William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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DR. WM. SMITH'S
ENGLISH, FRENCH^JJm^^ COURSE.

Undertaken with (he view of /(wUitating the study of Languages, and comhinin
the advantages qfthe older and modem Methods of Instruction. Each Volum
contains su^ects usually distributed over two or rnore separate works.

GBEEK COXJItSE.

INITIA GRiECA. Part I. An Introduction to Greek : com-
prehending Grammar, Delectus, and Exercise-Book. With Vocabularies.
12mo. 3«. 6rf.

INITIA GKiECA. Part II. A Reading-Book. Containing
Short Talks, Anrcdotbs, Fables, Mythology, and Grecian History.
Arranged in Systematic Progression, with a Lexicon. 12mo. 3x. 6cl.

INITIA GRiECA. Part III. Greek Prose Composition. Con-
taining the Rules of Syntax, with Copious Examples and Exercises.
12mo. 8». 6rf.

THE STUDENT'S GREEK GRAMMAR. By Professor Curtius.
Post 8vo. 6*.

A SMALLER GREEK GRAMMAR. Abridged from the above.

12mo. 3«. 6rf.

PLATO. The Apology of Socrates. The Crito, and Part of
THE Ph;KDo ; with Notes in English from Stallbaum. Schleierma-
cHEB's Introductions. 12mo. 3«. Id.

LATIN COTJBSE.

PRINCIPIA LATINA. Part I. A First Cofrse. Containing
a Grammar, Deleotus, and Exercise-Book. With Vocabularies.
12th Edition. With Accidence adapted to "Public School Latin
Primer." 12mo. 3«. 6d.

PRINCIPIA LATINA. Part II. A Readino-Book. Con-
taining an Introduction to Ancient Mythology, Geography, Roman
Antiquities, aHd History. With Notes and a Dictionary. 12mo. 3«. 6c/.

PRINCIPIA LATINA. Part III. A Poetry Book. Con-
taining Easy Hexameters and Pentameters ; Eclogae OYidiaoae ; Pro-
sody and Metre. Ist Verse Book. 12mo. 3*. dd.

PRINCIPIA LATINA. Part IV. Prose Composition. Con-
taining Rules of Syntax, with Examples, Explanations of Synonyms,
and Exercises on the Sjmtax. 12mo. 3«. M.

PRINCIPIA LATINA. Part V. Short Tales and Anecdotes.

from Ancient History, for Translation into Latin Prose. 12mo. 3«.
THE STUDENT'S LATIN GRAMMAR. Post 8vo. 65.
A SMALLER LATIN GRAMMAR. Abridged from the above.

12mo. 3«. 6d.

'Tacitus. Germania, Agricola, and first book of the

Annam. With English Notes. 12mo. 8«. 6d.

DB. WM. SMITH'S ENGLISH COXJItSE.

A SCHOOL MANUAL OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. With
Copious Exercises. By WM. SMITH, D.C.L., andT. D. HALL, M.A.

12mo. 3«. Qd.

DB. WM. SMITH'S FBENCH COTJBSE.

THE FRENCH PRINCIPIA. Part I. A First French
Course, containing Grammar, Delectus^ Exercisb Book and Voca-
' BULARIES. 12mo. 3«. 6d.

To hefollovtd by
THE FRENCH PRINCIPIA. Part II. A Reading Book, with

Notes, and a Dictionary. 12mo.
THE FRENCH PRINCIPIA. Part III. An Introduction to
French Prose Composition, containing a Systematic Course of Exercises
on the Syntax, with the Principal Rules of Syntax. 12mo.



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HISTORICAL CLASS BOOKS.



THE STUDENT'S HUME : A History of Enolakd from the
Earliest Times. Baued on the History by DAVID HUME, corrected
and continued, to 1868. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7*. 6d.

*«* Questions on the Student's Hume. 12mo. 2m.

