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Jacobite blood in the process, than it was to suppress
the seditious sayings and doings of the common
people. The streets, lanes, and public markets of the
City were still infested with people singing ballads, or
crying for sale pamphlets and broadsides hostile to the
Government, and, as the Lord Mayor's proclamation,
threatening heavy penalties against the oflenders, says,



MORE BLOODSHED. 249

' corrupting the minds and alienating the affections of
his subjects, causing animosities and stirring up sedi-
tions and riots.' In these riots, blood was shed,
especially when the soldiery appeared on the scene,
and the Jacobite mob saluted them with the exasper-
ating cry of ' George's Bull Dogs ! ' Private quarrels
on the great political question came to as bloody con-
clusions. Major Cathcart and Colonel Gordon fought
a fierce fight with swords in Kensington Gardens,
from which neither came out alive. It took the major
six deadly thrusts at his adversary, before he could
deliver the fatal one, but at that moment Gordon ran
the major through, and slew him on the spot.

After the demonstration of the 10th of June was
over — ^in which, it must be confessed, the Jacobites had
the worst of it — the ' Flying Post ' thought it would
not be amiss to ' caution the Jacobites of both sexes,
not to appear any more in public with badges of se-
dition and rebellion, lest they meet with severer treat-
ment than hitherto.' The ' He- Jacobites ' that were
'drubbed till they eat their rue . . . are advised
to take care lest the next dose ba Hemp or Birch ;
and the She-Jacobites ought to be wise, lest they meet
with the same fate as some of their sisters near Charing
Cross, who, for insulting gentlemen that wore orange
ribbons, on May 28th, were committed to the care
and management of some of the worshipful Japanners
of Shoes, who painted them, they best know where,
with the proper mark of the Beast.'

Addison, in the ' Freeholder,' satirised them without



250 JACOBITE LADIES.

mercy. He ascribed to the Jacobite ladies a want of
grace, resulting from their country life ; whereas the
Whig ladies, daily in attendance at Court, possessed a
courtly air to which the Jacobite ladies could never
attain ! The latter were as raw militia-men compared
with the accomplished soldier in all his glory. Addison
accuses the Jacobite ladies of having a tone of vulgarity
and mendacity in the expression of their disloyal preju-
dices. Before the ' beautiful part of creation ' became
antagonistic in politics, they were perfect as mistresses
of households, or as maidens worthy of becoming such.
But in the present disturbed times, he describes vdves
and maidens as mere ' stateswomen.' ' Several women
of this turn are so earnest in contending for hereditary
right, that they wholly neglect the education of their
own sons and heirs ; and are so taken up with their zeal
for the Church that they cannot find time to teach their
children the Catechism.' A ' pretty bosom heaving with
party rage ' is moved by wrong impulses. ' We some*
times,' writes Addison, ' see a pair of stays ready to
burst with sedition ; and hear the most masculine pas-
sions expressed in the sweetest voices. I have lately
been told of a country gentlewoman, pretty much famed
for this virility of behaviour in party disputes, who, upon
venting her notions very freely in a strange place, was
carried before an honest Justice of the peace. This
prudent magistrate, observing her to be a large black
woman, and finding by her discourse that she was no
better than a rebel in her riding-hood, began to suspect
her for my Lord Mthsdale, till a stranger came to her



LADIES' ANTI-JACOBITE ASSOCIATIONS. 261

rescue, who assured him, with tears iu his eyes, that he
was her husband !'

Addison further told the ladies that they must by
nature be Whigs, as were a Jacobite Popish Government
to be established, it would be the vocation of women
to be nuns, while all the beaux, officers, and pretty
fellows generally, would be priests or monks, and then
celibacy would be almost universal. The great Essayist
approves of various Ladies' Associations for the sup-
pression of Jacobitism. At one, there was an open tea-
table, accessible only to Whig gentlemen. At a second,
there was a Basset table, where none but the loyal were
admitted to punt. Young ladies are praised who recog-
nise the doctrine of passive obedience only in lovers to
their mistresses. One Whig nymph hit upon a way of
wearing her commode so seductively, that Tory lovers
were converted at her feet, and Tory damsels imitated
the fashion. Another nymph went abroad in a pearl
necklace which, according to the Essayist, manifested
her abhorrence of the Popish fashion of beads. Maids,
wives, and widows, are reviewed at this crisis, and such
counsel is given them as a writer at the beginning of
the last century could give without any imputation of
audacity.

