William Smith.

A dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history online

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xxiv. 42). "Butter and honey" is an expression
for rich diet (Is. vii. 15, 22); such a mixture is
populai' among the Arabs (Burckhardt, Arabia,
i. 54). " Milk and honey" are similarly coupled
together, not only frequently by the sacred writers,
as expressive of the richness of the promised land,
but also by the Greek poets (cf. Callim. Hymn, in
Jov. 48 ; Hom. Od, xx. 68). Too much honey
was deemed unwholesome (Prov. xxv. 27). With
regard to oil, it does not appear to have been used
to the. extent we might have anticipated ; the
modern Arabs only employ it in frying iish
(Burckhardt, Arabia, i. 54), but for all other pur-
poses butter is substituted: among the Hebrews
it was deemed an expensive luxury (Prov. xxi. 17),
to be resei"ved for festive occasions (1 Chr. xii. 40 ;
it was chiefly used in certain kinds of cake (Lev. ii.
5 ff. ; IK. xvii. 12). " Oil and honey " are men-
tioned in conjunction with bread in Ez. xvi. 13,
19. The Syrians, especially the Jews, eat oil and
honey [dibs) mixed together (Russell, i. 80). Eggs
are not often noticed', but were evidently known as
ai-ticles of food (Is. x. 14,- lix. 5 ; Luke xi. 12),
and are reckoned by Jerome {In epitaph. Paul.
i. 176) among the delicacies of the table. [Honey ;
Oil.]

The Orientals have been at all times sparing in
the use of animal food : not only does the excessive
heat of the climate render it both unwholesome to
eat much meat (Niebuhr, Descript. p. 46), and ex-
pensive from the necessity of immediately con-
suming a whole animal, but beyond this the ritual
regulations of the Mosaic Jaw in ancient, as of the
Koran in modem times, have tended to the same
result. It has been inferred from Gen. ix. 3, 4,



FOOD



629



that animal food was not permitted before the
flood : but the notices of the flock of Abel (Gen. iv.
2) and of the herds of Jabal (Gen. iv. 20), as well
as the distinction between clean and unclean animals
(Gen. vii. 2), favour the opposite opinion ; and the
permission in Gen. ix. 3 may be held to he only a
more explicit declaration of a condition implied in
the grant of universal dominion previously given
(Gen, i. 28). The prohibition then expressed against
consuming the blood of any animal (Gen. ix. 4)
was more fully developed in the Levitical law, and
enforced by the penalty of death (Lev. iii. 17 vii.
26, xix. 26 ; Deut. xii. 16 ; 1 Sam. xiv. 32 ff. ; Ez.
xliv. 7, •15), on the ground, as stated in Lev. xvii.

11, and Deut. xii. 23, that the blood contained the
principle of life, and, as such, was to be oflered on
the altai- ; probably there was an additional reason
in the heathen practice of consuming blood in theii-
saci-ifices (Ps. xvi. 4; Ez. xxxiii. 25). The pro-
hibition apphed to strangers as well as Israelites,
and to all kinds of beast or fowl (Lev. vii. 26, xvii.

12, 13). So strong was the feeling of the Jews on
this point, that the Gentile converts to Christianity
were laid under similar restrictions (Acts xv. 20,
29, xxi, 25). As a necessai*y deduction fi'om the
above principle, all animals which had died a na-
tm-al death (n?33, Deut. xiv. 21), or had been
torn of beasts (rtQIO, Ex. xxii. 31), were also