THE STUDENT'S CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF ENG-
LAND. From the Accession of Henry VII. to the Death of
George II. By HENRY HALL AM, LL.D. Tost 8vo. 7t.6d.,

n.— -IBUBOPn.

THE STUDENT'S HISTORY OF EUROPE DURING THE

MIDDLE AGES. By HENRY HALLAM, LL.D. Post 8vo. 7s. M.

THE STUDENT'S HISTORY OF FRANCE : From the Ear-
liest Times to the Establishment of the Second Empire, 1852. By
Rev. W. H. JERVI8. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s. W.

THE STUDENT'S HISTORY OF ROME : From the Earliest
Times to the Establishbient of the Empire, with the History of
Literature and Art. By DEAN LIDDELL. Woodcuts. Post 8vo
78. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S GIBBON : An Epitome of the History of
the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Woodcuts. Post
Svo. 7s. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S HISTORY OF GREECE : From the Ear-
liest Times to the Roman Conquest, with the History of Litera-
ture AND Art. By DR. WM. SMITH. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s^ tW.
*•* Questions on the Student's Greece. 12mo. 2s.

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF ANCIENT HISTORY. Con-
taining an Account of the Ancient History of Egypt. A«SYRrA, Baby-
lonia, Media, Persia, Phcbnioia, &c. By PHILIP SMITH, B.A.
Post 8vo. 7s. 6d,

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY.
From the Creation to the Return of the Jews from Captivity. Maps
and Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s. 6rf.

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY.
With an Inti'oduction, containing the Connection of the Old and New*
Testament. Maps and Woodcuts. Post Svo. 7s. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
By GEORGE P. MARSH. Post Svo. 7s. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.
By THOMAS B. SHAW, M.A. Post Svo. 7s. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S SPECIMENS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.
Selected from the Chief Writers. By THOMAS B. SHAW, M.A.
Post Svo. 7s. 6d,

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.
By Rev. W. L. BEVAN, M.A. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 7s. M.

THE STUDENT'S' MANUAL OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY.
By Rev. W. L. BEVAN. Woodcuts. Post Svo. 7s. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY.

By WILLIAM FLEMING, D.D. Post Sto. 7s. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S BLACKSTONE. A Systematic Abridge-
ment OF the entire Commentaries. By R. MALCOLM KERR, LL.D.
Post Svo. 7*. ad.



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SMALLER CLASSICAL DICTIONARY



Btogtap[)S[, iWist[)ologs, ani! (StogTapf)s«



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DR. WM. SMITH'S DICTIONARIES.



" Dr. Smith's Dictionaries have conferred a great and lasting service on the
cause of clasbical learning."— i)«an LiadelL

" Dr. Smith's Dictionaries ai*e extremely valuable."— Dr. Moberlp.

*' Dr. Smith's works are extensively used in all public schools." —
Dr. Vaughan.

** Dr. Smith's admirable Dictionaries."— Dr. Hawtrey,



A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE, its Antiquities,
BiooRA-PHY, Geography, and Natural History. With 300 Illustra-
tions. Medium 8vo. 21<.

A SMALLER DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE. With Illus-
trations. Crown 8vo. 7<. 6d.

A DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.

With 500 Illustrations. 8vo. 28<.

A DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY
AND MYTHOLOGY. With 664 Illustrations. 3 Vols. 8vo. 84*.

A DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN GEOGRAPHY.
With 530 illustrations. 2 Vols. 8vo. 5G«.

A CLASSICAL DICTIONARY of MYTHOLOGY, BIOGRAPHY,
AND GBOGRAPHY. With 750 Woodcuts. 8vo. 18*.

A SMALLER CLASSICAL DICTIONARY. With 200 Woodcuts.
Crown 8vo. 7<. W.

A SMALLER DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN
ANTIQUITIES. With 200 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7«. 6rf.

A LATIN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. Based on the Works of
Forcellini and Freund. With Tables of the Bomau Calendar, Measures,
Weights, and Monies. 8vo. 21<.

