William Smith.

A dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history online

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ness of the I-loly of Holies, was to find in the adytum
neither image nor shrine. It evidently caused much

' The size of the ditch is given by Strabo as 60 feet
deep and 250 wide (xvi. p. 763).

^ Sec the reasons urged by Prldeaux, ad loo.


remark (" inde vulgatum'"), and was the one fact
regarding the Temple which the histpriim thought
worthy of preserv.ation — *' nulla intus deum effigie ;
vacuamsedem et inania arcana" (Tacitus, Hist. v. 9).
Pompey's conduct on this occasion does him great
credit. He left the treasures thus exposed to his
view — even the spices and the money in the trea-
sury — untouched, and his examination over, he
ordered the Temple to be cleansed and purified
from the bodies of the slain, and the daily worship
to be resumed. Hyrcanus was continued in his
high-priesthood, but without the title of king {Ant.
XX. 10) ; a tribute was laid upon the city, the walls
were entirely demolished {Karainr^ffai . . . . t&
relxv irivTa, Strabo, xvi. p. 763), and Pompey
took his departure for Rome, carrying with him
Aristobulus, his sons Alexander and Antigonus, and
his two daughters. The Temple was taken in the
year 63, in the Hrd month (Sivan), on the day of a
great fast {Ant. xiv. 4, §3) ; probably that for
Jeroboam, which was held on the 23rd of that

During the next kif years nothing occuiTed to
affect Jerusalem, the straggles which desolated the
unhappy Palestine during that time having taken
place away from its vicinity. In ,56 it was made
the seat of one of the five senates or Sanhedrim, to
which under the constitution of Gabinius the civil
power of the country was for a time committed.
Two years aftei-wards (l!.C. 54) the rapacious Crassus
visited the city on his way to Parthia, and plun-
dered it not only of the money which Pompey had
spared, but of a considerable treasure accumulated
from the contributions of Jews throughout the
world, in all a sum of 10,000 talents, or about
2,000,000?. sterling. The pillage was aggravated
by the fact of his having first received from the
priast in charge of the treasure a most costly beam
of solid gold, on condition that everything else
should be spared {Ant. xiv. 7, §1).

During this time Hyrcanus remained at Jeru-
salem, acting under the advice of Antipater the
Jdumeau, his chief minister. The assistance which
they rendered to Mithridates, the ally of Julius
Caesar, in the Egyptian campaign of 48-47, ui-
duoed Caesar to confirm Hyrcanus in the high-
priesthood, and to restore him to the civil govern-
ment under the title of Ethnarch {Ant. xiv. 10).
At the same time he rewarded Antipater with the
procuratorship of Judaea {Ant. xiv. 8, §r)), and
allowed the walls of the city to be rebuilt {Ant. xiv.
10, §4). The year 47 is also memorable for the
first appearance of Antipater's son Herod in Jcrasa-
lem, when, a youth of fifteen (or more probably '' 25),
he characteristically overawed the assembled San-
hedrim. In 43 Antipater was murdered in the
palace of Hyrcanus by one Malichus, who was.veiy
soon after himself slain by Herod {Ant. xiv. 11,
§4, 6). The tumults and revolts consequent on
these murdere kept Jerusalem in commotion for some
time {B. J. i. 12). But a more serious dangej'
was at hand. Antigonus, the younger and now
the only suiTiving son of Aristobulus, suddenly
appeared in the country supported by a Parthian
army. Many of the Jews of the district about
Cai-mel and .loppa ' flocked to him, and he instantly
made for Joriipalem, giving out that his only object
was to pay a visit of devotion to the Temple (.'i Mace.

