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A dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history online

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only do they depai't from their usual rendering, and
express nUnN-jS 1^_i? by irwXov veov.

Chamor ("I'lDn) is the general term for the male
ass, whether domesticated or not, and is derived
from the root IDH, ruhuit, because of its reddish
colour, as in Spanish they call the ass burro, Bur-
rigo = ruber, and in Or. fi'om irv^lrSs comes irvp-
^Lxos, scYttitos, The Hebrews u^ed the ass as a
beast of burden, for ploughing, and for riding, and
held it in considerable esteem. The comparison of
Issaohar to a strong ass (Gen. xlix. 14) is not in-
tended as, a reproach, though with the Greelcs, the
Romans, the Egyptians and other nations, the stu-
pidity of the ass became a proverb. In the law of
Moses (Deut. xxii. 10) it was forbidden to plough
with the ox and the ass yoked together: it was
also unclean because it did not chew the cud (Lev.
xi. 26) ; and hence the force of the statement in
2 K. vi. 25, " And there was a great famine in
Samaiia : and behold, they besieged it, until an ass's
head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver," &c. ;
for there could be no stronger pj'oof of the sti-aits
the besieged were put to than that they should eat
what was unclean. The imputation cast upon the
Jews in ancient times of worehipping an ass's head,
has been variously explained. The conjectures on
this matter are some of them ingenious, but all un-
satisfactory. The LXX. usually render IIDH by
6 ovos.

'Air (y^, from root 1*}?, fervere, aestuare) sig-
nifies a young male ass. The A. V., in Judg. x. 4,
xii. 14, renders it ass colts ; in Gen. xxxii. 15,
xlix. 11, /oa^; in Job xi. 12, colt; and in Isa.
XXX. 6., 24, young asses. In the four first passages
the LXX. have iroJ\os, In Job and Isaiah $vqs.
The ass is a lascivious animal; hence the deriva-'
tion of this word ; and possibly also of IIDH, for
one meaning of "IDH is aestuamt.

Arod (I'njf). This animal is mentioned in Job
xxxix. 5, in company with the N'lS, and both are
rendered in A. V. by mild ass. The LXX. omit
inj?- Gesenius says inV = X'13, the fonnei'
being the Aramean, the latter the Heb. form ; but
probably two distinct animals are meant. Wc
have the Chald. plur. emphat. N'TIJ), from TSS

T -T-: T -'

in Dan. v. 21, which is rendered by Thcodot. ovA-
ypav. The IT^ is probably the wild male of
Mongolia, which is superior to the onagei- in
strength, beauty, and swiftness. The derivation is
from an unused root TlV, which in the Arab sio -

-T O

nifies ftigit (cognate of Tin, tremuit, trepidavit).
Bochart (fficroz. ii. p. 218, Lips.) suspects the
name ITIJJ to be onomatopoetic, Horn the ncichmg
of the animal when it sees man; and Gesenius
thinks that there may be some truth in this cou- !


jecture, although we have no confirmation of it in
the other Semitic dialects. In Sanscrit nid = flere,
to weep.

Pere (N^B), the wild ass of Asia, fonnerly
found in Syria, but now very rai*e in Western Asia,
but still found in Arabia and Persia. Gesenius
refers to Ker Porter's Travels in Georgia and
Persia, i. p. 459, for a description and figiu:e
of this animal, agreeing precisely with a living ex-
ample which he saw in the Zoological Gardens in
London in 1835. The chase of this aniinal by the
soldiers of the army of Cyrus is related by Xeno-
phon. Mai-tial calls itpmloher onager; and Op-
pian has described its beauty, fleetness, and un-
tameableness. The word occurs in Gen. xvi. 12,
where it is said that Ishmael shall be D*7X N^3
rendered in A. V. a wild man, in Ps. civ. II ; in
several passages of Job; Isa. xxxii. 14; Jer. ii.
24, xiv. 6; and Hos. viii. 9. The LXX. vari-
ously render it by ivaypos, ivos &ypio5, ovos ipjj-
fiiTTjs, and oyot 4y ayp^. The derivation is from
X"13, cito ferri, cite currere, onagrum agere. See
Hos. xiii. 15, where N^'ISS onagrum egit, :=fero~
citer egit instar onagri. [W. D.]

ASSA'BIAS ('Affa^ias ; Sasahias), 1 Esd. i.
9. [Hashabiah.]

