William Smith.

A dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history online

. (page 309 of 316)
Online LibraryWilliam SmithA dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history → online text (page 309 of 316)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


monitess, and one of the mm-derers of Joash king
of Judah (2 K. xii. 21). The writer of the Chronicles
(2 Chr. xxiv. 26) calls him Zabad, which is nothing
more than a clerical error for Jozachar : the first
syllable being omitted in consequence of the final
letters of the preceding word V?^, In 18 MSS.
of Kennicott's collation the name in the Kings is
13?V, i. e. Jozabad, and the same is the reading
of 32 MSS. collated by De Rossi. Another MS. in
De Rossi's possession had IDTV, i. e. Jozachad, and
one collated by Kennicott "IHTV, or Jozabar, which
is the reading of the Peshito-Syriac, BmTington
concludes that the original form of the word was
nSTV, or Jozabad ; but for this there does not seem
sufficient reason, as the name would then be all but
identical with that of the Moabite Jehozabad, who
was the accomplice of Jozachar in the murder. It
is uncei-tain whether their conspiracy was prompted



^ Ewald observes that vers. 17-22 in this chapter
should be read immediately after vcr. 7, since they
carry on the account of the sabbatical year, and have
no reference to the year of Jubilee.

^ It does not seem likely that the rites of solemn
humiliation which marked the gi'eat fast of the yeixr
were disturbed. The joyful sound probably burst
forth in- the afternoon, when the high-priest had
brought the services of Atonement to a conclusion.
The contrast between the quiet of the day and the
loud blast of the trumpets at its close, must have
rendered deeply impressive the hallowing of the
year of release from poverty and bondag-e. But
Hupfeld is so offended with the incongruity of this
arrangement, that he -^'ould fain repair what he
thinks must be a defect in the Hebrew text, in order
that he may put back the commencement of the year
of Jubilee from the Day of Atonement, on the 10th,
to the Feast of Trumpets, on the 1st of Tisri.
" Hie (?. e. in vcr. 9) vetus mendum latere suspicor.



JUBILEE, THE YEAR OF 11 40

by a personal feeling of revenge for tlie death of
Zechariah, as Josephus intimates (Ant. ix. 8, §4),
or whether they were urged to it by the family of
Jehoiada, The care of the Chronicler to show that
they were of foreign descent seems almost intended
to disarm a suspicion that the king's assassination
was an- act of priestly vengeance. But it is more
likely that the conspiracy had a different origin
altogether, and that the king's murder was regarded
by the Chronicler as an instiuice of Divine retri-
bation. On the accession of Amaziah the conspira-
tors were executed. [W. A. W.]

JO'ZADAK (pT^l": 'loJceSe'/c : Josedec),
Ezr, iii. 2, 8 ; v. 2 ; x. 18 ; Neh. xii. 26. The
name is a conti-action of Jehozadak.

JU'BAL (bn-V ; *Ioi/^aA; Juhal), a son of
Lamech by Adah, and the inventor of the " hai-p
and organ" (Gen, iv. 21 ; kinndr veugah, probably
general terms for stringed and wind insti-uments).
His name appears to be connected with this subject,
springing from the same root as j/o6(?/, "jubilee."
That the inventor of musical instruments should
be the brother of him who. introduced the nomad
life, is strictly in accordance with the experience
of the world. The connexion between music and
the pastoral life is indicated in the traditions of the
Greeks, which ascribed the invention of the pipe to
Pan and of the lyre to Apollo, each of them being
also devoted to pastoral pui-suits. [W. L. B,]

JUBILEE, THE YEAR OF {hy\^r} n3^,
and simply b2V : eros rrjs a^cVews, a<{)4cr€Cos
(r7}fxd(rta, and &c})€(ns : annus jubilaei, and jubi-
laeus), the fiftieth yeiu- after the succession of seven
Sabbatical years, in which all the land which had
been alienated returned to the families of those to
whom it had been allotted in the original distribu-
tion, and all bondmen of Hebrew blood were libe-
rated. The relation in which it stood to the Sab-
batical year and the general dii-ections for its ob-
servance are given Lev, xxv. 8-16 and 23-55."
Its bearing on lands dedicated to Jehovah is st;\t^d
Lev. xsvii, 16-25. There is no mention of the
Jubilee in the book of Deuteronomy, and the only
other reference to it in the Pentateuch is in .the
appeal of the tribe of Manasseh, on account of the
daughters of Zelophehad (Num. xxxvi. 4 : see belo\^,
§VL note '').