' At that time, and even as lato as the Crusadcsf
called the Woodland or the Forest country (A/w/ioi,
Jos. Ant. xiv. 13, §3).


xlix. 5). So sudden was his approach, that he got
into the city and reached the palace in the upper
nmiket-place — the modern Zion — without resist-
aace. Here however he was met by Hyrcanus and
Phasaelus (Herod's brother) with a strong party
of soldiei"s. A tight ensued, which ended in Anti-
gonus being driven over the bridge into the Temple,
wliere he was constantly harassed and annoyed by
Hyrcanus and Phasaelus from the city. Pentecost
arrived, and the city, and the subuilos between it
-aud the Temple, were crowded with peasants and
others who had come up to keep the feast. Herod
too arrived, and with a small party had taken
charge of the palace. Phasaelus kept the wall.
Autigouus' peojile seem (though the account is
very obscure) to have got out through the Baris
into the part north of the Temple. Here Herod and
Phasaelus attacked, dispersed, and cut them up.
Pacorus, the Parthian general, was lying outside
the walls, and at the earnest request of Antigonus,
he and 500 horse were admitted, ostensibly to me-
diate. The result was, that Phasaelus and Hyrcanus
were outwitted, and Herod overpowered, and the
Parthians got possession of the place. Autigonus
was made king, and as Hyrcanus knelt a suppliant
before him, the new king — with all the , wrongs
which his father and himself had suHered full in
his mind — bit off the ears of his uncle, so as effec-
tually to incapacitate him from ever again taking
the high-priesthood. Phasaelus killed himself in
prison. Herod alone escaped {Ant. xiv. 13).

Thus did Jerusalem (b.c. 40) find itself in the
hands of the Parthians.

In three months Herod returned from Rome king
of Judaea, and in the beginuing of 39 appeared be-
fore Jerusalem with a force of Romans, commanded
by Silo, and pitched his camp on the west side of
tlie city [B. J. i. 1-5, §5). Other occurrences, how-
ever, called him away from the siege at this time,
and for more than two years he was occupied else-
where. In the mean time Antigonus held the city,
and had dismissed his Parthian allies. In 37 Herod
appeared again, now driven to fury by the death of
his favourite brother Joseph, whose dead body Anti-
gonus had shamefully mutilated [B. J. i. 17, §2).
He came, as Pompey had done, from Jericho, and,
like Pompey, he pitched his camp and made his
attack on the north side of the Temple. The
general circumstances of the siege seem also very
much to have resembled the former, except that
there were now tw» walls noith of the Temple, and
that the diiving of mines was a great feature in the
siege operations {B. J. i. 18, § I ; Ant. xiv. 16, §2).
The Jews distinguished themselves by the same
reckless courage as before ; and although it is not
expressly said that the services of the Temple wei'c
earned on with such minute reguhuity as when they
excited the astonishment of Pompey, yet we may
infer it from the fact that, during the hottest of
the operations, the besieged desired a short truce
in which to bring in animals for sacrifice (Ant.
xiv. 16, §2). In one respect — the factions which
raged among the besieged — this siege somewhat
foreshadows that of Titus.

1^'or a short time after the commencement of the
operations Heiod absented himself for his maiTiage



These periods probably date from the return of
Herotl with Sosius, and tbe resumption of move active

True he was one of the same race who at a formgr
eack of Jerusalem had cried " Down with it, down

I at Samaria with Mariamne. On his return he was
joined bySosius, the Koman governor of Syria, with
a force of from 50,000 to 60,000 men, and the
siege was then resumed in earnest (Ant. xiv. 16).

The first of the two walls was taken in foi-ty
days, and the second in fifteen more.™ Then the
outer court of the Temple, and the lower city —
lying in the hollow between the Temple and the
modern Zion — was taken, and the Jews were driven
into the inner parts of the Temple and t€ the upper
market-place, which communicated therewith by
the biidge. At this point some delay seems to
have arisen, as the siege is distinctly said to have
occupied in all five months (^B. J. i. 18, §:i ; see
also Ant. xiv. 16, §2). At last, losing patience,
Herod allowed the place to be stonned ; and an indis-
criminate massacre ensued, especially in the narrow
streets of the lower city, which was only termi-
nated at bis urgent and repeated solicitations."
Herod and his men entered first, and in his anxiety
to prevent any plunder and desecration of the
Temple, he himself hiistened to tiie entrance of the
sanctuary, and there standing with a drawn sword
in his hand, threatened to cut down any of the
Roman soldiers who attempted to enter.