A publisher, with a name that bespeaks his being
baptized before the Puritan fire was extinguished —
Bezaleel Creak — ^now sent forth, from the Bible and
Ink-Bottle, in ' Germain Street, St. James's,' a poem,
' occasioned by the many Lies and Scandals Dispersed
against the Government, Since the late Eebellion.' The



252 RIOT IN A CHURCR.

piece was entitled ' Eebellious Fame,' as that allegorical
personage was just then given to report wonders and
miracles on land, in the sea, in rivers, and in the skies,
all which — by ' the Members of the British Society and
the Miigg-Houses about the City of London,' to -^lio™
the book was satirically dedicated — were said to portend
the speedy restoration of the king over the water to his
own again. The doggrel is of the worst sort. The most
descriptive bit in it refers to Lorraine, the Newgate
Ordinary, whose Calendar is called a history which

with pious dread
Is ev'ry Morn by pious Porters read.

Lorraine is told that the greatest rascal in his record

is Paul, who affected piety in Newgate, was having his

speech penn'd by non-juring parsons, and would be

turned off, singing.

How decently the Caitiff ends his days,
With Howell's Ehetorick and Sternhold's lays.

The churches were occasionally as disturbed as the
streets at this troubled period. It was by order of his
diocesan that the Eev. Mr. Hough, a temperate rector
of St. George's, Southwark, dismissed his ultra-Jacobite
curate, the Eev. Mr. Smith, ' as a clergyman,' says the
' Flying Post,' 'of the most infamous Morals and outrage-
ous Lnpudence against the Government.' Sunday after
Sunday, the rector was hissed and buffeted by the Tories
for this dismissal. On one occasion the mob tried to
stone him, but Mr. Hough escaped in a coach. On
each occasion he was assailed, say the Whig papers, by



POPES BOUBLE BEALING. 263

' a vile, rascally, beggarly mob,' and it is added that the
'Eev. but scandalous Smith led the mob himself to
the charge, from St. Sepulchre's.' The ' Postmaster '
quaintly describes the particulars as being ' not only
dreadful, but shameful.'

On the 23rd of June the Jacobite congregation at
St. George the Martyr, Southwark, were punished by
having the chaplain of the Duke of Newcastle sent
down by authority to pray for and preach to them.
They would neither have his prayers nor heed his
preaching. During the whole service the Tories be-
haved in a most irreverent manner. At its close, the
clergyman's calm self-possession so exasperated them
that they showed symptoms of using personal violence
towards him. Some of his friends ran off to the Mar-
shalsea to ask the guard there to come to the rescue.
The soldiers arrived just in time to save him from the
rough proceedings of ' the High Church Mob.' They
hurried him into a coach, and escorted him to the
duke's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields.

Pope tells Gay, in June, 1716, ' I suffer for my re-
ligion in almost every weekly paper. I have begun to
take a pique at the Psalms of David, if the wicked may
be credited, who have printed a scandalous one in my
name.' This might serve to show an anti-romanist il-
liberality did we not now know that Pope himself wrote
the indecent parody of the first psalm, of which he com-
plains, and advertised in the ' Postman ' that he would
give a reward of three guineas for the discovery of the
author and publisher. 'When Mrs. Biurleigh,' says



264 ABBISON, ON LATE AND PRESENT TIMES.

Pope's editor, Mr. Elwin, ' announced that she had the
original in his own hand-writing, he relapsed into
silence.' Pope, in the above letter to Gay, reflects the
views on Church matters which were entertained in the
London coteries and coffee-houses : — ' The Church of
Eome, I judge from many modern symptoms, as well
as ancient prophecies, to be in a declining condition ;
that of England will in a short time be scarce able to
maintain her own family ; so Chm-ches sink as generally
as Banks in Europe, and for the same reason — that re-
hgion and trade, that at first were open and free, have
been reduced into the management of Companies and
the roguery of directors.'

When the Parliament and Addison's ' Freeholder '
came to an end together, the Essay writer boasted of
having given the ' complexion of the times.' He was
sorry that there were men still left who thought they
could never be wrong as long as they opposed a Minister
of State ; and that the Government was blamed for seve-
rity towards the rebels, when the friends of the admi-
nistration rather murmured at too great leniency being
practised towards them. He thought it was a pity,
since oak garlands used to be the reward of those who
saved cities, that oak apples and oaken clubs were the
signs and weapons, on one day in the year at least, of
those who would bring destruction on the kingdom.
He deplored the ruffianism of both Whig and Tory
mobs, of the women as well as of the men. It was
not so in Charles II. 's time, when men, instead of
declaring their opinions by knocking out one another's



