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A dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history online

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(Stanley, S. SfP. 257). From the edge of the
sandy tract, which jfringes the immediate shore
right up to the veiy wall of the hills of Judah,
stretches the immense plain of corn-fields. In those
i-ich hai-vests lies the explanation of the constant
contests between Isi'ael and the Philistines {8, Sr P.
258). From them were gathei-ed the enoi-mous
cai'goes of wheat, which were transmitted to Phoe-
nicia by Solomon in exchange (or the arte of Hiram,
and which in the time of the Herods still " nou-
rished " the country of Tyre and Sidon (Acts xii. 20 j .
There were the olive trees, the sycomore trees, and
the treasures of oil, the care of which wa£ sufficient
to task the energies of two of David's special officers
(1 Chr. xxvii. 28). The nature of this locality
would [seem to be reflected in the names of many
of its towns if intei-preted as Hebrew words: —
DiLEAN = cucumbers; Gederah, Gedkkoth,
Gederothaim, sheepfolds ; Zoreah, wasjis ;
Ex-GANKIM, spring of gardens, &c. &c. But we
have yet to leam how far these names are Hebrew ;
and whether at best they are but mere Hebrew
accommodations of earlier originals, and therefore
not to be depended on for their significations. The
number of cities in this district, without counting
the smaller villages connected with them, was forty-
two. Of these, however, many which belonged to



^ On the -words " Judah on Jordan," used in de-
scribing the Eastern termination of the boundai-j' of
Naphtali (Josh. xix. 34), critics have strained their
ingennity to jirove that -Judah had some possensions in
that remote locality either by allotment or inheritance.
See the elaborate attempt of Von Eaumer [J'al. 405-
410) to show that the villages of Jair are intended.
But the difficulty — maximm atquc insolitbiUs notltts,



JUDAH

the Philistines can only have been allotted to the
tnbe, and if taken possession of by Judah were
only held for a time.

, What were the exact boundaries of the Shefelah
we do not know. We are at present ignorant of
the principles on which the ancient Jews drew
their boundaries between one territory and another.
One thing only is almost certain that they were not
determined by the natural features of the ground, or
else we should not find cities eimmerated as in
the lowland plain, whose modem representatives
are found deep in the mountains. [Jakmum ;
JipiiTAH, &c.] (The latest information regarding
this district is contained in Tower's 'dtte Wamukrwng,
1859.)

(3.) The thii-d region of the tribe — the moun-
tain, the " hill-countiy of Judah" — though not
the richest, was at once the largest and the inost
important of the four. Beginning a few miles
below Hebron, where it attains its highest level, it
stretches eastward to the Dead >Sea and westwai'd
to the Shefelah, and forms an elevated district or
plateau, which, though thrown into considerable
unduktions, yet preseiTes a general level in both
directions. It is the southern portion of that
elevated hilly district of Palestine which stretches
north until intersected by the plain of Esdraelon,
and on which Hebron, Jerusalem, and Shechem are
the chief spots. 'ITie surface of this region, which
is of limestone, is monotonous enough. Round
swelling hills and hollows, of somewhat bolder pro-
portions than those immediately north of Jerusalem,
which, though in early times probably covered with
forests [Hap.eth], have now, where not cultivated,
no growth larger than a brushwood of dwarf-oak,
arbutus, and other bushes. In many places there is
a good soft turf, discoverable even in the autumn,
and in spring the hills are covei-ed with flowers.
The number of towns enumerated (Josh, xv. 48-tiO)
as belonging to this district is 38 ; but, if we may
judge from the ruins which meet the eye on eveiy
side, this must have been very far below the real
number. Hardly a hill which is not crowned by
some fragments of stone buildings, more or less
,considerabie,^-those which are still inhabited suj-
rounded by groves of olive-trees, and enclosures of
stone walls protecting the vineyards. .Streams there
are none, but wtjlls and .springs are frequent — in
the neighbourhood of" Solomon's Pools" at Urtai
most abundant.