prohibited (Lev. xvii. 15 ; cf. Ez. iv. 14), and to be
thi'own to the dogs (Ex. x,\ii. 31): this prohibition
did not extend to strangers (Deut. xiv. 21). Any
pei'son infi'inging this rule was held unclean until
the evening, and was obliged to wash his clothes
(Lev. xvii. 15). In the N, T. these cases are de-
scribed under the teim ttviktSv (Acts xv. 20), ap-
plying not only to what was strangled (as in
A. v.), but to any animal from which the blood
was not regularly pom-ed forth. Similar prohibitions
are contained in the Koran (ii, 175, v. 4, xvi. 116),
the result of which is that at the present day the
Arabians eat no meat except what has been bought
at the shambles. Certain portions of the fat of sa-
crifices were also forbidden (Lev. iii. 9, 10), as
beuig set apart for the altar (Lev. iii. 16, vii. 25 ;
cf. 1 Sam. ii. 16 ff. ; 2 Chr. vii. 7) : it should be
observed that the temi in Neh. laii. 10, translated

fat, is not l^Pj, but D*3DC^D = the fatty pieces of
meat, delicacies. In addition to the above, Chi'istians
were forbidden to eat the flesh of animals, portions
of which had been offered to idols (eiS«\(i0i;Ta),
whether at private feasts, or as bought in the
market (Acts xv. 29, xxi. 25; 1 Cor, viii, 1 ff,).
All beasts and birds classed as unclean (Lev, xi,
1 ff. ; Deut. xiv. 4 ff.) were also prohibited [Un-
clean Beasts and Birds] : and in addition to
these genej-al precepts there was a special pro-
hibition against " seething a kid in his mother's
milk" (Ex. xxiii. 19, xxxiv. 26; Deut. xiv. 21),
which has been vai'iously undei-stood, by Talmudical
writers as a general prohibition against the joint use
of meat and milk (Mishna, Cholin, cap. 8, §1);
by Michaelis [Mos. Recht. iv. 210) as prohibiting
the use of fat or milk, as compai'ed with oil, in
cooking ; by Luther and Calvin as prohibiting the
slaughter of young animals ; and by BOchait and
others as fliscountenancing cruelty in any way.
These interpretations, however, all fail in establish-
ing any connexion between the precept and the
offering of the first-fruits, as implied in the three
passages quoted. More probably it has reference to



630



FOOD



certain heathen usages at their harvest festivals
(Maimonides, More Nohooh. 3, 48 ; Spencer, de
Zegg. Hebr. Mitt. 535 fF.) ; there is a remarliable
addition in the Samaritan version and in some
copies of the LXX. in Deiit..xiv. 21, which sup-
ports this view ; ts yop ttoisT tovto, wtrel acrnd-
KaKa Bvaet, Hrt [iiafffid iffri t^ fleijJ ^laictit^ (cf.
Knobel, Comment, in Ex. xxiii. 19). The Hebrews
farther abstained from eating the sinew of the hip
(HB'Sn TS, Gen. xxxii. 32), in memory of the
struggle between Jacob and the angel (comp. ver.
25). The l.XX., the Vulg., and the A. V. intei-pret
the fiira| \ey6^€vov word nasheh of the shrinking
or- benumbing of the muscle (& ivdpKTjtfev ; qui
emarcuit;^' which shrank"); Josephus {Ant. i. 20,
§2) more correctly explains it, t6 yevpov ri -KXari ;
and there is little doubt that the nerve he refers to
is the nervits ischiadiGUS, which attains its gi-eatest
thickness at the hip. Thei'e is no further reference
to this custom in the Bible ; but the Talmudists
{Cholin, 7) enforced its observance by penalties.

Under these restrictions the Hebrews were per-
mitted the free use of animal food: generally
speaking they only availed themselves of it in the
exercise of hospitality (Gen. xviii. 7), or at festivals
of a religious (Ex. xii. 8), public (1 K. i. 9 ; 1 Chr.
xii. 4:0), or private character (Gen. xxvii. 4; Luke
XV. 23) : it was only in royal households that there
was a daily consumption of meat (1 K. iv. 23 ;
Neh. V. 18). The use of meat is reserved for similar
occasions among the Bedouins (Burckhardt's Notes,
i. 63). The animals killed for meat were — calves
(Gen. xviii. 7; 1 Sam. xxviii. 24; Am. vi. 4),
which are farther described by the term fatlihg
(XnD = /J.6irxos airevrSs, Luke xV. 23, and.