ASSAL'IMOTH (SoMfitiifl ; Salimoth (39) ),
1 Esd. viii. 36. [Shelomith.]

ASSA'NIAS (2a/i(as-; Assannas), 1 Esd. viii.
54. [Hashabiah.1

ASSH'UE. [Assyria.]

ASSIDB'ANS ('Ao-iSoToi ; Assidaei ; i. e.
DTPDi the pious, " pm-itans ;" ol evire^eh, oi
cftTioi), th£ name assumed by a section of the orthodox
Jews (1 Mace. ii. 42, alii 'lovSalav probably by
con-ection ; 1 Mace. vii. 13 ; 2 Mace. xiv. 6), as
distinguished from " the impious " (oi affEiSeis,
1 Mace. iii. 8, vi. 21, vii. 5, &c.), " the lawless"
(ot ivofioi, 1 Mace. iii. 6, ix. 23, &c.), "the
transgi-essors " {ol irapdnoiioi, 1 Mace. i. 11, &c.),
that is, the Hellenizing faction. They appear to
have existed as a pai-ty before the Maccabaean rising,
and were probably bound by some peculiai" vow to
the external observance of the Law (1 Mace. ii. 42,
cKova-id^eaBai t^j v6iiip). They were among the
first tojom Mattatbias (1 Mace. I. c.) ; and seem
afterwards to have been merged in the general body
of the faithful (2 Mace. xiv. 6, oi Keyd/ievoi tuv
lovSaiojv 'AfftSaioi, Siv acpTjyeTTai 'louSas o MaKKa-
$a7os . . .) When Bacchides came against Jei*usalem
1;hey used their influence (1 Mace. vii. 13, TrpSroi

01 'AiriS. ^aav iv vloTs 'lirpaiiX) to conclude a
peace, because " a priest of the seed of Aaron "
(Alcimus) was with him, and sixtv of them fell by
his treachery [Alcimus]. The "name Chasidim
occurs frequently in the Psalms ( e. g. Ps. Ixxix.

2 = 1 Mace. vii. 17; c.txxii. 9, &c.) ; and it has
been adopted in recent times by a sect of Polish
Jews, who talie as the basis of their mystical system
the doctrines of the Cabbalistic book'Zohar (Beer,
Ersch und Grither, s. v. Chassidaer). [B. F. W.]

AS'SIR (1*pN; 'A<r€(p, 'Ao-^p; Aser, Adr\

1. Son of Koi-ali (Ex. vi. 24; 1 Chr. vi. 22).

2. Son of Ebiasaph, and a forefather of Samuel
(1 Chr. vi. 23, 37). 3. Son of Jeconiah (1 Chr.
iii. 17), unless "IDS iTija' be translated " Jeconiah

' ~ t: T ;

the captive " (Berthcau ad loc). [G.l


AS'SOS or AS'SUS ("Ao-o-os), a town and sea-
port of the Roman province of Asia, in the district
anciently called Mysia. It was situated on the
ijorthera shore of the gulf of AcRAMYTTiuar, and
was only about seven miles from the opposite coast
of Lesbos, near Methymna (Strab. xiii. p. 618).
A good Roman road, connecting the towns of the
central paii-s of the province with Alexandria
TrojUJ [Tkoas] passed through Assos, the distance
between the two latter places being about 20 miles
(^Itin. Anton.). These geogi'aphical points illus-
trate St. Paul's rapid passage through the town, as
mentioned in Acts xx, 13, 14. The ship in which
he was to accomplish his voyage from Troas to
Caesarea went round Cape Lectum, while he took
the much shorter jom-ney by land. Thus he was
able to join the ship without difficulty, and in sutfi-
cient time for her to anchor off Mitylene at the
close of the day on which Troas had been left.

The chief characteristic of Assos was that it was
singulai'ly Greek. Fellows found there "no trace
of the Romans." Leake says that "the whole
gives perhaps the most perfect idea of a Greek city
that anywhere exists." The remains ai-e numerous
and remai-kably well preseiTed, paitly because
many of the buildings were of granite. The cita-
del, above the theatre, commands a glorious view,
and must itself have been a noble object fi'om the
sea. The Street of Tombs, leading to the Great
Gate, is one of the most remarkable features of
Assos. Illustrations of the ancient city will be
found in Texier, Clai'ac, Fellows, and Choiseul-
Gouffier. It is now utterly desolate. Two mono-
gi-aphs on the subject are mentioned by Wmer:
Quandt, De Asson. Regiom. 1710 j Amnell, Be
Atro-ijj, Upsal. 1758.