A SMALLER LATIN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY : with Dictionary
of Proper Names and Tables of Roman Calendar, etc. Square 12mo.
7«.(k/.

A COPIOUS AND CRITICAL ENGLISH-LATIN DICTIONARY.

8vo. 21«.

A SMALLER ENGLISH-LATIN DICTIONARY. Square 12mo.

7«. tki.



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A SMALLER ,^ ^^ ^,,^

CLASSICAL DICTIONAKY^^



3SiDp|L|i|, 3lli|t|iliigi|, nil tagtii|ii|i|.



ABRIDGED FROM THE LAROBR DICTIOXABV.



By WILLIAM SMITH, D.C.L. & LL.D.




ILLU8TR.VTED BY TWO HUNDAED ENGEA VINOS ON WOOD.



FIFTEENTH EDITION.



LONDON :
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1874.



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LONDON :
BRADtiL'RY, AGNEW, St CO., PRINTERS, WHITKFRIARS.



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PREFACE



The present Work is designed to supply a want which still
exists in our School Classical Literature. It has been repre-
sented to the Editor, from several quarters, that his Larger
Classical Dictionary, though well adapted for the use of the
higher Forms in the Public Schools, is excluded, both by its
size and price, fi*om a great number of schools, which are there-
fore obliged to put up with the abridgments of Lempriere's
obsolete work.

In consequence of these representations, the Editor has been
induced to draw up this Smaller Dictionary. All names have
been inserted which a young person would be likely to meet
with at the commencement of his classical studies ; and only
those have been omitted which occur in later writers, or in
works not usually read in schools. The quantities have been
carefully marked, and the genitive cases inserted. The mytho-
logical articles have been illustrated by drawings from ancient
works of art, for which the Editor is indebted to the skilful
pencil of his friend, Mr. George Scharf.



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VIU PREFACE.

In this, as in the Smaller Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Antiquities, care has been taken not to presume too much on the
knowledge of the reader. It is, therefore, hoped that these
two Works may be used conjointly with advantage, even in
schools where Latin and Greek are not taught.

WILLIAM SMlTa

liOMDOK, Uarch 31 t» 1H52.



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SMAILEE CLASSICAL DICTIONAET.



ABACAENUM.



ABORRHAS.



A BACAEXUM (-i), an ancient town of the
-"- Siculi in Sicily, W. of Messana, and S.
of Tyndaris.

ABAE (.anun), an ancient town of Phods,
on the boundaries of Boeotia; celebrated
for an ancient temple and oracle of Apollo,
who hence derived the surname of Abaeus,

ABANTES, the ancient inhabitants of
Euboea. They are said to have been of
Thracian origin, to have first settled in Phocis,
where they built Abac, and afterwards to
have crossed over to Euboea. The Abantes
of Euboea assisted in colonising several of
the Ionic cities of Asia Minor.

ABANTIADES (-ae), any descendant of
Abas, but especially Perseus, great-grandson of
\bas, and Acrisius, son of Abas. A female
descendant of Abas, as Dana^ and Atalante,
was called Abantias.

ABARIS (-is), a Hyperborean priest of
Apollo, came from the country about the Can-
casus to Greece, while bis native land was
^•i8ited by a plague. His history is entirely
mythical : he is said to have taken no earthly
food, and to have ridden on an arrow, the
gift of Apollo, through the air. He may
perhaps be placed about b.c. 570.

ABAS (-antis). (1) Son of Metanira, was
changed by Demeter (Ceres), Into a lizard,
because he mocked the goddess when she had
come on her wanderings into the house of his
mother, and drank eagerly to quench her
thirst. — (2) Twelfth king of Argos, son of
Lynceus and Hypermnestra,' grandson of
Danaus, and father of Acrisius and Proetus.
^Vhen he informed his father of the death of
Danaus, he was rewarded with the shield
of his grandfather, which was sacred to
Hera (Juno). This shield performed various
marvels, and the mere sight of it could reduce
a revolted people to submission.