o-tTta-rd, Matt. xxii. 4 ; 2 Sam. vi. 13 ; 1 K. i. 9 ff. ;
A. V. '* fat cattle") ; lambs (2 Sam. xii. 4; Am.
vi. 4) ; oxen, not above three years of age (1 K. i.
9 ; Prov. xv. 17 ; Is. xxii. 13 ; Matt. xxii. 4),
which were either stall-fed (D^N")1 ; fLSffXoi ^k-
\eKToi), or taken up from the pastures {^)J*^ ; fi6es
mfidScs ; 1 K. iv. 23) ; kids (Gen. xxvii. 9 ; Judg.
vi. 19 ; 1 Sam. xvi. 20) ; harts, roebucks, and
fallow-deer (1 K. iv. 23), which are also brought
into close connexion with ordinaiy cattle in Deut.
xiv. 5, as though holding an intermediate place
between tame and wild animals ; birds of vai"ious
kinds (DnSS ; A. V. " fowls ;" Neh. v. 18 ; the
LXX., however, gives %(/iapos as though the read-
mg were D^^^DV) ; quail in certain parts of Arabia
(Ex. xvi. 13 ; Sum. xi. 32) ; poultry (D*"l3"13;
1 K. iv. 23 ; understood generally by the LXX.,
opvlOtDp iKXeKTuv ffiTevrd; by Kimchi and the
A. V. as fatted fowl; by Gesenius, Thesaur. 246,
as geese, from the whiteness of their plumage ; by
Thenius, Comm. in I. c, as guinea-fowls, as though
the word represented the call of that bird) ;
partridges (1 Sam. xxvi. 20) ; fish, with the ex-
ception of such as were without scales and fins
(Lev. xi. 9; Deut. xiv. 9), both sdted, as was
probably the case with the sea-fish brought to
Jerusalem (Neh. xiii. 16), and fresh (Matt. xiv. 19,
XV. 36 ; Luke xxiv. 42) : in our Saviour's time it
appears to have been the usual food about the Sea
of Galilee- (Matt. vii. 10) ; the tei-m o\pdpwy is
applied to it by .St. John (vi. 9 ; xxi. 9 ff.) in the
restricted sense which the word obtamed among
the later Greeks, as =fish. Locusts, of which cer-
tain species only were esteemed clean (Lev. xi. 22),
were occasionally eaten (Matt, iii. 4), but con-



FOOTMAN

sidered as poor fare. They are at tlie present day
largely consumed by the poor both in Persia
•(Morier's Second Journey, p. 44) and in Arabia
(Niebuhr, Voyage, i. 319) ; they are salted and
dried, and roasted, when required, on a frviug-pan
ivith butter (Burckhardt's Notes, ii. 92 ; Niebuhr,
I. c).

Meat does not appear ever to have been eaten by
itself; various accompaniments are noticed in Scrip-
ture, as bread, milk, and sour milk (Gen. xviii. 8) ;
bread and broth (Judg. vi. 19) ; and with fitili
either bread (Matt. xiv. 19, xv. 36 ; John xxi. 9)
or honeycomb (Luke xxiv. 42) : the instance in
2 Sam. vi. 19 cannot be relied on, as the tcrin
"ISSyX, rendered in the A. V. a good piece offlesli,
after the Vulg., assatura hibulae carnis, means
simply a portion or measure, and may apply to
wine as well as meat. For the modes of preparing
meat, see Cooking ; and for the times and manner
of eating. Meals : see also Fish, Fowl, &c. &c.