11. The year was inaugurated on the Day of Atone-
ment "^ with the blowing of trumpets *= throughout



forte in diei numero, ^1E;J'J?3, primitus positura (pro
THNS) cui deinde glo?sa accessit 'die expiationis"*

{Comment, de vera /est. rat. pt. iii, p. 20). In the
same vein of criticism, considering that the rest of the
soil is alien to the Idqa of the Jubilee, he would ex-
punge ver, 11 as an interpolation. He is disposed to
deal still more freely with that part of the chapter
wliich relates to the sabbatical year.

•= The trumpets used in the proclamation of the
Jubilee appear to have been curved horns, not the
long straight trumpets represented on the Arch of
Titus, and which, according to Hengstenberg [Eaypt
and the Books of Moses, p. 131, Eng. trans.), are the
only ones represented in Egyptian sculptures and
paintings. The straight trumpet was called mV'Vn
the other, laitJ' and )pi^. The jubilee hornVused
in the siege of Jericho a/e called DvlVH ni"IQ1tV
(Josh. vi. 4) ; and, collectively, in the following verse,



1150 JUBILEE, YEAR OF

the land, and by a proclamation of univereal
liberty.

1. The soil was kept under the same condition of
rest as had existed during the preceding Sabbatical
year. There was to be neither ploughing, sowing,
nor reaping; but the chance produce was to be. left
for the use of all comers. [Sabbatical Year.]

2. Every Israelite returned to " his possession
and to his family;" that is, he recovered his light
in the land originally allotted to the family of
which he was a member, if he, or his ancestor, had
parted with it.

(a) A strict rule to prevent fraud and injustice
in such transactions is laid down :■ — if a ^Hebrew
urged by poverty,'* had to dispose of a field, the
price was determined according to the time of the
sale in reference to the approach of the next
Jubilee. The transfer was thus, not of the land
itself, but of the lisufruct for a limited time.
Deduction was systematically made on account of
the number of Sabbatical years, which would de-
prive the purchaser of cei-tain crops within that
period.^

(6) The possession of the field could, at any
time, be recovered by the original proprietor, if his
circumstances improved, or by his next of kin'
(?N3, i. e, one who redeems). The price to be
paid for its redemption was to be fixed according to
the same equitable rule as the price at which it
had been purchased (ver. 16).

(c) Houses in walled cities ^ were uot subject to
the law of Jubilee, but a man who sold his house
could redeem it at any time within a full year of
the time of its sale. After that year, it became
.the absolute property of the purchaser.

{d) Houses and buildings in villages, or in the
countiy, being- regarded as essentially connected,
with the cultivation of the land, were not excepted,
but returned in the Jubilee with the land on which
they stood.



75i*n I"]f5. (See KeU on Josh. vi. 4.) It is not
quite certain whether they were the horns of oxen
or formed of metal (Kranold, p. 50), but the latter
seems by far more probable. Connected with the
mistake as to the origin of the word 711'' (which
will be noticed below), was the notion that they were
rams' horns. K.. Jehuda, in the Mishna, says that
the horas of rams (D^'lDT) were used at the Feast of
Trumpets, and those of wild goats (DvV^) at the
Jubilee. But Maimonides and Bartenora say that
rams' horns wiere used on both occasions {Hosh Sa-
shana, p. 342, edit. Suren.). Bochart and others
have justly objected that the horns of rams, or those of
wild goats, would form but sorry trumpets. [Cornet.]