ABD£RA (-ae, and -drum), a town of
Thruce, near tiie mouth of the Nestus, which



flowed through the town. It was colonised
by Timesios of Clazomenae about b.c. 656,
and a second time by the inhabitants of Teo«
in Ionia, who settled there after their own
town had been taken by the Persians b.c. 544.
It was the birthplace of Democritus, Prota-
goras, Anaxarchus, and other distinguished
men; but its inhabitants, notwithstanding,
were accounted stupid, and an "Abderite**
vros a term of rei>roach.

ABELLA or AVELLA (-ae), a town of
Campania, not far from Nola, founded by the
Chalcidians in Euboea. It was celebrated for
its apples, whence Virgil calls it malifira,

ABGARU8, ACBARU8, or AUGARUS (-i),
a name common to many rulers of Edessa, the
capital of the district of Osrhoene in Mesopo-
tamia. Of these rulers one is supposed by
Eusebins to have been the author of a letter
written to Christ, which he found in a church
at Edessa and translated fit)m the Syriac.
The letter is believed to be spurious.

ABIA (-ae), a town of Messenia, on the
Messenian fpii\i,

ABII, a tribe mentioned by Homer, and
apparently a Thracian people.

AbIlA (-6rum), a town of Coele-Syria,
afterwards called Claudiopolis, and the capital
of the tetrarchy of Abilene (Xu^e, iii. 1).

ABNCbA MONS (-ae), the range of hills
covered by the Black Forest in Germany, not
a single mountain.

ABORIGINES (-um), the original inha-
bitants of a country, equivalent to the Greek
Autochthones. But the Aborigines in Italy are
not in the Latin writers the original inhabi.
tants of all Italy, but the name of an ancient
people who drove the Siculi out of Latium,
and there became the progenitors of the
Latini.

ABORRHAS, a branch of the Euphrates,
Joining that river on the E. side near Aroe-
sium ; called the Araxes by Xenophon.

B



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ABSYRTUS.



ACCA LAURENTIA.



ABSYRTUS or APSYRTUS (-i), son of
AeStes, king of Colchis, whom Med§a took
with her when she fled with Jason. Being
pursued by her father, she murdered her
brother, cat his body in pieces, and strewed
them on the road, that her father might be
detained by gathering the limbs of his child.
Tomi, the place where this horror was com-
mitted, was believed to have derived its ntune
from (rifMet) " cut."

ABUS (4 : Humber)^ a river in Britain.

ABYDOS (-i). (1) A town of the Troad
on the Hellespont, and a Milesian colony,
nearly opposite to Sestos, but a little
lower doTm the stream. The bridge of
boats which Xerxes constructed over the
Hellespont, b.c. 480, commenced a little
higher up than Abydos, and touched the
European shore between Sestos and Madytus.
(2) A city of Upper Egypt, near the "W. bank
of the Nile ; once second only to Thebes, but
in Strabo's time (a.d. 14) a small village. It
had a temple of Osiris and a Jfemnonttim,
both still standing, and an oracle. Here was
found the inscription known as the Table of
Abydos, which contains a list of the Egyptian
kings.

ABtLA (-ae) or ABILA (-ae) MONS or CO-
LUMNA, a mountain in Mauretania Tingi-
tana, forming the E. extremity of the 8. or
African coast of the Fretum Gaditanum. This
and M. Calpe (GhOiraltar), opposite to it on
the Spanish coast, were called the Columns
of Hercules, from the fable that they were
originally one mountain, torn asunder by
Hercules.