To pass from ordinary to occasional sources of
subsistence: prison diet consisted of bread and
water administered in small quantities (1 K. xxii.
27 ; Jer. xxxvii. 21) : pulse and water was con-
sidered but little better (Dan. i. 12) : in time of
son-ow or fasting it was usual to abstain either
altogether from food (2 Sam. xii. 17, 20), or from
meat, wine, and other delicacies, which were de-
scribed as n'n-IDn I3n7.> l''- bread of desires (Dan.
X. 3). In time of extreme famine the most loath-
some food was swallowed ; such as an ass's head
(2 K. vi. 25), the ass, it must be remembered,
being an unclean animal (for a parallel case comp.
Plutarch, Artaxerx. 24), and dove's dung (see the
article on that subject), the dung of cattle (Joseph.
B. J. V. 13, §7), and even possibly their own dung
(2 K. xviii. 27). The consumption of human flesh
was not altogether unlcnown (2 K. vi. 28 ; cf. Joseph.
B. J. vi. 3, §■!), the passages quoted supplying
instances of the exact fulfilment of the predictiou
in Deut. xxviii. 56, 57: compare also Lam. ii. 20,
iv. 10 ; Ez. V. 10.

With regard to the beverages used by the He-
brews, we have aheady mentioned milk, and the
probable use of barley-water, and of a mixture,
resembling, the modern sherbet, fonned of fig-calie
and water. The Hebrews probably resembled the
Arabs in not drinking much during their meals,
but concluding them with a long draught of water.
It is almost needless to say that water was most
generally drunk. In addition to these the Hebrews
were acquainted with various intoxicating liquors,
the most valued of which was the juice of the
grape, while others were described' under the
general tei-m of shechar or strong drink (Lev. x. 9 ;
Num. vi. 3 ; Judg. xiii. 4, 7), if 'indeed the latter
does not sometimes include the former (Num.
xxviii. 7). These were resei-ved for the wealthy
or for festive occasions : the poor consumed a sour
wine (A. V. " vinegar ;" Ruth ii. 14 ; Matt, xxvii.
48), calculated .to quench thii-st, but not agreeable
to the taste (Prov. i. 26). [Deink, stkong;
Vinegar; Water; Wine.] [W. L. B.].

FOOTMAN, a word employed in the Auth.
Version in two senses. 1. Generally, to distinguish
those of the people or of the fighting-men who went
on foot fi-om those who were on horseback or in,
chariots. The Hebrew word for this is 'pj'l, ragli,
from regel, a foot. The LXX. commonly express it
liy neCo), or occasionally Ta7|ii({T0.



FOREHEAD

But, '2. The word occurs in a more special sense
(iQ 1 Sara. xxii. 17 only), and as the translation
of a different tei'm from the above — ^-ll, rootz.
This passage affords the first mention of the ex-
istence of a body of swift runners in attendance on
the king, though such a thing had been foretold by
Samuel (1 Sam. viii. 11). This body appear to
have been afterwards kept up, and to have been
distinct from the body-guard — the sis hundred and
the thirty — who were originated by David. .See
1 K. xiv. 27, 28; 2 Chr. xii. 10, 11 ; 2 K. xi, 4, 6,
11, 13, 19. In each of these cases the word is the
same as the above, and is rendered " guard:'* but
the translator were evidently aware of its significa-
tion, for they have put the word "runners" in the
margin in two instances (1 K. xiv. 27 ; 2 K. xi.
13). This indeed was the force of the term " foot>
man " at the time the A, V. was made, as is plain not
only from the references just quoted, but amongst
others from the title of a well known tract of Bun-
yan's — -The Heavenly Footman, or a Description of
the Man that gets to Heaven, on 1 Gor. ix. 24 (St.
Paul's figure of the race). Swift running was evi-
dently a valued accomplishment of a pex'fect warrior —
a gibbo-r^ as the Hebrew word is — among the Israel-
it^. There are constant allusions to this in the
Bible, though obscured in the A. V., from the
trauslatoi-s not recognising the technical sense of
the word gibbor. Among others see Ps. xix. 5 ;
Job xvi. 14; Joel ii. 7, where "strong man,"
" giant," and " mighty man," are all gibbor, David
was famed for his powers of running ; they are
so mentioned as to seem chai'acteristic of him (1
Sam. xvii. 22, 48, .51, xx. 6), and he makes them
a special subject of thanksgiving to God (2 Sam,
xxii, 30; Ps, xviii. 29). The cases of Cushi and
Ahimaaz (2 Sara, xviii.) vrill occur to every one.
It is not irapossible that the foniier — *' the Ethi-
opian," as his name raost likely is — had some pe-
culiar mode of running. [CtJSHi.] Asahel also
was "swift on his feet," and the Gadite heroes
who came across to David in his difficulties were
" swift as the roes upon the mountains :" but in
neither of these last cases is the word rootz em-
ployed. The word probably derives its modern
sense fi'om the custom of domestic ser^^ants run-
ning by the side of the carriage of their master.
[Guard.] [G.]