Through all this time the Baris had remained
impregnable : there Antigonus had taken refuge,
and thence, when the whole of the city was in
the power of the conquerors, he descended, and in
an abject manner craved his life from Sosius. It
was granted, but only to be taken from him later
at the order of Antony.

Antigonus was thus disposed of, but the Asmo-
nean party was still strong both in numbers and
influence. Herod's first care was to put it down.
The chiefs of the party, including the whole of the
Sanhedrim but two," were put to death, and their
property, with that of others whose lives were
spared, was seized. The appointment of the liigh-
priest was the next consideration, Hyrcanus re-
turned from Parthia soon after the conclusion of
the siege; but even if his mutilation had not
incapacitiited him for the office, it would have been
unwise to appoint a member of the popular- family.
Herod therefore bestowed the office (b.c. 36) on one
Annuel, a former adherent of his and a Babylonian
Jew (Ant. XV. 3, §1), a man without interest or
influence in the politics of Jerusalem (xv. 2, §4).
Ananel was soon displaced through the machi-
nations of Alexandra, mother of Herod's wife
Mariamne, who prevailed on him to appoint her
son Aristobulus, a youth of sixteen. But the
young Asmonean was too warmly received by the
people (B. J. i. 22, §2) for Herod to allow him
to i-emain . Hardly had he celebrated his first feast
before he was murdered at Jericho, and then
Ananel resumed the office (Ant. xv. 3, §3).

The intrigues and tragedies of the next thirty
years are too compliciited and too long to be
treated of here. A general sketch of the events
of Herod's life will be found under his name, and
other opportunities will occur for noticing them.
Moreover, a great part of these occurrences have no
special connexion with Jerusiilem, and therefore have
no pl:u:e in a brief notice like the present of those
things which more immediately concern tbe city.

with it even to the ground !" But times had altered
since then.

° These two were Hillel and Sbammni, renowned
in the Jewish literature ;is the founders of the two
greut riviil sehools of doctrine :md practice.



In many respects thiis period was a repetition
of that of the Maccabees and Antiochus Epiphaneft,
True, Herod was more politic, and more prudent,
and also prol>ably had more sympathy with the
Jewish character than Antiochus. But the spirit
of stem r-^lstance to innovation 3nd of devotion to
the law of Jehovah burnt no less fiercely in the
breasts of the people than it had done before ; and
it is cnrions to remark how evtry attempt on
Herod's part to introdnce foreign customs was met
by outbreak, and how futile were all the benefits
which he conferred both on the temporal and ecol':;-
siastical wel&re of the jj^r^^^l-^ when these obnoxious
intrusions were in •^nfzstiouJ'

In the year 34 the city was visited by Cleo-
patra, who, having accompanied Antony to the
Euphrates, was now returning to Egypt through
her estates at Jericho (Ant, xv. 4, §2).

In the spring of 31, the year of the tattle of
Actinm, Judaea was visited by an earthquake, the
effects of which appear to have heen indeed tre-
mendous: V),'jOO (Ant. XV. 5, §2) or, according to
another account (B. J, i. 19, §3), 20,0'1'0 persons
were kflled by the Ml of buildiri'^-:, and an im-
mense quantity of cattle. The panic at Jerusalem
was very severe ; but it was cahned by the argu-
ments of Henxl, then departing to a campaign on
the east of Jordan for liie intferesls of Cleopatra,

The following year was distingni^ied by the
death of Hyrcanus, who, though more than 8 .j y^rs
old, was killed by Herod, ostensibly for a treasonable
correspondence: with the Arabians, but really to
remove the last remnant of the Asmonean ra-ce,
who, in the fluctnations of the times, and in Herod's
ahs^tcefrom his kingdom,mi^t have been dangerons
to him- He appears to have reeled at Jerusalem
since his return ; and his accnsation was brought
before the Sanhedrim (Ard. iv. 6, §l-5y.