It is probable that on this, as on other occasions of
public proclamation, the trumpets were blown by the
priests, in accordance with Num. x. 8. (See Kranold,
Comment, de Jubilaeo, p. 50 ; with whom agree
Ewald, Bahr, and most modern writers.) Bahr sup-
poses that, at the proclamation of the Jubilee, the
trumpets were blown in all the priests' cities and
wherever a priest might be living ; while, on the
Feast of Trumpets, they were blown only in the
Temple. Maimonides says that every Hebrew at the
Jubilee blew nine blasts, so as to make the trumpet
literally "sound throughout the land" (Lev. xxv. 9).
Such a nsage may have existed, as a mere popular
expression of rejoicing, but it could have been no
essential part of the ceremony.

** It would seem that tlje Israelites never parted
with their land except from the pressure of poverty.
The objection of Naboth to accept the offer of Ahab



JUBILEE, YEAB OE

(e) The Levitical cities were not, in respect to
this law, reckoned with walled towns. If a Levite
sold the use of his house, it reverted to him in the
Jubilee, and he might redeem it at any previous
time. The lands in the suburbs of the Levites*
cities could not be pai-ted with under any condi-
tion, and were not thei-efore affected by the law of
Jubilee Cver. 34).

(/) If a man had sanctified a field of his patri-
mony unto the Lord, it could be redeemed at any
time before the next year of Jubilee, on his paying
one-fifth in addition to the worth of the ci'ops,
rated at a stated valuation (Lev. xxvii. 19). If
not so redeemed, it became, at the Jubilee, devoted
for ever. If the man had previously sold the usu-
fruct of the field to another, he lost all right to
redeem it (vers. 20, 21).

{g) If he who had purchased the usufruct of
a field sanctified it, he could redeem it till the next
Jubilee, that is, as long as his claim lasted ; but it
then, as justice required, returned to the original
proprietor (ver. 22-24).

3. All Israelites who had become bondmen,
either to their countrymen, or to resident foreigners,
were set free in the Jubilee (Lev. xxv. 40, 41),
when it happened to occur before their seventh
year of servitude, in which they became fi:ee by
the operation of another law (Ex. xxi. 2). Those
who were bound to resident foreigners might re-
deem themselves, if they obtained the means, at
any time ; or they might be redeemed by a rela-
tion. Even the bondman who had submitted to
the ceremony of having his ears bored (Ex. xxi. 6)
had his freedom at the Jubilee.'*

Such was the law of the year of Jubilee, as it is
given in the Pentateuch. It was, of course, like
the law of the Sabbatical Year, and that of those
rites of the great festivals which pertain to agricul-
ture, delivered proleptically. The same formula
is used — " When ye be come into the land which



(1 K. xxi. I) appears to exemplify the sturdy feeling
of a substantial Hebrew, who would have felt it to be
a shame and a sin to give up any part of his patri-
mony — " The Lord forbid it me that I should give the
inheritance of my fathers to thee.'* If Michaelis had
felt as most Englishmen do in such matters, he would
have had more respect for the conduct of Naboth.
(See Commejit. on the Mosaic Law, art. 73.) But the
conduct of Naboth has been queptioned on different
ground in a dissertation by S. Andreas, in the Oritici
Sacri, vol. xiii. p. 603.

^ This must be the meaning of the price being cal-
culated on " the years of fruits," nV<-l3Tl"^JC' (Lev.
xxv. 15, 16), the years of tillagp, exclusive of the
years of rest.

' Kranold observes (p. 54) that there is no record
of the ffoel ever exercising his right till after the
death of him who had sold the field. But the in-
ference that the goel could not previously exercise his
power seems to be hardly warranted, and is opposed
to what is perhaps the simplest interpretation of Ruth
iv. 3, 4. See note % §V.

E A Jewish tradition, preserved by Maimonides and
others, states that no cities were thus reckoned, as
regards the Jubilee, but such as were walled in the
time of Joshua. According to this, Jerusalem was
excluded.

^ Maimonides says that the interval between the
Feast of Trumpets and the Day of Atonement, in the
year of Jubilee, was a time of riotous rejoicing to all
servants. If there is any truth in the tradition that
he records (which is in itself probable enough) the'
eight days must have been a sort of Saturnalia.