(4.) The fourth district is the Wjlderness
(^Midbar)^ which hei'e and heie only appears to be
synonymous with ^r(i6aA, and to signify the sunken
district immediately adjoining the Dead Sea. It
contained only six cities, which must have been
either, like Engedi, on the slopes of the clills ovi;r-
hanging the Sea, or else on the lower level of the
shore. The "city of .Salt" may have been on the
salt plains, between the sea and the cliiis which
form the southern termimition to the Gltor.^

Nine of the cities of Judah were allotted to the
priests (Josh. xxi. 9-19). The Levites had no' cities
in the tribe, and the pj-icsts had none out of it.

In the partition ot the territory by Joshua and



qui plurimos inierpretes torgit—has defied every
attempt ; and the suggestion of Ewald {Gench, ii.
380, note) is the most feasible — that thc^passage is
eornipt, and that Cinneroth or some other word
originally occupied the place of " at Judah."

" But Bethlehem appears' to have been closely con-
nected with them (Judg. xvii. 7, 9 ; xix. 1).



JUDAII

Eleazai" (Josh. xix. 51), Judah had the firet allotment
(xv. 1). Joshua had on his fii-st entrance into the
country overrun the Shefelah, destroyed some of the
principal towns and killed the kings (x. 28-35), and
had even penetrated thence into the mountains as
far as Hebron and Debir (36-39) ; but the task of
really subjugating the interior was yet to be done.
After his death it was undertaken by Judah and
Simeon (Judg. i. 20), In the artificial contri-
vances of wai they were surpassed by the Canaan-
ites, and in some places,'' where the ground admitted
of their iron chariots being employed, the latter re-
mained masters of the field. But wherever force
and vigour were m , question there the IsraeHtes
succeeded, and they obtained entire possession of
the mountain district and the great corn-growing
tract of Philistia {Judg. i. 18, 19). The latter was
constantly changing hands as one or the other side
got stronger (1 Sam. iv., v., vii. 14, 8cc.) ; but in
the natural fortresses of the mountains Judah dwelt
undistm-bed throughout the troubled period of the
Judges. Othniel was partly a member of the
tribe (Judg. iii. 9), and the Bethlehem of which
Ibzan was a native (sii. 8, 9) may have been
Bethlehem-Judah. But even if these two judges
belonged to Judah, the tiibe itself was not molested,
and with the one exception mentioned in Judg. xx.
19, when they were called by the divine oracle to
make the attack on Gibeah, they had nothmg to do
dm-ing the whole of that period but settle them-
selves in their home. Not only did they take no
part against Sisera, but they are not even rebuked
for it by Deborah.

Nor were they disturbed by the incursipns of the
Philistines during the rule of Samuel and of Saul,
which were made through the territory of Dan and
of Benjamin ; or if we place the valley of Elah at
the Wadi/ es-Sumt, only on the outskirts of the
mountains of Judah. On the last named occasion,
however, we know that at least one town of Judah —
Bethlehem — furnished men to Saul's ho.it. The
incidents of David's flight from Saul will be found
examined under the heads of David, Saul, Maon,
Hachilah, &c.

The main inference deducible from these con-
siderations is the determined manner in which the
tribe keeps aloof fi'om the I'est — neither offering its
aid nor asking that of others. The same inde-
pendent mode of action characterises the foundation
of the monarchy after the death of Saul. There
■ was no attempt to set up a rival power to Ish-
bosheth. The tribe had had full experience of the
man who had been driven from the court to take
shelter in the caves, woods, and fastnesses of their
wild hills, and when the opportunity offered, '* the
men of Judah came and anointed David king over
the house of Judah in Hebron" (2 Sam. ii. 4, 11).
The fuither step by which David was invested
with the sovereignty of the whole nation was taken
by the other tribes ; Judah having no special part
therein; and though willing enough, if occasion
rendered it necessary, to act with o'thers, their con-
duct later, when brought into collision with Ephraim
on the matter of the restoration of David, shows
that the men of Judah had preserved their inde-
pendent mode of action. The king was near of kin
to them; and therefoie they, and they alone, set
about bringing him back. It had been their own



JUDAH, KINGDOM OF 1167

affair, to be accomplished by themselves alone, and
they had gone about it in that independent mannei',
which looked like " despising" those who believed
their share in David to be a far larger one (2 Sam.
xix. 41-43).