Mariamne was put to death in the year 'l^-i,
whether in Jerusalem or in the Alexandreion, in
which she had been placed with her mother when
Herod iert for his interview with Octavins, J5 not
certain. Bat Alexandra was now in Jerusalem
again; and in Herod's al/seDce, ill, at .'^/jAiia
'^ .Seha-fr), she be^i to plot for possesion of the
Bans, and of another fortress situated in the city.
The attempt, however, co=t her her life- The
same year saw the fixecition of Costobaras, husband
of Herod's Sit'rr >alom*:, and of several other
jjersons of distinction (ArU. iv. 7, §8-10).

Herod now b^an to tnor^urage foreign practices
and u-sa^'es, probably with the view cf *'f:oiinter-
bolandng by a strong Gr^rcian Jjarty the turb iJ^Lt
and exclusive sj/irit of the Jews." Amoni'it his
act- of this deyrriptian was the building of a theatre "^
at Jerusalem 'Ard. iv. 8, cl). Of its .rit^'itj-.n
no informatioD is t- v^a, nor have any indica-
tions y^t been discovered- It was omamerA'^i with
t?i^ names of tL^ victories of Octaviir-^, and with
troj^es of arms conquered in the wars of Herod,
Quinquennial games in honour of Caeaar were

^ The principle? and results of the whole of thi*
la^cT period are ably Eomjced op in MeriTale*8 Bo- {
man*, iii., chap. 20. j

^ The amphitheatre ** in the plain " mentioned in |
thl- pa-s?age \.-. corfiiaonly sappoeed to have been ii^j '■
at Jerusalem 'Barclaj-, City of Great King, 1 74, and I
others^ ; but this Is no* a nccessaiy inference. The I
Tord s-dSow is geoerally used of the plain of the Jof^an |
near Jericho, where we know there was an r^zu\,':^i-
tiieatre {B. J. L 33, §'i . From another pafssagej


instituted on the most magnificent st^Ie, with
racing, boxing, mimcal contests, fights of gladiators
and wild heasts. The zealous Jews took fire at
these innovations, but their wrath was specially
excited by the trophies round the theatre at Jeru-
salem, which they believed to contain figures of
men. Even when shown that their suspicions were
groundlf^, they remained disconttxited. The spirit
of the old Maccabees was still ^ve, and Herod only
narrowly escaped assassination, while his would-be
assas^us endured torments and death with the
greatest heroism. At this time he'wx-upied the
old palace of the Asmoneans, whidi crowned the
ea.stem fece of the uj^ier city, and stood adjoinjng
the Xystus at the end of the bridge which form^
the communication between the south part of tht;
Temple and the npper city (xv. 8, §5 ; comp. ix,
^, §11, and B.J. a. 16,^-'', J. This p^cew^ not
yet so magnificent as he afitcrwards made it, but it
was already most richly furnished Cxv. 9, §2).
Herod had now also complete*! the improvenusite
of the Bans — ^the fortress built by John Hyrcanus'
on the foundations of Simon ilaccabaeus — ^whicb
he hai^l enlarge*! and strengthened at great expense,
and named Antonia — after his fiiend Mark Antony.'
A (lescrifAion of this celebrated fortress will be
given in treating of the Tkmple-, of which, as
recoostructe^l by Herod, it formed an intimate part.
It stood at the west end of the" north wall of the
Temple, and was inaccessible on all sides but that.
See section III. p. 10'2-j.

The year 25 — the next after the attempt on
Herod's life in the theatre — ^was one of g?-*at mh-
toitaiies. A long drou^t, followed by unproduc-
tive seasons, involved Judaea in SaatnDe, and its vsaal
consequence^ a dreadful pestilence (Ard.xv. 9, §1).
Herod took a noble and at the same time a most pohdc
course. He ^nt to Egypt for com, sacnSida^ Sot
the purchase the costly decoratioos of his palace
and his silver and gold plate. He was thus sAAe to
make regular distribution of com and dothing, on
an enormotis scale, for the present L<b/;ft%=iti*a of the
I people, as well as to supply seed for the next year's
crop (Ard. xv. 9, §2^. The result of this was to
remove to a great degree the animosity occaaoned
by his proceedings in thf: previous year.