It is now a matter of curiosity to refer to the
intei-pretation which used to be given to the words
S-ffffov irape\4yovTo, in Acts xxvii. 13. In the
Vulgate they were rendered " cum sustulissent de
Asson," and they wei'e supposed to point to a city
of this name in Crete. Such a place is actually
inserted by Padi-e Georgi, in the map which accom-
panies his Faulus Naufragus (Venet. 1730, p.
181). The true sense of the passage was fet
given by Beza. [J. S. H.]

ASSUE'RUS (Kffi-npos), Tob. xiv. 15. [Aiia-


AS'SURO-IESJN; 'Atrtroi/p). 1. (Ezr. iv. 2;
Ps. Ixxxiii. 8 ; 2 Esd. ii. 8 ; Jud. ii..l4; v. 1 ; vi.
1, 17; vii. 20, 2-t; xiii. 15; xiv. 3; xv. 6; x\'i. 4.
[Asshue; Assyria.] 2. (^kffov^; Alex. 'Ao-oiJp ;
Aziu), 1 Esd. V. 31. [Harhur.]

ASSYR'IA, ASSH'UE ("I-ICS'K ; 'Ao-o-oiJp;
Jos. 'Acrirupfa; Assur), was a great and powerful
country lying on the Tigris (Gen. ii. 14), the
capital of which was Nineveh (Gen. x. 11, &c.).
It derived its name apparently from Asshm-,
the son of Shem (Gen. x. 22), who in later
times was worshipped as their chief god by the
Assyrians. The boundaries of Assyria diifered
greatly at different periods. Probably in the
earliest times it was confined to a small tract of
low country between the Gehel Makloub and the
^ Lesser Zab, or Zah Asfal, lying chiefly on the left
bank of the Tigi'is. Gradually its limits were ex-
tended, until it came to be regai'ded as comprising
the whole region between the Araienian mountains
(lat. 37° 30') upon the north, and upon the south
the countiy about Baghdad (lat. 33° 30'). East-
ward its boundary was the high range of Zagios,



or moimtains of Kurdistan ; w^tward, it was, ac-
cording to the views of some, bounded by the
Mesopotamian desert, while, accordmg to others, it
reached the Euphrates. Taking the greatest of
these dimensions, Assyi'ia may be said to have
extended in a direction from N.E. to S.\\'. a dis-
tance of nearly 500 miles, with a width vaiying
fi'om 350 to 100 miles. Its area would thus a
little exceed 100,000 square miles, or about equal
that of Italy.

1. Gerieral character of the country. — The comi-
try within these limits is of a varied chai acter. On
the north and east the high mountain-chains of
Armenia and Kui'dist&n are succeeded by low ranges
of limestone-hills of a somewhat arid aspect, which
detach themselves fiom the principal ridges, running
parallel to them, and occasionally inclosing, between
their northern or north-eastern flank and the main
mountain-line, rich plains and fertile valleys. To
these ridges there succeeds at first an imdulating
zone of country, well watered and fairly productive,
which finally sinks down with some suddenness
upon the gi-eat Mesopotamian plain, the modern
district of El-Jezireh. This vast flat, which ex-
tends in length for 250 miles from the latitude of
Mardln (37° 20') to that of Tekrit (34° 33'), and'
which is in places of nearly equal width, is inter-
rupted only by a single limestone -range — a narrow
ridge rising abruptly out of the plain; which,
splitting off from Zagios in lat. 33° 30', may be
traced under the names of Sarazur, Hamrin, and
Sinjar, from Iwan in Luristan nearly to Rakkah
on the Euphrates. " From all parts of the plain
the Sinjar is a beautiful object. Its limestone rocks,
wooded here and there with Awarf oak, are of a
rich golden colour; and the numberless ravines
which fuiTow its sides form ribs of deep purple
shadow" (Layard, Nin&veh and Bahijlon, p. 265).
Above and below this banier, stretching southward
and westward farther than the eye can reach, and
extending northward and eastward 70 or 80 miles
to the hill-coxmtry before mentioned, is an immense
level tract, now for the most part a wilderaess,
scantly watered on the right bank of the Tigris,
but abundantly supplied on the left, which bears
marks of having been in early times throughout
well cultivated and thickly peopled. This plain is
not alluvial, and most parts of it are even con-
siderably raised above the level of the rivers. It
is covered in spring time with the richest vegeta-
tion, presenting to the eye a cai-pet of flowers,
varying in hue from day to day ; but as the sum-
mer advances it is parched up, and gradually
changes to an ^arid and yellow waste, except along
the com-ses of the rivei-s. All over this vast flat,
on both sides of the Tigris, rise " giass-covered
heaps, marking the site of ancient habitations"
(Layard, p. 245). Mr. Layard counted fi-om one
spot nearly a hundred {Nineveh and its Bemains,
i. p. 315); from another above 200 of these lofty
mounds (Nin. and Bab. p. 245). Those which
have been examined have been uniformly found to
present appearances distinctly connecting them with
the remains of Nmeveh. [Nineveh.] It may
therefore be regarded as cei-tain that they belong to
the time of Assyi-ian gi-eatness, and thus they will
serve to mark the extent of tJie real Assyrian do-
minion. They are numerous on the left bank of
the Tigris from Bavian to the Diyaleh, and on
the right they thickly stud the entire country both
north and south of the Sinjar range, extending
eastward beyond the /iT/ia^oiir (Layard, chs. xii.-xiv.),