The same independent temper will be found to
characterise the tribe throughout its existence as
a kingdom, which is considered in the following
article.

2. A Levite whose descendants, Kadmiel and his
sons, were very active in the work of rebuilding
the Temple after the return from captivity (Ezr.
iii. 9). Lord Herveyhas shown cause for believing
{Genealogies, &;c., 119) that the name is the same
as HODAVIAH and Hodevau. In 1 Esd. v. 58,
it appears to be given as Joda.

3. ('loiiSay, 'IwSae'.) A Levite who was obliged
by Ezra to pat away his foreign wife (Ezr. x. 23).
Probably the same person is intended in Neh. xii.
8, 36. In 1 Esd. lus name is given as Judas.

4. A Benjamite, son of Senuah (Neh. xi. 9). It
is worth notice, in connexion with the suggestion
of Lord Hervey mentioned above, that in the lists
of 1 Chr. ix., in many points so curiously parallel
to those of this chapter, a Benjamite, Hodaviah, son
of Has-sennuah, is given (ver. 7). [*^-]

JUDAH, KINGDOM OF. 1. When the
disruption of Solomon's kingdom took place at
Shechem, only the tribe of Judah followed the
house of David. But almost immediately after-
wards, when Rehoboam conceived the design of
establishing his authority over Israel by force of
arms, the tribe of Benjamin also is recorded as
obeying his summons, and contributing its warriors
to make up his army. Jerusalem, situate within
the borders of Benjamin (Josh, xviii. 28, &c.), yefc
won from the heathen by a prince of Judah, con-
nected the frontiers of the two tribes by an indis-
soluble political bond. By the erection of the city
of David, Benjamin's former adherence to Israel
(2 Sam. ii. 9) was cancelled; though at least two
Benjamite towns, Bethel and Jericho, were included
in the northern kingdom. A part, if not all, of
the territory of Simeon (1 Sam. xxvii. 6 ; 1 K. xix.
3 ; cf. Josh. six. 1) and of Dan (2 Chr. xi. 10 ; cf.
Josh. xix. 41, 42) was recognised as belonging to
Judah 5 and in the reigns of Abijah and Asa, the
southern kingdom was enlarged by some additions
taken out of the territory of Ephraim (2 Chr. xiii.
19, XV. 8, xvii. 2). After the conquest and depor-
tation of Israel by Assyria, the influence, and per-
haps the delegated jurisdiction of the king of Judah
sometimes extended over the territory which for-
merly belonged to Israel,

2. In Edom a vassal-king probably retained his
fidelity to the son of Solomon, and guarded for
Jewish enterprise the road to the maritime trade
with Ophir. Philistia maintained for the niost
part a quiet independence. Syria, in the height of
her brief power, pushed her conquests along the
northern and eastern frontiers of Judah and threat-
ened Jerusalem ; but the intei-position of the terri-
tory of Israel generally ]-elieved Judah fi"om any
immediate contact with that dangerous neighbour.
The southern border of Judah, resting on the un-
inhabited Desert, was not agitated by any turbu-
lent stream of commercial activity like that which
flowed by the rear of Israel, from Damascus to



d The word here (Judg. i. 19) is Emek, entirely a
different word from Shefelah, and rightly rendered
" valley." It is difficult, however, to fix upon any



"valley" in this region sufficiently important to be
alluded to. Can it he the valley of Elah, where
contests with the Philistines took place later ?



1158 JUDAH, KINGDOM OF

Tyre. And though some of the Egyptian kings
were ambitious, that ancient kingdom was far less
aggressive as a neighbour to Judah than Assyria
was to Israel.