POLITICAL WOMEN. 255

brains, ' hung out their principles in different coloured
ribbons.' He traced the brutal violence of the times
to the general conceit whicli visited all hostile argument
vs^ith a blow. Children were taught pohtics, and to
hate each other, before they understood the meaning of
words. Squires came up from the country like dicta-
tors from the plough, and got drunk in praise of the
aristocracy. Oyster women concerned themselves with
the abolition of Episcopacy, and cinder wenches were "
sticklers for indefeasible right. Addison is alarmed at
the novel estabhshment of country newspapers. They
would make provincial towns as turbulent and uncom-
fortable as London. It was some consolation to him
that the very sight of the royal family, particularly of
the pretty princesses, was sufficient to soften many a
Jacobite ; and, though Jacobite ladies would distinguish
themselves by wearing white roses — less white, of
course, than the bosoms against which they lay — how
much more beautiful were the loyaler ladies who pro-
claimed their principles, and excited the most tender
sympathies, by fastening in their hair the simple but
significant Sweet William ! — a comphment to WilUam
of Nassau.




CHAPTEE -Xin.



(1716.)




UT while the great Essayist revelled in this
social and political banter, earnest tragedy-
was being enacted elsewhere. On July 8th
the death warrant for the execution of
two dozen Jacobites seems to have been stayed at
Court before it went on its dreadful way. There
was such effectual discussion upon it, that the good
souls there snatched twenty-two lives from the hang-
man. ' All to be reprieved,' says Lady Cowper,
' but Justice Hall and Parson Paul.' The Duchess of
Shrewsbury pleaded hard for the lives of the whole
four-and-twenty ; but the hangman got his allotment of
one in the dozen.

Patten sketches the incidents of the Eev. Mr. Paul's
first appearance on the scene. It occurred at Lancaster.
Forster, the commander, was at dinner with Patten in
the Eecorder of Lancaster's house. ' He (Paul) entered
the room in a blue coat, with a long wig and a sword,
and Mr. John Cotton of Cambridgeshire with him.
They let him (Forster) know who they were, and in a
flourishing way, made a tender of their services for the



THE REV. MR. PAUL. 257

cause, which Mr. Forster accepting, they withdrew.
Then Mr. Forster told Mr. Patten, that the taller of
the two gentlemen was a clergyman and was of St.
John's College in Cambridge, and that he (Paul) had
given him a perfect account of General Carpenter's
marches, and that he was then at Barnard's Castle, in
the bishoprick of Dm-ham, that his men and horses
were soon fatigued, and the like, all which,' adds the
tiurncoat Patten, ' was true enough, though their being
so fatigued did not hinder their march after us.'

The Keverend Mr. Paul, undoubtedly, acted both
as spy and messenger. Before the surrender at Pres-
ton, Paul rode away, charged, ' as he then said,' to use
Patten's significant words, ' with letters, to a noble lord
in Staffordshire and some friends in Leicestershire.'
Paul had a narrow escape on the road, but it did not
lead him to ultimate safety. He met General Wills, at
the head of his troops. By the former, he was stopped
and questioned, but the general, not' suspecting that
Paul was one of the rebels, ' he himself also putting on
a contrary face,' Wills let him go.

Mr. Paul had no desire to die a martyr for the
Jacobite cause. After his condemnation, he addressed
himself to the great object of saving his life. He wrote
to bishops, archbishops, and ministers. To the Lord
Primate he said he had pleaded guilty only on the ad-
vice of his lawyers, as the surest way to obtain mercy.
The Government wished him to make a clean breast of
it, and tell all he knew and aU he did after running
away from Preston. But, he observed, ' what confession
VOL. I. S



!358 A CSr FOU LIFE.



the Court would have from me, I can't tell. I am sure
your Grace would not have me, for the world, speak
more than I know.' He denied having been guilty of
promoting rebellion, after he left the rebels ' as fast as I
could.' He prayed earnestly that his life might be
spared, and that if he were not allowed to spend the
remainder of it in England, the Government might be
pleased to send him to the Plantations or anywhere
rather than Tyburn ! He protested that since he was
in Newgate he had not prayed for the Pretender, by
any name or title ; and he humbly desired his Grace
would take him from ' this nasty prison.'