northward to Mardin, and southward to the vicinity
of Baghdad.

2. Promnces of Assyria, — Assyria in Scripture
is commonly spoken of in its entirety, and unless
the Huzzah (S'^H) of Nahum (ii. 7) is an equiva-
lent for the Adiahene of the geographers, no name
of a district can he said to be mentioned. The
classical geogi-aphers, on the contrary, divided As-
syria into a number of regions — Strabo (xvi. §1
and §4) into Aturia^ Arhditis, Artacene, Apollo-
niatiSt Chalonitis, Dolomene, Calachene, Adiahene^
Mesopotamia, &c. ; Ptolemy (vi. 1) into Arrapa-
chitisj Adiahene, the Garamaean country, Apollo-
niatiSf Arhelitis, the country of the Samhatae,
Calacine, and Sittacene. These regions appear to
be chiefly named from cities, as Arbelitis from
Arbela ; Calacene (or Calachine) from Calah or
Halah (Gen. x. 11 ; 2 K. xvii. 6); Apolloniatis
from Apollonia ; Sittacene from Sittace, &c. Adia-
bene, however, the richest region of all, derived its
appellation from the Zdb (Diah) rivers on which it
lay, as Ammianus MarceUinus infoi-ms us (xxiii. 20).
Ptolemy {v. 18) made' Mesopotamia (which he un-
derstood literally as the whole country between the

•Euphrates and the Tigris) distinct from Assyria,
just as the sacred writer distinguish DpHJ DHN
from "I'lC^N. Strabo (xvi. §1) extended Assyi-ia
to the Euphrates, and even across it into Arabia
and Syria !

3. Chief cities. — ^The chief cities of Assyria in
the time of its greatness appear to have been the
following: — Nineveh, which is marked by the
mounds opposite Mosul (^Nebhi-Yunus and Koyun-
jik); Calah or Halah, now Nimrud; Asshur, now
Kileh Sherghat; Sargina, or Dur-Sargina, now
Khorsahad; Arbela, still Arbih^ Opis at the junc-
tion of the Diyaleh with the Tigris; and Sittace, a
little ftirther down the latter river, if this place
should not rather be reckoned to Babylonia.

4. Nations bordering on Assyria. — Towards the
north, Assyria bordered on the strong and moun-
tainous region of Armenia, which may have been
at times under Assyiian dominion, but was never
reckoned an actual part of the country. (See 2 K.
xix. 37.) Towards the east her neighbours were
originally a multitude of independent tribes, scat-
tered along the Zagros chain, who have their fitting
representatives in the modem Kurds and Lui-s — the
real sovereigns of that mountain-range. Beyond
these tribes lay Media, which ultimately subjected
the mountaineers, and was thereby brought into
direct contact with Assyria in this quarter. On
the south, Elam or Susiana was the border-state
east of the Tigris, while Babylonia occupied the
same position between the rivers. West of the
Euphrates was Arabia, and higher up Syria, and
the countiy of the Hittites, which last reached
from the neighbourhood of Damascus to Anti-Taurus
and Amanus.