3. A singular gauge of the growth of the Idng-
dom of Judah is supplied by the progressive aug-
mentation of the ai-my under successive kings. In
David's .time (2 Sam. xxiv. 9, and 1 Chr. xxi, 5)
the warriors of Judah numbered at least 500,000.
But Rehoboam brought into the field (1 K, xii.
21) only 180,000 men: Abijah, eighteen years
afterwards, 400,000 (2 Chr. xiii. 3): Asa (2 Chr.
xiv. 8), his successor, 580,000, exactly equal to the
sum oftheanniesofhis two predecessors: Jehoshaphat
(2 Chr. xvii. 14-19), the next king, numbered his
warriors in five aimies, the aggregate of which is
1,160,000, exactly double the army of his father,
and exactly equal to the sum of the armies of his
three predecessors. After four inglorious reigns
the energetic Amaziah could muster only 1300,000
men when he set out to recover Edom. His son
Uzziah had a standing (2 Chr. xxvi. 11) force of
307,500 fighting men. It would be out .of place
here to discuss the question which has been raised
as to the accuracy of these numbers. So far as
they are authentic, it may be safely reckoned that
the population subject to each kin'^; was about four
times the number of the fighting men in his domi-
nions. [Israel.]

4. Unless Judah had some other means beside
pnstiire and tillage of acquiring wealth ; as by ma-
ritime commerce fi'om the Red Sea poits, or (less
probably) from Joppa, or by keeping up the old
trade (1 K, x, 28) with Egypt — it seems difficult
to account for that ability to accumulate wealth,
which supplied the Temple treasuiy with sufficient
store to invite so frequently the hand of the spoiler.
Egypt, Damascus, Samaria, Kineveh, and Babylon,
had each in succession a share of the pillage. The
treasury was emptied by Shishak (1 K. xiv. 26),
again by Asa (1 K. xv. 18j, by Jehoash of Judah
(2 K. xii. 18), by Jehoash of Israel (2 K. xiv. 14),
by Ahaz (2 K. xvi. 8j, by Hezekiah (2 K. xviii,
15), and by Nebuchadnezzar (2 K. xxiv. 13).

5. The kingdom of Judah possessed many advan-
tages which secured for it a longer continuance than
that of Israel. A frontier less exposed to powerful
enemies, a soil less fertile, a population hardier and
more united, a fixed and venerated centre of admi-
nistration and religion, an hereditary aristocracy in
the sacerdotal caste, an anny always subordinate, a
succession of kings which no revolution intemipted,
many of whom were wise and good, and strove suc-
cessfully to promote the moral and spiritual as
well as the material prosperity of their people ; s.till
more than these, the devotion of the people to the
One True God, which if not always a pure and
elevated sentiment, was yet a contra-''t to such de-
votion as could be inspired by the worship of the
calves or of Baal ; and lastly the popular levorence
for and obedience to the Divine law so far as they
learned it from their teachers : — to these and other

■ secondary causes is to be attributed the fact that
Judah suivived her more populous and more pow-
erful sister kingdom by 135 yeai*s ; and la.-itod from
B.C. 975 to B.C. 586,

6. The chronological succession of the kings of
Judah is given in the articlf- Israel, A few diffi-
culties of no great importance have been disfMJvered
in the statements of the ages of some of the kings.
They are explained in the works citerl in that
article and in Keil's Commentary on the Book of



JUDAH, KINGDOM OF

Kings. A detailed history of each king wiU be
found under his name,

Judah acted upon three different lines of policy
in succession, Eirst, animosity against Israel : se-
condly, resistance, generally in alliance with Israel,
to Damascus: thirdly, deference, perhaps vassalage
to the Assyrian king.