ACADEMLA and -IA (-ae), a piece of land
on the Cephissus, 6 stadia horn. Athens, ori-
ginally belonging to a hero Academus, and
subsequently a gymnasium, adorned by Cimon
with plane and olive plantations, statues, and
other works of art. Here taught Plato, who
possessed a piece of land in the neighbour-
hood, and after him his followers, who were
hence called the Academici, or Academic phi-
losophers. Cicero gave the name of Academia
to his viUa near Puteoli, where he wrote his
" Quaestiones Academicae."

ACAmAS (-antis). (1) Son of Theseus and
Phaedra, accompanied Diomedes to Troy to
demand the surrender of Helen. — (2) Son of
Antenor and Theano, one of the bravest
Trojans, slain by Meriones. — (3) Son of
Eussorus, one of the leaders of the Thra-
cians in the Trojan war, slain by the
Telamonian Ajax.

ACANTHUS (-i), a town on fhe Isthmus,
which connects the peninsula of Athos with
Chalcidice, founded by the inhabitiints of
Andros.

ACARNAN (-3nis), one of the Epigoni, son



of Alcmaeon and CallirrhoS, and brother of
Amphoterus. Their father was murdered by
Phegeus, when they were very young; but
as soon as they had grown up, they slew
Phegeus, his wife, and his two sons. They
afterwards went to Epirus, where Acaman
founded the state called after him Acamania.

ACARNANLA (-ae), the most westerly pro-
vince of Greece, bounded on the N. by the
Ambracian gulf; on the W. and S.W. by the
Ionian Sea; on the N.E. by Amphilochla,
which is sometimes included in Acamania;
and on the £. by Aetolla, from which, at a
later time, it was separated by the Achelous.
The name of Acamania does not occur in
Homer. In the most ancient times the land
was inhabited by the Taphii, Teleboae, and
Leleges, and subsequently by the Curetes.
At a later time a colony from Argos, said to
have been led by AcAiiNAir, settled in
the country. In ttie seventh century b.c.
the Corinthians founded several towiis on
the coast. The Acamanians first emerge
from obscurity at the beginning of the
Peloponnesian war, b.c. 431. They were
then a rude people, living by piracy and
robbery, and they always remained behind
the rest of the Greeks in civilisation and
refinement. They were good slingers, and
are praised for their fidelity and courage.
The different towns formed a League, which
met at Stratus, and subsequently at Thyiium
or Leucas.

ACASTUS (-i), son of PeUas, king yf
lolcus, one of the Argonauts and of the Caly
donian hunters. His sisters were induced by
Med§a to cut up their father and boil him, in
order to make him young again. Acastus, in
consequence, drove Jason and Medea from
lolcus, and instituted funeral games in honour
of his father. During these games, Hippo-
lyte, the wife of Acastus, fell in love with
Peleus. When Peleus refused to listen to her
she accused him to her husband of having
attempted her dishonour. Shortly afterwards,
while Acastiis and Peleus were himting on
mount Pelion, and the latter had fallen
asleep, Acastus took his sword from him, and
left him alone. He was, in consequence,
nearly destroyed by the Centaurs ; but he
was saved by Chiron or Hermes, returned to
Acastus, and killed him, together with his
wife.

ACBARUS. [Abgarxts.]

ACCA LAURENTIA ok LARENTLA. (-a6),
the wife of the shepherd Faustulus and the
nurse of Romulus and Remus, after they had
been taken from the she-wolf. She seems to
be connected with the worship of the Lares,
from which her name Larentii is probably
derived.



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ACCIUS.



ACHELOUS.



ACCIUS OR ATTIUS (-i), L., a Roman tragic
poet, was bom b.c. 170, and lived to a grreat
age. His tragedies were chiefly imitated
from the Greek, but he also wrote some on
Roman subjects {Pt-aetextatae).

ACCO, a chief of the Senones in Gaul,
induced his countrymen to revolt against
Caesar, b.c. 53, by whom he was put to death.

ACE. [Ptolemais.]

ACERBAS. [Dido.] .