JUBILEE, YSATl OF

I givfi unto you" — both in Lev. xxv. 2, and Lev.
xxiii. 10.

in. Josephus {Ant. iii. 12, §3) states that all
debts were remitted in the year of Jubilee, while
the Scripture speaks of the remisaiou of debts only in
connexion with the Sabbatical Year (Deut xv. 1, 2).
[Sabbatical Year.] He also describes the tei-rns
on which the holder of a piece of land resigned it
in the Jubilee to the original proprietor. The
former (he says) produced a statement of the value
of the crops, and of the money which he had laid
out in tillage. If the expenses proved to be more
than the worth of the produce, the balance was
paid by the proprietor before the field was restoied.
But if the balance was on the other side, the pro-
prietor simply took back the field, and allowed
him who had held it to retain the profit.

Philo {De Septcncirio, ch. 13, 14, vol. v, v. 37,
edit. Tauch.) gives an account of the Jubilee
agreeing with that in Leviticus, and says nothing
of the remit-sioD of debts.'

IV. There are several very difficult questions
connected with the Jubilee, of which we now pro-
ceed to give a brief view: —

1. Origin of the word Jubilee, — The doubt on
this point appears to be a very old one. The
Hebrew word is treated by the LXX. in different
modes. They have retained it unti"anslated in
Josh. vi. 8, 13 (where we find Ksparivat tou
'IwjStjA,, and (rdXirLy^ rod 'Iw^ijK). In Lev. xxv.
they generally render it by 6,(pe(ns, or a<p4(Te<as
a7\}JLa.(na\ but where the context suits it, by ^dSyrj
crdXinyyos. In Ex. xix. 13 they have at tfxcval
Koi at (rdKniyyes. The Vulgate retains the oi'i-
ginal word in Lev. xxv., as well as in Josh. vi.
(buccinae quarum usus est in Jubilaeo), and by
buccina in Ex. xix. 13. It seems, therefore, be-
yond doubt that unceitainty respecting the word
must have been felt when the most ancient vei-sions
of the 0. T. were made.

Nearly all of the many conjectures which have
been hazarded on the subject are directed to explain
the word exclusively in its bearing on the year of
Jubilee. This course has been taken by Josephus
— 4\€vd€piav dh (n)^a.iv€i ro^vofia ; and by St.
Jerome — Jobel est demittens aut mittens. Many
modern writers have exercised their ingenuity in
the same track. Now in all such attempts at ex-
planation there must be an anachionism, as the word
is used in Ex. xix. 13, before the institution of the
Law, where it can have nothing to do with the
Year of Jubilee, or its observances. The expression



' The Mishna contains nothing on the Jubilee but
unimportant scattered notices, though it has a consi-
derable treatise on the Sabbatical year (Shebiith).

^ The grounds on which the opposite view rests
are stated elsewhere. [See Coknet.]

> Carpzov {App. p. 449) appears to have been the
first who put forth this view of the origin and mean-
ing of the word. The figure of the pouring along of
the " rich stream of music " is familiar enough in
most languages to recommend it as probable. But
Gesenius prefers to make a second root, 73V juhi-
la/re, which he ascribes to onomatopoea, like the
Laiin JuMlarej and the Greek o\.o\v^eLv.

The fanciful notion that 7^1'' signifies a ram has some
interest, from its being held by the Jews so generally
and by the Chaldee Paraphrast ; and from its having
influenced our translators in Josh. vi. to call the
horns on which the Jubilee was sounded, trumpets



JUBILEE, YEAR OF 1151

there used is ^I'VPI '^\^1^^; similar to that in
Josh. vl. 5, b^m ly^l'^^JO::. The .question
seems to be, can 72V here mean the peculiar sound,
or the instrument for producing the sound?
Ewald favours the latter notion, and so does Gese-
nius (Thes. siib "q^D), following the old versions
(with which our own agrees), though under 73*
he explains 73V as clangor. De Wette inclines
the same way, rendering the words in Ex. xix. 13
— beini Blazen des Jobelhorns. , Luther translates
the same words — wenn es wird aber lange tijnen
(though he is not consistent with himself in reu-
deriug Josh. vi. 5) — Bahr renders them, cum
trahetur sonus, and most recent critics agree with
him. It would follow from this view that what
is meant in Joshua, when the trumpet is ex-
pressly mentioned, is, " When the sound called
Jubilee (whatever that may be) is prolonged on
the horn." ^

