THEIR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTIES

KING EDWARD THE SEVENTH AND

QUEEN ALEXANDRA

THE PROCEEDING

From the West Door of the Abbey into the Choir.

(I) STATE PROCESSION:

Chaplains in Ordinary (twelve).

Sub-Dean of the Chapels Royal.

Rev. Canon Hervey. Dean of Windsor.

The Prebendaries of Westminster (five).

Dean of Westminster.

Athlone Pursuivant. Fitzalan Pursuivant. Unicorn Pursuivant.

March Pursuivant. Carrick Pursuivant.

Officer of Arms of Registrar to the Gentleman Usher of

St. Michael and Order of St. the Scarlet Rod.

St. George. Michael and St.

George.

Gentleman Usher of the Green Secretary to the Order of the
Rod. Star of India.

Secretary to the Order Prelate of the Order Secretary to the Order
of St. Patrick. of St. Michael and of the Thistle.

St. George.



PROCESSIONAL ENTRANCE 13

Rothesay Herald. Albany Herald.

Comptroller of the Household. Treasurer of the Household.

The Standard of Ireland, The Standard of Scotland,

borne by borne by

The Right Hon. O'Conor Don. Henry Scrymgeour

Wedderburn, Esq.,
Hereditary Standard Bearer of
Scotland.

The Standard of England, borne by
Frank S. Dymoke, Esq. (King's Champion).

The Union Standard, borne by

The Duke of Wellington ;
his Coronet carried by his Page.

The Vice-Chamberlain of the Household.

The Keeper of the Crown Jewels, General Sir Hugh Gough, bearing
on a cushion the two Ruby Rings and the Sword for the OfTering.

The Four Knights of the Order of the Garter appointed to hold the
Canopy for the King's Anointing : —

The Earl Cadogan, The Earl of Rosebery,

The Earl of Derby, Earl Spencer,

their Coronets carried by their Pages.

The Acting Lord Chamberlain The Lord Steward of the

of the Household, Household,

their Coronets carried by their Pages.

The Lord Privy Seal The Lord President of the

(The Right Hon. A. J. Council,

Balfour), his Coronet carried by

attended by his Page,
a Gentleman.

The Lord Chancellor of Ireland,
attended by his Purse-bearer ; his Coronet carried by his Page.

The Lord Archbishop of York,
attended by a Gentleman of his Household.

The Lord High Chancellor,

The Earl of Halsbury,

attended by his Purse-bearer ; his Coronet carried by his Page.

The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury,
attended by two Gentlemen of his Household,



14 SOLEMNITY OF THE CORONATION



(II) THE QUEEN'S PROCESSION':
Portcullis Pursuivant, Windsor Herald. Rouge Dragon Pursuivant.



The Ivory Rod

with the

Dove, borne by the

Earl of Gosford :



The Queen's Regalia.

The Lord Chamber-
lain of Her
Majesty's House-
hold, Viscount
Colville (of
Culross) ;



The Sceptre with

the Cross, borne by

Lord Harris ;



their Coronets carried by their Pages.



Sergeant-at-Arms.



Sergeant-at-Arms.



C rt
o c
en 5



Her Majesty's Crown,

borne by the Duke

of Roxburghe ; his

Coronet carried by

his Page.



THE QUEEN
in her Royal Robes,

Pier Majesty's

Train borne by the

Duchess of

Buccleuch,

Mistress of the Robes,


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

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