5. History of Assyria — original peopling. — On
the subject of the original peopling and eai'ly con-
dition of Assyria we have more information than is
generally possessed with regard to the first begin-
nings of nations. Scripture infomis us that Assyi-ia
was peopled from Babylon (Gen. x. 11;, and both
classical tradition and the monuments of the coun-
try agree in this representation. In Herodotus
(i. 7), Ninus, the mythic founder of Nineveh, is the
son (descendant) of Belus, the. mythic founder of
Babylon — a tradition in which the derivation of


Assyi*ia from Babylon, and the gi-eater antiquity
and superior position of the latter in early times
are shadowed forth sufl!iciently. That Ctesias (ap.
Diod. Sic. ii. 7) inverts the relation, making
Semiramis (according to him, the wife and suc-
cessor of Ninus), found Babylon, is only one out of
ten thousand proofs of the untrustworthy character
of his history. The researches recently earned on
in the two countries clearly show, not merely by
the statements which are said to have been de-
ciphered on the historical monuments, but by the
whole character of the remains discovered, that
Babylonian greatness and civiHzation was earlier
than Assyrian, and that while the former was of
native growth, tlie latter was derived from the
neighbouring country. The cuneifoi-m writing, for
instance, which is- rapidly punched with a very-
simple instrument upon moist clay, but is only
with much labour and trouble inscribed by the
chisel upon rock, must have been invented in a
country where men '* had brick for stone". (Gen.
xi. 3), and have thence passed to one where the
material was unsuited for it. It may be observed
also, that while writing occui"s in a very rude
form in the earlier Babylonian ruins (Loftus's
Chaldaea, p. 169), and gi-aduaUy improves in the
later ones, it is in Assyria uniformly of an advanced
type, having apparently been introduced there after
it had attained to perfection.

6. Date of the foundation of the kingdom. —
With respect to the exact date at which Assyria
became a separate and independent country, there
is an impoi"tant difference between classical autho-
rities. Herodotus and Ctesias were widely at
vaaiance on this point, the latter placing the com-
mencement of the empire almost a thousand years
before the former! Scripture does but little to
determine the controversy; that little, however, is
in favour of the earlier author. Geographically —
as a country — Assyria was evidently known to
Moses (Gen. ii, 14, xxv. 18 ; Num. xxiv. 22, 24);
but it does not appear in Jewish history as a
kingdom till the reign qf Menahem (ab. B.C. 770).
In Abraham's time (B.C. 1900 ?) it is almost cer-
tain that there can have been no Assyrian kingdom,
or its monarch would have been found among those
who invaded Palestine with Chedorlaomer (Gen.
xiv. 1). In the time of the early Judges (B.C.
1400?) Assyria, if it existed, can have been of no
gi'eat strength ; for Chushan-Rishathaim, the firet
of the foreigners who oppressed Israel (Judg. iii. 8),
is master of the whole country between the rivere
{^Aram-Naharaim = " Syria between the two
rivei-s"). These facts militate strongly against
the views of Ctesias, whose numbers produce for
the founding of the empire the date of B.C. 2182
(Chntoii, F. K. i. p. 263). The more modest ac-
count of Herodotus is at once more probable in
itself, more agi'eeable to Scripture, and more in
accordance with the native writer Berosus. He-
rodotus relates that the Assyrians were "lords of
Asia " for 520 yeai*s, when their empire was partially
broken up by a revolt of the subject-nations (i. 95).
After a period of anarchy, the length of which he
does not estimate, the Median kingdom was formed,
179 yeare before the death of Cyrus, or B.C. 70S.
He would thus, it appeal's, liave assigned to the
foundation of the Assyrian empire a date not very
gi'oatly anterior to B.C. 1228. Berosus, who made
the empire last 526 yeai-s to the reign of Pul (ap.
Euseb. Chron. Can. i. 4), must have agreed nearly
with this view ; at least he would cei-tainly have


placed the rise of the kingdom within the 13th
century. This is, perhaps, the utmost that can be
detennined with any approach to certainty. If, for
convenience sake, a more exact date be desired, the
conjecture of Dr. Brandis has some claim to be
adopted, which fixes the year B.C. 1273 as that
fi'om which the 526 years of Berosus are to be
reckoned {Rerum Assyriarum Tempora Emendataj
p. 17).