Writing to the Bishop of Salisbury, Paul spoke of
his being unfortunately at Preston among the rebels ;
but that he left them ' upon the first opportunity.' He
asserted that ' Pear more than Choice ' had taken him
there. He had once the honour to be under the
bishop's patronage. If the prelate would only get his
life spared, he promised that it should be wholly em-
ployed iu pouring down abundance of blessings on
King George, the Eoyal Family, the three kingdoms
generally ' and the Church in particular.' In despairing
ternas, Paul again turned to the archbishop. Life, only
life ! The truly repentant rebel asks for no more. ' I do
not question,' he said, ' but that your gracious temper
and compassion wiU move you to assist one that had
once the honour to be instituted into a Living, in your
diocese of Lincoln, by your Grace.'

On Monday, July 9 th, the poor man again wrote
in a fit of abject terror to the archbishop : ' The Dead



PAUL AND PATTEN. 259

Warrant is come down for Execution Friday next.'
Then he, as it were, screamed for mercy. Except,
being at Preston, he was entirely innocent of all ' ill
steps,' and knew of no designs against King George,
beyond that town. ' The things that are laid to my
charge, namely, the preaching up rebellion, advising
my parishioners to take up arms, and that I preached
several seditious sermons, all these are false, upon the
word of a clergyman, as I have a certificate to prove, for
six years, the time of my being at Orton, handed by
most of the parish.' He begs that he may be ' saved
from that ignominious death of the halter ; ' and he
promises a rich return in prayers for the benefit of all
who had done their best to bring him ' out of these
great troubles.'

Between the day on which the last letter was writ-
ten and the eve of the day of execution, no better
messenger of joy visited poor Paul than the reverend
rascal Patten. This worthy was sent, apparently, to
' pump ' him, but he brought no promise of mercy for
any communications Paul might make ; and accord-
ingly the doomed man, as he wrote to Lord Townshend,
on that terrible eve, simply called Heaven to witness
that, to quote his own words, ' I carried no letter off
from Preston, though I told Mr. Patten so, which was
only a feint, that I might go off; and if Mr. Patten
will do me justice, he can tell you, my Lord, how un-
easy I was when I discovered my rashness.' His last
words were, ' I once more crave your Lordship's kind
assistance to procure me my life.'

S 2



260 PAUL, A JACOBITE AGAIN.

This prayer was not heeded. On the following
day, crowds witnessed the journey of both Paul and
Hall to Tyburn. Other crowds were to be seen out-
side the newspaper office window at Amen Corner,
eagerly reading the original letters of Paul to the Arch-
bishop and Viscount Townshend, by whom they had
been sent into the city, to gratify public curiosity.

Mr. Paul at Tyburn recovered his spirits, and
turned Jacobite, again. He asked pardon of God for
having taken oaths of allegiance to an usurping power.
— ' You see by my habit,' he said to the crowd, ' that I
die a son, though a very unworthy one, of the Church
of England, but I would not have you think that I am
a member of the schismatical church, whose bishops
set themselves up in opposition to those Orthodox
Fathers who were unlawfully and invalidly deprived by
the Prince of Orange. I declare that I renounce that
communion, and that I die a dutiful and faithful mem-
ber of the ISTonjuring church, which has kept itself free
from rebelhon and schism ; and I desire the Clergy and
all members of the Eevolution church to consider
what bottom they stand upon, when their succession is
grounded upon an unlawful and invalid deprivation of
Catholic bishops, the only foundation of which depriva-
tion is a pretended Act of Parliament. The Eevolution
instead of keeping out Popery, has let in Atheism.' As
Justice Hall was standing meekly at Paul's side, a
cowardly Whig ruffian, in the crowd, flung at the
doomed man a stone which reached its aim. The poor
gentleman bowed his head in acknowledgment of the



THE KINO IN FLEET STREET. 201

civility, turned to the hangman, and died without fuss
or protest. The Whig press spared him. They did
not attack him as they did Paul.

In July, the king, longing to revisit Hanover, and
satisfied that his throne was now unassailable, took his
departure. A few hours previously, Lady Cowper saw the
sovereign, at a drawing-room, 'in mighty good humour.'
She wished him a good journey and a quick return ;
and, ' he looked,' she says, ' as if the last part of my
Speech was needless, and that he did not think of it.'

A curious encounter took place in Fleet Street,
as George I., in a semi-state coach, with a kingly
escort, was on his way to the Tower, where he was to
take water for the continent. The king was met with
a procession of six coaches coming from Newgate.
They contained eleven prisoners with attendants, the
former on their way to Westminster, to receive formal
sentence of death. The royal carriage and one in
which was Mr. Eadchffe, with a fellow prisoner, and a
'servant of Newgate,' were the first to meet. The
latter drew on one side ; those which followed did the
same. The king looked hard at the Jacobites and
passed on, without remark. When the king had gone
by, Charles Eadcliffe, seeing that the carriage in which
he was seated was drawn up in front of a tavern, called
for a pint of hquor, and he and his fellow in misfortune
drank to the health of King James. If the ' servant of
Newgate ' got a good pull at the tankard he said no-
thing about it at Westminster to aggravate their posi-
tion or to make unpleasant his own.