ACERRAE (-arum.) (1) A town in Cam-
pania, on the Clanius ; destroye<l by Hannibal,
but rebuilt. — (2) A town of the Insubres in
Gallia Transpadana.

ACESINES (-ae: Chenaub)^ a river in
India, into which the Hydaspes flows, and
which itself flows into the Indus.

ACE8TA. [Seoesta.]

ACESTES (-ae), son of a Trojan woman, of
the name of Egesta or Segesta, who was sent
by her father to Sicily, that she might not be
devoured by the monsters which infested the
territory of Troy. When Egesta arrived in
Sicily, the river-god Crimisus begot by her a
son Acestes, who was afterwards regarded as
the hero who had founded the town of Segesta.
Aeneas, on his arrival in Sicily, was hospita-
bly received by Acestes.

ACHAEI (-drum), one of the chief Hellenic
races, were, according to tradition, descended
from Acbaeus, who was the son of Xuthus and
Crensa, and grandson of Hellen. The Achaei
originally dwelt in Thessaly, and ftrom thence
migrated to Peloponnesus, the whole of which
became subject to them with the exception of
Arcadia, and the country afterwards called
Achaia. As they were the ruling nation in
Peloponnesus in the heroic times. Homer
frequently gives the name of Achaei to the
collective Greeks. On the conquest of Pelo-
ponnesus by the Heraclldae and the Dorians,
80 years after the Trojan war, many of the
Achaei under Tisamenus, the son of Orestes,
left their country and took possession of the
northern coast of Peloponnesus, then inha-
bited by lonians, whom they expelled from
the country, which was henceforth called
Achaia. The expelled lonians migrated to
Attica and Asia Minor. The Achaei settled
in 12 cities: Pellene, Aegira, Aegae, Bura,
Uelice, Acginm, Rhypae, Patrae, Pharae,
Olenus, Dyme, and Tritaea. These 12 cities
formed a league for mutual defence and pro-
tection. The Achaei had little influence in
the affairs of Greece till the time of the suc-
cessors of Alexander. In b.c. 281 the Achaei,
who were then subject to the Macedonians,
resolved to renew their ancient league for the
purpose of shaking off the Macedonian yoke.
This was the origin of the celebrated Achaean
League. It at first consisted of only four



towns, Dyme, Patrae, Tritaea, and Phara*!,
but was subsequently joined by the other
towns of Achaia, with the exception of
Olenus and Helice. It did not, however,
obtain much importance till b.c 251, when
Aratus united to it his native town, Sicyon.
The example of Sicyon was followed by Corinth
and many other towns in Greece, and the
League soon became the chief political power
in Greece. At length the Achaei declared
war against the Romans, who destroyed the
League, and thus put an end to the indepen-
dence of Greece. Corinth, then the chief
town of the League, was taken by the Roman
general Mummius, in b. c. 146, and the whole
of southern Greece made a Roman province
under the name of Achaia.

ACHAEMENfiS (-is). (1) The ancestor of
the Persian kings, who founded the family of
the Achaemenidae^vi\a.Qh. was the noblest family
of the Pasargadae, the noblest of the Persian
tribes. The Roman poets use the a4Jective
Achaetnenitu in the sense of Persian. — (2) Son
of Darius I., was governor of Egypt, and com-
manded the Egyptian fleet in the expedition
of Xerxes against Greece, b. c. 480. He was
defeated and killed in battle by Inarus the
Libvan, 460.

ACHAEMfiNIDfiS, or XcHEMENIdES,
companion of Ulysses, who left him behUid
in Sicily, when he fled from the Cyclops.

ACHAEUS [Achaei.]

ICHAIA (-ae). (1) The northern coast of
the Peloponnesus, originally called AegialSa or
Aegialus, i, e. the coast-land, was bounded
on the N. by the Corinthian gulf and the
Ionian sea, on the 6. by Elis and Arcadia, on
the W. by the Ionian sea, and on the £. by
Sicyonia. Respecting its inhabitants see



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