FOREHEAD (nVO, from Um, rad. inus.
shine, Gesen. p. 815; fiiTcoiroy ; frons). The
practice of Yelling the face in public for women of
the higher classes, especially mamed women, in the
East, sufficiently stigmatizes with reproach the
unveiled face of women of bad character (Gen. xxv.
65 ; Jer. iii. 3 ; Niebuhr, Fo3/. i. 132, 149, 150 ;
Shaw, Travels, p. 228, 240 ; Hasselquist, Travels,
p. 58 ; Buckingham, Arab Tribes, p. 312 ; Lane,
Mod. Eg. i. 72, 77, 225-248 ; Burckhardt, Travels,
i. 2'-V5). An especial force is thus given to the term
"hard of forehead" as descriptive of audacity in
general (Ez. iii. 7, 8, 9 ; comp. Juv. Bat. xiv. 242 —
" Ejectura attritS, de tronte I'uborem ").

The custom among many Oriental nations both
of colouiing the face and forehead, and of impressing
on the body marks indicative of devotion to some
special deity or religious sect is mentioned elsewhere
[Cuttings in Flesh] (Burckhardt, Notes on
Bed. i. 51; Niebuhr, Vof/. ii. 57; Wilkinson
Anc. Eg. ii. 342; Lane, Mod. Eg. i. 66). It is
doubtless alluded to in Rev. (xiii. 16, 17, xiv. 9,
xyii. 5, XX. 4), and in the opposite direction by



FOREST



631



Ezekiel (ix. 4, 5, 6), and in Rev. (vii. 3, ix. 4,
xiv. 1, xxii. 4.) The mark mentioned by Ezekiel
with approval has been supposed to be the figure of
the cross, said to be denoted by the word here used,
in, in tlie ancient Semitic language (Gesen. p.
1495 ; Spencer, deLeg. Hebr. ii. 20. 3. 409, 413).
It may have been by way of contradiction to
heathen practice that the High-priest wore on the
front of his mitre the golden plate inscribed " Holi-
ness to the Lord" (Ex, xxviii. 36, xxxix. 30;
Spencer, I. c).

The "jewels for the forehead," mentioned
by Ezekiel (xvi. 12), and in margin of A. V.
Gen. xxiv. 22, were in all probability nose-rings
(Is. iii. 21; Lane, Mod. Eg. iii. 225, 226;
Hai-mer, Obs. iv. 311, 312; Gesen. p. 870;
Winer, s. v. Nasenring). The Persian and also
Egyptian women wear jewels and strings of coms
acvoss their foreheads (Olearius, Travels, p. 317;
Lane, Mod. Eg. ii. 228). [Nose-jewel.]

For the use of frontlets between the eyes, see
Frontlets, and for the symptoms of leprosy
apparent in the forehead, Leprosy. [H. W. P.]