7. Early kings, from the foundation of the king-
dom to PuL — The long list of Assyi-ian kings, which
has come down to us in two or three forms, only
slightly varied (Chnt. F. H. i. p. 267), and which
is almost certainly derived from Ctesias, must of
necessity be discarded together with his date for
the kingdom. It covers a space of above 1200
yeai"s, and bears mai'ks besides of audacious fraud,
being composed of names snatched from all quarters,
Arian, Semitic, and Greek — names of gods, names
of towns, names of rivers — and in its estimate of
time presenting the impossible average of 34 or 35
years to a reign, and the veiy improbable pheno-
menon of reigns in half the instances amounting
exactly to a decimal number. Unfortunately we
have no authentic Hst to substitute for the forgery
of Ctesias. Berosus spoke of 45 kings as reigning
during his period of 526 years, and mentioned all
their names (Euseb. 1. s. c.) ; but they have un-
luckily not been presei*ved to us. The work of
Herodotus on Assyiian history (Herod, i. 106 and
184) has likewise entirely perished; and neither
Greek nor Oriental sources are available to supply
the loss, which has hitherto proved irreparable.
Recently the researches in Mesopotamia have done
something towards filling up this sad gap in our
itnowledge ; but the reading of names is still so
doubtful that it seems best, in the present condition
of cuneiform inquiry, to treat the early period of
Assyrian history in a very general way, only men-
tioning kings by name when, through the satis-
factory identification of a cuneiform royal designa-
tion with some name known to us from sacred or
profane sources, firm ground has been reached, and
serious eiTor rendered almost impossible.

The Mesopotamian researches have rendered it
apparent that the original seat of government was
not at Nineveh. The oldest Assyrian remains have
been found at Kileh-Sherghat , on the right bank bt
the Tigris, 60 miles south of the later capital ; and
this place the monuments show to have been the
residence of the earliest kings, as well as of the
Babylonian govemora who previously exercised au-
thority over the country. The ancient name of
the town appears to have been identical with that
of the countiy, viz. Asshur. It was built of brick,
and has yielded but a very small number of sculp-
tures. The kings proved to have reigned there are
fourteen in number, divisible into three groups ; and
their reigns are thought to have crfvered a space of
nearly 350 years, from B.C. 1273 to B.C. 930. The
most remarkable monarch of the series was called
Tigiath-Pileser. He appears to have been king
towards the close of the twelfth century, and thus
to have been contemporary with Samuel. He over-
!"an the whole country between Assyi-ia Proper and
the Euphrates ; swept the valley of the Euphrates
from south to noi-th, from the borders of Babylon
to Mount Taurus ; crossed the Euphrates, and con-
tended in noi-thern Syria with the Hittites; in-
vaded Armenia and Cappadocia ; and claims to have
subdued forty-two countries "from the channel of
the Lower Zab {Zdb Asfal) to the Upper Sea of the



Setting Sun." All this he accomplished in the first
five years of his reign. At a later date he appears
to have suffered defeat at the hands of the king of
Babylon, who had invaded his territory and suc^
ceeded in caiTying off to Babylon various idols from
the Assyi-ian temples.

The other monarchs of the Kileh-SIierghat series,
both before and after Tigiath-Pileser, are compara-
tively insignificant. The later kings of the series are
only known to us as the ancestors of the two gi'eat
monarchs, Sardanapalus the first, and his son Shal-
maneser or Shalmanuhar, who were among the
most wai'like of the Assyrian princes. Sardanapalus
the first, who appears to have been the warlike
Sardanapalus of the Greeks (Suidas, s. v. ; comp.
Hellan. Fr. 158), transfen-ed the scat of govern-
ment from Eileh-Sherghat to 'Nimrvd (probably
the Scriptural Calah), where he built the first
of those magnificent palaces which have recently
been exhumed by our countrymen. A gi*eat portion
of the Assyrian sculptures now in the British
Museum are derived from this edifice. A descrip-
tion of the building has been given by Mr. Layard
{Nin. and its Reinains, vol. ii. ch. 11). By an
inscription repeated more than a hundred times

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA dictionary of the Bible; comprising its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history → online text (page 35 of 316)