In this year or the next Herod todk another wijfe,

the daii'hter of an obscure priest of Jerusalem

named .Simon, .Sliortly Ij^ore th^. marri^^ .Simon

was made faigh-p:iest in the room of Jrjtshua, or

J*=5us, the scm of Phaneijs, who aj/pears to have

I sncceede^l Anaiu>l, and was now d^jsed to make

; way for Herod's future fathcr-in-Haw (Ard. iv. 9,

; ^-j). It was probably on th^ occaaoo of this roar-

I riage that he built a new and extenave pEilace* :ui-

I mediately adjoining the old wall, at the nerth-west

I comer of tlw upper city (B. J. v. 4, §4;, abont

the spot now o*xrupiel by the Latin convei-t, in

which, as memorials of his connexicni with Caesar

and A'^-rif J.S, a lar^e ajortment — superior in aze to

the .Sanctuary ' f th-; Temple — was named alter each

fB. J. i. 21, *■-, it appears there was one at Gacsoiea.
^tiU the sdiov at Jerusalem is mentioned in B.J.ii.

1, P

' The name was probably mA befeto^s-ed later than
B.c. 34 OT 33 — the date of Herod** eyrfcst relatims with
Antony: andwen)a}'thereforeinfeTt:^'^tbealtetaticin3
to the fortre^ had been at least 7 or ^ years in piDgress.

' The c^d pal3c« of the Asmoneans continaed to be
known as ** the royal palace,** to fiaaiXewy fAnt. xx.



{Ant. ibid.; B.J. i. 21, §1). This palace wai.
very stroDgly fortified ; it communicated with the
three great towei-s on the wall erected shortly after,
and it became the citadel, the special fortress (Jdiov
<l>poipioVi B. J. V. 5, §8), of the upper city. A
road led to it from one of the gates — naturally
the noi-thern — in the west wall of the Temple in-
closure {Ant. xv. 14, §5). But all Herod's works
ia Jerusalem were eclipsed by the rebuilding of the
Temple in more than its former extent and magni-
ficence. He announced his intention in the year 19,
probably when the people were collected in Jerusa-
lem at the Passover. At first it met with some
opposition from- the fear that what he had begun
he would not be able to finish, and the consequent
risk involved in demolishing the old Temple. This
he ovei'came by engaging to make all the necessary
prepaiutions before pulling down any part of the
existing buildings. Two yeai's appear to have been
occupied in these preparations — among which Jose-
phus mentions the teaching of some of the priests
and Levites to work as masons and carpenters — and
then the work began (xv. 11, §2). Both Sanctuaiy
and Cloisters — the latter double in exteijt and far
larger and loftier than before — were built liom the
very foundations {B. J. i. 21, §1; Ant. -w. 11,
§3). [Temple.] The holy house itself {va6s),
i. e. the Porch, Sanctuaiy, and Holy of Holies —
was finished in a yeai" and a half (xy. 11, §G).
Its completion on the anniversary of Herod's iuau-
guration, B.C. 16, was celebrated by lavish sacri-
fices and a great feast. Immediately after this He-
rod made a journey to Kome to fetch home his two
sons, Alexander and Aristobulus — with whom he
returned to Jerusalem, apparently in the spring of
15 {Ant. xvi. 1, §2), In the autumn of this year
he was visited by his friend Marcus Agi'ippa, the
favourite of Augustus. Agiippa was well received
by the people of Jerusalem, whom he propitiated
by a sacrifice -of a hundred 'oxen and by a magnifi-
cent entertainment {Ant. xvi. 2, §1). Herod left
again in the beginning of 14 to join Agrippa in the
Black Sea. On his retui'n, in the autumn or winter
of the same year, he addressed the people assembled
at Jerusalem — for the Feast of Tabernacles — and
remitted them a fourth of the annual tax (xv. 2,
§4). Another journey was followed by a similai-
assembly in the year 11, at which time Herod an-
nounced Antipater as his immediate successor (xvi.
4,§6;5./. i. 23,§4).