FOREST. The corresponding Hebrew teiTQS are
nV** t^in, and D^"1S. The fii-st of these most
trdRy expresses the idea of a forest, the etymological
force of the word being abundance, and its use being
restricted (with the exception of 1 Sam. xiv. 26,
and Cant. v. i., in which it refers to honey) to an
abundance of trees. The second is seldom used, and
applies to woods of less extent, the word itself in-
volving the idea of what is being cut down {silva a
caedendo dicta, Gesen. Thesaur. p. 530) : it is
only twice (1 Sam. xxiii. 15 ff. ; 2 Chr. xxvii. 4)
applied to woods properly so called ; its sense, how-
ever, is illustrated in the other passages in which it
occm-s, viz., Is. xvii. 9 (A. V. "bough"), where
the comparison is to the solitary refic of an ancient
forest, and Ez. xxxi. 3, where it applies to trees or
foliage sufficient to afford shelter (^frondibus nemo-
rosus, Vulg. ; A. V. " with a shadowing shroud ").
The third, pardes (a word of foreign origin, mean-
ing a pa7'k or plantation, whence also comes the
Greek irapadsiffos), occurs only once in reference
to forest trees (Neh. ii. 8), and appropriately ex-
presses the care with which the forests of Palestine
were preserved under the Persian rule, a regular
warden being appointed, without whose sanction no
tree could be felled. Elsewhere the word describes
an orchard (Eccl. ii. 5; Cant. iv. 13). *

Although Palestine has never been in historical
times a woodland country, yet there can be no
doubt that there was much more wood fomaerly
than there is at present. It is not improbable that
the highlands were once covered with a primaeval
forest, of which the celebrated oaks and terebinths
scattered here and there were the relics. The woods
and forests mentioned in the Bible appear to have
been situated where they are usually found in cul-
tivated countries, in the valleys and defiles that lead
down from the high- to the lowlands and in, the
adjacent plains. They were therefore of no gi'eat
size, and correspond rather with the idea of the
Latin saltus than with oar forest.

(1.) The wood of Ephraira was the most exten-
sive. It clothed the slopes of the hills that bordered
the plain of Jezreel, and the plain itself in the
, neighbourhood of Betlishan (Josh. xvii. 1 5 ff.),
extending, perhaps, at one time to Tabor, which is
translated Spu/Lttfs- by Theodotion (Hos. v. 1), and
which is still well covered with forest trees (Stan-



632



FORTIFICATIONS



ley, p. 350). (2.) The wood of Bethel (2 K. ii.
23, 24) was situated in the ravine which descends
to the plain of Jericho. (3.) The forest of Hareth
(] Sam. xxii. 5) was somewhere on the border of
the PhiUstine plain, in the southern part of Judah.
(4.) The wood through which the Israelites passed
in their pursuit of the Philistines (1 Sam. .\i.v. 25)
was probably near Aijalon (comp. v. 31), in
one of the valleys leading down to the plain of
Philistia. (5.) The "wood'* (Ps. cxxxii. fi) im-
plied in the name of Kiijath-jearim (1 Sam. vii. 2)
must have been similarly situated, as also (6.) were
the *' forests'* (C/tores/t) in which Jotham placed
his forts (2 Chr. .xxvii. 4). (7.) The plain of
Sharon was partly covered with wood {Strab. xvii.
p. 758), whence the LXX. gives Spvfi6s as an equi-
valent (Is. Ixv. 10). It has still a fair amount of
wood (Stanley, p. 260.) (8.) The wood {Clioresh)
in the wilderness of Ziph, in which David concealed
himself (1 Sam. x.xiii. 15 if.), lay S.E. of Heljroh.

The greater portion of Peraea was, and still is,
covered with forests of oak and terebinth (Is. ii. 13 ;
Ez. xxvii. 6 ; Zech. xi. 2 j comp. Buckingham's
Palestine, pp. 103 ff., 240 ff. ; Stanley, p. 324).
A portion of this neai" Mahanaim was known as the
" wood of Ephraim " (2 Sam. xviii. 6), in .which the
battle between David and Absalom took pli^e.
Winer (art, Wdlder) places it on the west side of
the Jordan, but a compai'ison of 2 Sam. xvii. 2li,
xviii. 3, 23, proves the reverse. The statement in
xviii. 23, in particular, marks its position as on the
highlands, at some little distance from the valley
of tlie Jordan (comp. Joseph. Ant. vii. 10, §1, 2).