(«.) The first three kings of Judah seem to have
cherished the hope of re-establishing their authority
over the Ten Tribes; for sixty years there waij waj*
between them and the kings of Israel. Neither the
disbanding of Rehoboam's forces by the authority
of Shemaiah, nor the pillage of Jerusalem by the
in-esistible Shishak, served to put an end to the fi-a-
temal hostihty. The victory achievefl by the
daring Abijah brought to Judah a temporary acces-
sion of territoiy, Asa appears to have enlarged it
still farther ; and to have given so powei-ful a sti-
mulus to the migration of religious Israelites to
Jerusalem, that Baasha was mduced to fortify Ra-
mah with the view of checking the movement.
Asa provided for the safety of his subjects from
invaders by building, like Rehoboam, several fenced
cities; he repelled, an alarming irruption of an
Ethiopian horde; he hired the amied intervention
of Benhadad L, king of Damascus, against Baasha ;
and he discouraged idolatry and enforced the wor-
ship of the true God by severe penal laws.

(6.) Hanani's remonstrance (2 Chr. xvi. 7) pre-
pares us for the reversal by Jehoshaphat of the
policy which Asa pursued towards Isi-ael and Da-
mascus. A clope alliance sprang up with strange
rapidity ?jetween Judah and Israel. For eighty
years, til^ the time of Amaziah, there was no open
war between them, and Damascus appears as
their chief and common enemy; though it rose
afterwai'ds from its overthrow to become under
Kezin the ally of Pekah against Ahaz. Jehosha-
phat, active and prosperous, repelled nomad in-
vaders from the desert, curbed the aggressive spirit
of his nearer neighbours, and made hia influence
felt even among the Philistines and Arabians. A
still more lasting benefit was conferred on his king-
dom by his persevering efforts for the religious
instiTiction of the people, and the regular adminis-
tration of justice. The reign of Jehojam, the
husband of Athaliah, a time of bloodshed, idolatiy,
and disaster, was cut short by disease. Ahaziah
was slain by Jehu. Athaliah, the granddaughter
of a Tyrian king, usurped the blood-stained throne
fof David, till the followers of the ancient religion
put her to death, and crowned Jehoash the sur-
■viving scion of the royal house. His pr&seryer, the
high-priest, acquired prominent pei-sonal influence
for a time; but the king fell into idolatry, and
failing to withstand the jwwer of Syria, was mur-
dered by his own officers. The vigorous Amaziah,
flashed with the recoveiy of Edom, provoked a war
with his more powerful contemporary Jehoash the
conqueror of the Syrians ; and Jerusalem was en-
tered and plundered by the Israelites. But their
energies were sufficiently occupied in the task of
completing the subjugation of Damascus, Under
Uzziah and Jotham, Judah long enjoyed political
and religious prosperity till the wanton Ahaz, sur-
rounded by united enemies, with whom he was
unable to cope, became in an evil hour the tributarj
and vassal of Tiglath-Pileser,

(c.) Already in the fatal grasp of Assyria, Judah
was yet sirred for a chequered existence of almost
another century and a half after the termination of
the kingdom of Israel. Thf» 'ffe'.-t of the repulse



JUDAPI, KINGDOM OF

of Sennacherib, of th^ signal religious revival under
Hezekiiih and under Josiah, and of the extension of
their salutary influence over the long-severed terri-
tory of Israel, was apparently done away by tlie
ignominious reign of the impious Manasseh, and
the lingeiing decay of the whole people under the
four ieeble descendants of Josiah. Provoked by
their treachery and imbecility, their Assyrian master
drained in successive deportations all thestiengtli
of the kingdom. The consummation of the ruin
came upon them in the destruction of the Temple
by the hand of Nebuzaradan, amid the wailings of
prophets, and the taunts of heathen tribes released
at length from the yoke of David.

7. The national life of the Hebrews seemed now
extinct ; hut there was still, as there had been all
along, a spiritual life hidden within the body.