As regards the derivation of the word, it is now
very generally ascribed to the root 73'', UTzdavit^
copiose et cum quodam impetu fluxit. Hence
Kranold explains 73V, id quod magno strepitu
fiuit'j and he adds, "duplex igitur in ea radice
vis distinguitur, fluendi et sonandi altera in P-ISD
(diluvium), Gen. vi. 17, altera in 73-1* (ai'tis
musicae inventor), Gen, iv. 21, couspicua." The
meaning of Jubilee would thus seem to be, a
rushing, penetrating sound} But in the unc(;r-
tainty, which, it must be allowed, exists, our
translators have taken a safer course by retaining
the original word in Lev. xxv. and xxvii., than
that which was taken by Luther, who has ren-
dered it by JIalljahr.

2. Wa^ the Jubilee every 4:9th or 50th year ? — ■
If the plain words of Lev. xxv. 10 are to be followed,
this question need not be asked. The statement
that the Jubilee was the 50th year, after the suc-
cession of seven weeks of years, and that it was
distinguished from, not identical with, the seventh
Sabbatical year, is as evident as language can make
it. But the difficulty of justifying the wisdom of
allowing the land to have two years of rest in suc-
cession has been felt by some, and deemed sufficient
to prove that the Jubilee could only have been the
49th year, that is, one with the seventh Sab-
batical year. But in such a case, a mere d priori
argument cannot justly be deemed sufficient to



of rams* Jiorns. It appears to come from the
strange nonsense which some of the rabbis in eai-ly
times began to talk respecting the ram which was
sacrificed in the place of Isaac. They said (R. Bechai
in Ex. xix. ap. Kranold) that after the ram was
burnt, God miraculously restored the body. His
muscles were deposited in the golden altar ; from
his viscera were made the strings of David's harp ;
his skin became the mantle of Elijah ; his left horn
was the trumpet of Sinai ; and his right horn was to
sound when Messiah conies {Is. xxvii. 13). R. Akiba,

to connect this with the Jubilee, affirms that 731*

is the Arabic for a ram, though the best Arabic
spholars say there is no such word in the language.

TJie other notions respecting the word may be found
in Fuller {Misc. Sac. p. 1026, sq. ; Critici Sacri, vol.
ix'), in Carpzov {p. 448, sq.), and, most completely
given, in Kranold (p. 11, sq.).



1152



JUBILEE, YEAR OF



overthrow a clear uiiequivocfvl statement, involving
no inconsistency, or physical impossibility-f"

Hug has suggested that the Sabbatical yearmi2;ht
have begun in Nisan and the Jubilee Year in Tisri
(Winer, sub voce). In this way the labours of the
husbandmen would only have been intemiitted for
a year and a half, but it is surely a very harsh
supposition to imagine that Moses would have
spoken of the institution of the two years, and ot
the relation in which they stand to each other,
without noticing such a distinction, had it existed.
It is most pi'qbable that the Sabbatical year and
the year of Jubilee both began in Tisri, as is
stated in the Mishna [Rosh Ifashana, p. 300, edit.
Suren.). [SABBATICAL Year.]

The simplest view, and the only one which
accords with the sacred text, is, that the year which
followed the seventh Sabbatical year was the
Jubilee, which was intercalated between two sei-ies
of Sabbatical years, so that the next year was the
first of a new half century, and the seventli year
after that was the first Sabbatical year of the other
series. Thus the Jubilee was strictly a Pentecost
year, holding the same relation to the prece Jing seven
Sabbatical years, as the day of Pentecost did to the
seven Sabbath days. Substantially the same fonnula,
in reference to this point, is used in each case ° (cf.
Lev. xxiii. 15-16, xxv., 8-10).