The house of the forest of Lebanon (1 K. vii. 2,
X. 17, 21 ; 2 Chr. ix. 16, 20) was so called pro-
bably from being fitted up with cedar. It has also
been explained as referring to the forest-like rows of
cedar pillars. The number and magnificence of the
cedars of Lebanon is frequently noticed in the
poetical portions of the Bible. The /ores* generally
supplied Hebrew writers with an image of pride
and exaltation doomed to destruction (2 K. xix
23 ; Is, X. 18, xxxii. 19, xxxvii. 24 ; Jer. xxi. 14,
xxii. 7, xlvi. 23 ; Zech. xi. 2), as well as of un
fruitfulness as contrasted with a cultivated field oi
vineyard (Is. xxix. 17, xxxii. 15 ; Jer. xxvi. 18
Hos. ii. 12). [W. L. B.]

FORTIFICATIONS. [Fenced Cities.]

FOETUNA'TUS (fiopToimns, 1 Cor. xm
17), one of three Corinthians, the others being
Stephanas and Achaicus, who were at Ephesus when
St. Paul wrote his first Epistle. Some have sup
posed that they were oi X\07J$, alluded to 1 Coi
i. 11 ; but the language of irony, in which the
Apostle must in that case be interpreted in ch. xvi
as speaking of their presence, would become sal
casm too cutting for so tender a heart as St. Paul
to have uttered among his valedictions. " The
household of Stephanas" is mentioned in ch, i, 16
as having been baptized by himself: perhaps For-
tanatus and Achalcus may have been members of that
household. There is a Fortunatus mentioned at the
egd of Clement's first Epi.stle to the Corinthians,
who was possibly the same person. [H. A.]

■ FOUNTAIN. 1. I^V, from t»y, to /Zow; also
signifies an "eye," Gcsen. p. 1017. 2, PJIID (from
1), a well-watered place; sometimes in A, V.
" well," or " spring." 3. D)0 KV'lD, from KS*,
to go forth, Gesen, p, 613; a gushing forth of
waters. 4, "l^pD, from lip, to diij, Gesen, p.



FOUNTAIN

1200. 5. y-13D, from PIJ, to bubble forth, Gesen.

p. 845. 6. 73, or n?3, from 775, to roll, Gesen.

p. 288, all usually, Trri7^> <"' irriyii SSaros ; fom,
and fons aquarum. The special use of these various
terms will be found examined in the Appendix to
Stanley's Sinai and Palestine.

Among the attractive features presented by the
Land of Promise to the nation migrating from
Egypt by way of the desert, none would be more
striking than the natural gush of waters from the
ground. Instead of watering his field or garden, as
in Egypt, " with his foot " (Shaw, Travels, p. 408),
the Hebrew cultivator was taught to look fonvard
to a land " drinking water of the rain of heaven, a
land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths
springing from valleys and hills" (Deut. viii. 7,
xi. 11). In the desert of Sinai, " the few living,
perhaps perennial springs," by the fact of their
rarity assume an importance hardly to be under-
stood in moister climates, and more than justify a
poetical expression of national rejoicing over the
discovery of one (Num. xxi. 17). But the springs
of Palestine, though shori>lived, are remarkable for
their abundance and beauty, especially those which
fall into the Jordan and its lakes throughout its
whole course (Stanley, S. Sf P. 17, 122, 123,
295, 373, 509; Burckhardt, Syria, 344). The
spring or fountain of living water, the " eye" of
the landscape (see No. 1), is distinguished in all
Oriental languages from the artificially sunk and
enclosed well (Stanley, 509). Its impoitance is
implied by the numbei' of topographical names
compounded with En, or Ain (Arab.): En-gedi,
Ain-jidy, " spring of the gazelle," may serve as a
striking instance (1 Sam. xxiii. 29 ; Reland, 763;
Robinson, i. 504 ; Stanley, App. §50).



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