It was ca time of hopeless darkness to all but
those Jews who had strong fjiith in God, with a
clear and steady insight into the ways of Pi'ovidence
as interpreted by prophecy. The time of the divi-
sion of the kingdoms was the golden age of pro-
phecy. In each kingdom the prophetical office was
subject to peculiar modifications which were re-
quired in Judah by the circumstances of the piiest-
hood, in Israel by the existence of the House of
Baal and the Altar in Bethel. If, under the shadow
of the Temple, there was a depth and a grasp else-
where unequalled, in the views of Isaiah and the
prophets of Judah, if their writings touched and
elevated the hearts of thinking men in studious
retirement in the silent night-watches ; there
was also, in the few burning woi-ds and energetic
deeds of the prophets of Israel, a power to tame a
lawless multitude and to check the high-handed
tyranny and idolatry of kings. The organiza-
tion and moral influence of the piiesthood were
matured in the time of David ; from about that
time to the building of the second Temple the in-
fluence of the prophets rose and became predomi-
nant. Some historians have suspected that after
the reign of Athaliah, the priestliood gi-adually
acquired and retained excessive and unconstitutional
power in Judah. The recorded facts scarcely sus-
tain the conjecture. Had it been so, the effect of
such power would have been manifest in the exoi-
bitant wealth and luxury of the priests, and in the
constant and cruel enforcement of penal laws, like
those of Asa, against in eligion. But the peculiar
offences of the priesthood, as witnessed in the pro-
phetic writings, were of another kind. Ignorance
of God's word, neglect of the instruction of thrf
laity, untruthfulness, and partial judgments, are
the offences specially imputed to them, just such
as might be looked for where the priesthood is an
hereditary caste and irresponsible, but neither am-
bitious nor powerful. AVhen the priest either, as
was the case in Israel, abandoned the land, or,
as in Judah, ceased to be really a teacher, ceased
from spiritual communion with God, ceased from
living sympathy with man, and became the mere
image of an intercessor, a mechanical performer of
ceremonial duties little understood or heeded by
himself, then the prophet was raised np to sup-
ply some of his deficiencies, and to exercise his
functions so far as was necessary. Whilst the
priests sink into obscurity and almost disappear,
except fiom the genealogical tables, the prophets
come forward appealing everywhere to the con-
ocieuce of individuals, in Israel as wonder-workers,
calling together God's chosen few out of an idola-
LiouB nation, and in Judah as teachers and seers.



JUDAS



1159



supporting and purifying all that remained of an-
cient piety, explaining each mysterious dispensation
of God as it was unfolded, and promulgating his
gracious spiritual promises in all their extent. The
pait which Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other prophets
took in preparing the Jews for their captivity, can-
not indeed be fully appreciated without reviewing
the succeeding efforts of Ezekiel and Daniel. But
the influence which they exercised on the national
mind was too important to be overlooked in a sketch
however brief of the history of the kingdom of
Judah. [W. T. B.]

JU'DAS {'lovSas), the Greek form of the
Hebrew name Judah, occurring in the LXX.
and N. T. [JuDAii.]

1. 1 Esd. ix. 23. [Judah, 3.]

2. The third son of Mattathias, "called Macca-
baeus" (1 Mace. ii. 4). [Maccabees,]

3. The son of Calphi (Alphaeus), a Jewish ge-
neral under Jonathan (1 Mace. xi. 70).

4. A Jew occupying a conspicuous position at
Jerusalem at the time of the mission to Aristobulus
[Aristoeulus] and the Egyptian Jews (2 Mace,
i. 10). He has been identified with an Essene,
conspicuous for his prophetic gifts (Jos. Ant. xiii.
11, 2 ; B. J. i. 3, 5) ; and with Judas Maccabaeus
(Grimm ad he). Some again suppose that he is a
person otherwise unknown.

5. A son of Simon, and brother, of Joannes
Hyrcanus (1 Mace. xvi. 2), murdered by Ptolemaeus
the usuiper, either at the same time (c. 135 B.C.),
with his father (I Mace, xvi, 15 if.), or shoi-tly
afterwards (Jos. Ant. xiii. 8, 1 : cf. Grimm, ad Mace.
I. c).

6. ThepatriarchJuDAH(Matt.i.2,3). [B.F.W.]

7. A man residing at Damascus, in " the street
which is called Straight," in whose house Saul
of Tai-sus lodged after his miraculous conversion



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