262 A READING AT COURT.

At tlie council, held by ministers in tile evening, it
Avas found that the king had some cause to dread the
perils of his way. 'At night,' says Lady Cowper,
' Lord Lovat brings a man, called Barnes, to the Coun-
cil, who deposed upon oath that two Sulivants, cousins
to Sulivant whose Head is upon Temple Bar, told him
that Sulivant's brother, who is a Partizan, was to kill
tlie king in a wood between Utrecht and Loo, and
that he was to command a " Party Blue," which is a
cant phrase for fifty Men.' ' The Men were seized,' says
Lady Cowper, and the then Hanoverian Eraser of
Lovat was probably rewarded for his services.

The knowledge of such regicidal designs may have
led to a discussion at Court on the kihing of C^sar,
where his slayer, Brutus, found partisans. One morn-
ing, in July 1716, Lady Cowper was reading aloud to
the princess and the ladies, from the works of Madame
Deshouillieres, the French ' tenth muse.' The reader
came upon a passage referring to Brutus. 'As much a
Whig as I am,' she says, ' I cannot come up to it.' — ' I
think Brutus should either have been faithful to Cassar,
or he should have refused his favours, the baseness
of his ingratitude blackening, in my opinion, all that
could be said for his zeal for his country.' She evi-
dently had in her mind the people about Court who,
while accepting favour from George, were often serving
James. ' This,' she says, ' occasioned a great dispute
among us.'

Turning from Court to Newgate it will be seen
that the zeal of some of the servants of certain of



SANG UINAR Y STR UG GLES. 263

tlie condemned Jacobite gentlemen sadly outran their
discretion. Mr. Cassidy and a Mr. Carnegie were sen-
tenced to death. Their valet, Thomas Beau, immedi-
ately headed a Jacobite mob, out of a mere spirit of
revenge. After trying their strength in assaulting Mr.
Gosling's tavern, the Blue Boar's Head, near Water
Lane, and mercilessly treating the Whig gentlemen
there, by whom they were ultimately repulsed, after
much blood was shed on both sides, the Jacks rushed
in a body to that most hateful of all mug-houses, Mr.
Eead's, in Salisbm-y Court, Eleet Street. Various
previous attempts to demolish this stronghold of thirsty
loyalty had been valiantly frustrated, with much
damage to limb, and at serious risk to life. On the
last assault, the ' Papists and Jacks ' carried their ' hell-
ish design' to ultimate but costly triumph. They
smashed the windows, forced an entry into the lower
rooms, and burst open the cellar. They broke up the
furniture, broached the casks, and, filled to the throat
with strong liquors, began to set fire to the premises.
The loyal Whig guests discharged their pieces into the
seething crowd. They fought in the passages, and on
the stairs, but they unfortunately lost their standard.
The sign of the house was also triumphantly captured.
It was carried at the head of the besiegers, as they
marched away, by Tom Beau. In the melee which
occurred at the hottest part of the struggle, many of
the rioters were terribly wounded. One of them,
Vaughan, a seditious weaver, to whom the inside of
Bridewell was not unfamiliar, was stretched dead on



264 A JACOBITE JURY.

the threshold by a shot from the end of the passage of
Eead's house. The Jacks declared that Eead was the
murderer. The coroner's jury were as much divided
as the mob and the gentlemen who met at Bead's
mug-house, ' only to drink prosperity to the Church of
England, as by law Establisht.' Half were for a verdict
of wilful murder against Eead. The other half stuck
out for justifiable homicide. An adjournment ensued,
to enable each side to sleep, think, and drink over it.

Meanwhile, the husseydom of Fleet Street, a sister-
hood rough and readily named in another way by the
papers, sustained the riot in the Jacobite interest.
These nymphs were described quaintly as ' walking the
streets a nights without impunity by constables.'

At the judicial enquiry, the evidence was against
Eead, despite his loyalty. Witnesses swore to the
attack, repulse, devastation, robbery of till and liquor,
and also to the fact that Eead had deliberately shot
Vaughan as the former stood at his door, and the latter,
an unarmed and innocent victim, as the witnesses with
Jacobite bias described him, was standing doing no
harm and thinking no evil, in front of the attacking


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