.3. Were debts remitted in the Jjihilee ? — Not a
word is said of this in the 0. T., or in Philo. The
affinnative rests entirely on the authority of Jose-
phus. Maimonides says expressly that the remis-
sion of debts ° was a point of distinction between
the Sabbatical year and the Jubilee. The Mishna
is to the same effect [Shebiith, cap. x. p. 194, edit.
Suren.). It seems that Josephus must either have
wholly made a mistake, or that he has drawn too
wide an inference from the general character of the
year. Of course to those who were in bondage for
their debts, the freedom conferred by the Jubilee
must have amounted to a remission; as did, not
less, their freedom nt the end of their seven years
of servitude.

The first Jubilee year must have fallen in due
course after the first seven Sabbatical years. For
the commoiicenient of the series on which the suc-
cession of Sabbatical years was reckoned, see CllHO-
NOLOGV, p. 316, and Sabbatical Year.

V. Maimonides, and the Jewish writers in general,
consider that the Jubilee was observed till the
destruction of the first temple. But there is no
direct historical notice of its observance on any one



™ Tlie only distinguished Jewish teacher who ad-
vocated the claims of the 49th year was K. Jehuda.
He was followed by the Gaonim, certain doctors who
took up the exposition of the Talmud after the work
was completed, from the seventh to the eleventh
century (Winer, sub voce). The principal Christian
writers on the same side are, Scaliger, Petavius,
Ussher, Cunaeus, and Sohroeder.

° Ewald {Alterthilmcr, p. 419), and others, have
I'cferred the words of Is. xxxvii. 30 to the jubilee
year succeeding the sabbath year. But Gesenius
adopts another view of the passage, which accords
better with the context. He regards it as merely
referring to the continuance of the desolation occa-
sioned by the war for two years.

The language of Josephus and of Philo, and of every
eminent Jewish and Christian writer, except those
that have been mentioned, are in favour of the fiftieth
year. Idoler has taken up the matter vei-y satis-
factorily (Ilanclb. der Chron. i. p. 505).

° Whether this was an absolute remission of delitH,



JUBILEE, YEAR OF

occasion, either in the books of the 0. T., or in any
other records. The only passages in the Prophets
which can be regai'ded with much confidence, as
referring to the Jubilee in any way, are Is. v. 7,
8, 9, 10 ; Is. Ixi. 1,2; Ez. vii. 12, 13 ; Ez. xlvi.
16, 17, 18. Kegai-ding Is. xxxvii. 30, see note ",
§ IV. Some have doubted whether the law of
Jubilee ever came into actual operation (Michaelis,
Laws of Moses, art. Ixxvi., and Winer, sub voce),
others have confidently denied it (Kranold, p. 80 ;
Hupfeld, pt. iii. p. 20). * But Ewald contends that
the institution is eminently practical in the character
of its details, and that the accidental circumstance of
no particular instance of its observance having been
recorded in the Jewish history proves nothing. Be-
sides the passages to which reference has been made,
he applies several others to the Jubilee. He con-
ceives that "the year of visitation " mentioned in Jer.
xi. 23, xxiii. 12, xlviii. 44 denotes the punishment
of those who, in the Jubilee, withheld by tyranny
or fraud the possessions or the liberty of the poor.^
From Jer. xxxii. 6-12 he infers that the law was
restored to operation in the reign of Josiah''
(Alterthiimer, p. 424, note 1).

VI. The Jubilee is to be regarded as the outer
circle of that great Sabbatical system which com-
prises within it the sabbatical yeai", the sabbatical
month, and the sabbath day. [Feasts.] The rest
and restoration of each member of the state, in his
spiritual relation, belongs to the weekly sabbath
and the sabbatical month, while the land had its
rpst and relief in the sabbatical yeai'. But the
Jubilee is more immediately connected with the
body pohtic ; and it was only as a member of the
state that each person concerned could participate
in its provisions. It has less of a formally refigious
aspect than either of the other sabbatical institu-
tions, and its details were of a more immediately
practical character. It was not distinguished by
any prescribed religious observance peculiar to itself,



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history → online text (page 309 of 316)