About B.C. 9 — eight years from the commence-
ment — the coui-t and cloistei-s of the Tem])le were
finished {Ant. xv. 11, §5), and the bridge between
the south cloister and the upper city — demolished
by Pompey — was doubtless now rebuilt with that
massive masonry of which some remains still sur-
vive (see the woodcut, p. 1019). At this time



About this time occuj-red — if it occuiTed at all,
which seems more than doubtful (Prideaux, Anno
134) — Herod's unsuccessful attempt to plunder the
sepulchre of David of the remainder of the treasures
left there by Hyrcanus (Jos. Ant. xvi. 7, §1).

In or about the year 7 occurred the afiaii" of the
Golden Eagle, a parallel to that of the theatre, and,
like that, important, as showing how strongly the
Maccabeean spirit of resistance to innovations on the
Jewish law still existtid, and how vain were any
concessions in the other direction in the presence of
such innovations. Herod had fixed a large golden
eagle, the symbol of the Roman empire, of which
Judaea was now a province, over the entrance to
the Sanctuary, probably at the same time that
he inscribed the name of Agrippa on the gate
{B. J. i. 21, §8). As a breach of the 2nd com-
mandment — not as a badge of dependence — this liad
excited the indignation of the Jews, and especially
of two of the chjef rabbis, who instigated their dis-
ciples to tear it down. A false report of the king's
death was made the occasion of doing this in open
day, and in the presence of a large number of people.
Being taken before Herod the rabbis defended their
conduct and Were burnt alive. The high-priest
Matthias was deposed, and Joazar took his place.

This was the state of things in Jerusalem when
Herod died, in the year 4 B.C. of the common chro-
nology (Dionysian era), but really a few months
after the birth of Chi-iat (see p. 1072).

The govei-nment of Judaea, and therefore of Je-
nisalem, had by the will of Herod been bequeathed
to Archelaus. He lost no time after the burial of
his father in presenting himself in the Temple, and
addressing the people ou the affairs of the kingdom
■ — a display of confidence and moderation, strongly
in contrast to the demeanour of the late king. It
produced an instant eflfect on the excited mjnds of
the Jews, still smaiiing from the failure of the af-
fair of the eagle, and from the chastisement it had
brought upon them ; and Archelaus was besieged
with clamours for the liberation of the numerous
persons imprisoned by the late king, and for remis-
sion of the taxes. As the people collected for the
evening sacrifice the matter became more seiious,
and assumed the form of a public detnonstratiou, of
lamentation for the two maityrs, Judas and Mat-
thias, and indignation against the intruded high-
priest. So loud and shrill were the ciies of lament
that they were heard over the whole city. Arche-
laus meanwhile temporised and promised redress
when his government should be confirmed by
Rome. The Passover was close at hand, and the
city was fast filling with the multitudes of iiistics
and of pilgrims {^k tj\s urrfpopias^, who crowded
to the great Feast (B. J. ii. 1, §3 ; Ant. xvii. 9,
§3). These strangers not being able or willing to
equally magnificent works were being carried on in find admittimte into the houses, pitched their tents

another part of the city, viz., in the old wall at the
north-west comer, contiguous to the palace, where
three towers of gi-eat size and. magnificence were
erected on the wall, and one as an outwol-k at a
small distance to the north. The latter was called
Psephinus {B. J. v. 4, §2, 3, 4), the three fonner
were Hippicus, after one of his fiiends — Phasaelus,
afW his brother — and Mai'iamne, after his queen
{Ant. xvi. 5,2; B. J. v. 4, 3). For their positions
seesectiou HI. p, 1021. Phasaelus appears to have
been erected first of the three {Ant. xvii. 10, §2),
though it cannot have been begun at the time of
Phasaelus's death, as tliat took place some years
before Jerusalem came into Heiod's hands.

{tovs avrSdi i(Tici)v(aK6Tas) on the open ground
aiound the Temple {Avt. ibid.) Meanwhile the
tumult in the Temple itself was maintained and
increased daily; a multitude of fanatics never left

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history → online text (page 269 of 316)