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banks of the Euphrates on the other. It was

divided into 3 parts : (1) Ababia Pb-
TRABA, including the triangular piece of
land between the two heads of the Red Sea
(the peninsula of M. Sinai) and the country
immediately to the N. and N.E. ; and called
from its capital Petra, while the literal signi-
fication of the name ** Rocky Arabia,** agrees
also with the nature of the country : (2)
Arabia Deserta, including the great
Syrian Desert and a portion of the interior
of the Arabian peninsula: (3) Arabia
Felix, consisting of the whole country not
included in the other two divisions. The
ignorance of the , ancients respecting the
interior of the peninsula led them to class it
with Arabia Felix, although it properly
belongs to Arabia Deserta, for it consists of
a sandy desert. There is only on the W.
coast a belt of fertile land, which caused the
ancients to apply the epithet of Felix to the
whole peninsula. — ^The inhabitants of Arabia
were of the race called Semitic or Aramaean,
and closely related to the Israelites. The
N.W. district (Arabia Petraea) was inhabited
by the various tribes which constantly appear
in Jewish history : the Amalekites, Midian-
ites, Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, &c.
The Greeks and Romans called the inhabi-
tants by the name of Nabathaei, whose capital
was Petra. The people of Arabia Deserta
were called Arabes Scenltae, from their dwell-
ing in tents, and Arabes Nomadae, from their
mode of life. From the earliest known period
a considerable traffto was carried on by the
people in the N. (especially the Nabathaei)
by means of caravans, and by those on the
S. and E. coast by sea, in the productions of
their own country (chiefiy gums, spices, and
precious stones), and in those of India and
Arabia. The only part of Arabia ever con-
quered was Arabia Petraea, which became
under Trajan a Roman province. Christianity
was early introduced into Arabia, where it
spread to a great extent, and continued to
exist side by side with the old religion (which
was Sabaeism, or the worship of heavenly
bodies), and with some admixture of Judaism,
until the total revolution produced by the rise
of Mohammedanism in 622.

ArIbICUS SINUS (-i : Bed Sea), a long
narrow gulf between Africa and Arabia, con-
nected on the S. with the Indian Ocean by
the Straits of Bab-eUMandeb, and on the N<
divided into two heads by the peninsula of
Arabia Petraea {Penins, of Sinai) , the E. of
which was called Sinus Aelanites or Aelani-
ticus (Oidf of Akaha), and the W. Sinus
Heroopolites or Heroopoliticus {GulfofSttez).
Respecting its other name see Ertthraevm

ARABIS (-is^. a river of Gfidrosia falling

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into the Indian Ocean, W. of the month of
the Indus, and dividing the Orltae on its W.
from the Arabltae or Arbles on its E.

ABACHME C-^), »Ljdian maiden, daughter
of Idmon of Colophon, a famous dyer in purple.
Arachnfi excelled in the art of weaving, and,
proud of her talent, ventured to challenge
Athena (Minerva), to compete with her. The
maiden produced a piece of cloth in which
the amours of the gods were woven, and as
the goddess could find no fault with it, she
tore the work to pieces. ArachnS in drapair
hung herself : AthSna loosened the rope and
saved her life, but the rope was changed into
a cobweb and ArachnS herself into a spider
(ArachnS). This fable seems to suggest that
man leamt the art of weaving from the spider,
and that it was invented in Lydia.

ARACHOSIA (-ae), one of the E. provinces
of the Persian (and afterwards of the Parthian)
Empire, bounded on the £. by the Indus, on
the. N. by the Paropamisadae, on the W. by
Drangiana, and on the S. by Gedrosia. It
was a fertile country.

ARACHTHU8 (-i) or ARETHO (-finis), a
river of Epirus, rising in M. Lacmon or the
Tymphean mountains, and flowing into the
Ambracian gulf.

ARACYNTHUS (4), a mountain on the
8. W. coast of AetoUa near Pleuron, some-
times placed in Acamania. Later writers
erroneously make it a mountain between
Boeotia and Attica, and hence mention it in
connection with Amphion, the Boeotian hero.

ARADUS (-1: in 0, T, Arvad), a small
island off the coast of Phoenicia, with a
flourishing city, said to have been founded by
exiles from Sidon. It possessed a harbour on
the mainland, called Antaradus.


ARAR or ARARIS (.is : Sadne), a river of
Gaul, rises in the Vosges, receives the Dubis
{Dmiba) from the E., after which it becomes
navigable, and flows with a quiet stream into
the Rhone at Lugdunum {Lyon),

ARlTUS (-i). (1) The celebrated general of
the Achaeans, son of Clinias, was bom at
Sicyon, B.C. 271. His father was murdered
when he was a child, and was brought up at
Argos. At 20 years of age he delivered Sicyon
from the rule of its tyrant and united the city
to the Achaean league, which gained in con.
sequence a g^reat accession of power, b.g.
251. [AcHAKi.] In 245 he was elected
general of the league, which offtce he fre-
quently held in subsequent years. But he
excelled more in negotiation than in war ;
and in his war with the Aetolians and Spartans
he was often defeated. In order to resist
these enemies he cultivated the friendship of
Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia, and of

his successor Philip : but as Philip wai evi-
dently anxious to make himself master />f all
Greece, dissensions arose between him and
Aratus, and the latter was eventually poisoned
in 213 by the king's order.— (2) Of Soli,
afterwards Pompeiopolis, in Cilicia, flourished
B.C. 270, and spent the latter part of his life
at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, king of
Macedonia. He wrote two astronomical
poems, entitled Fhctenomena and Diotemeiaf
which were very popular in ancient times.
They were translated into Latin by Cicero, by
Caesar Germanicus, the grandson of Augustus,
and by Festus Avienus.

ArAX£S (-is), the name of several rivers.
— (I) In Armenia, rising in M. Aba or Abus,
joining the Cyrus, and falling with it
into the Caspian sea. The Araxes was pro-
verbial for the force of its current. — (2) In
Mesopotamia. [Aborrhas.] — (3) In Persls,
the river on which Persepolis stood, flowing
into a salt lake not far below Persepolis. —
(4) It is doubtful whether tne Araxes of
Herodotus is the- same as the Oxus, Jaxaktes,
or Volga,

ARBAC£S (-is), the founder of the Median
empire, according to Ctesias, is said to have
taken Nineveh in conjunction with Belesis,
the Babylonian, and to have destroyed the
old Assyrian empire under the reign of Sar-
danapalus, b.o. 876.

ARB£LA (-ae), a city of Adiabene in
Assyria, celebrated as the head-quarters of
Darius Codomannus, before the last battle in
which he was overthrown by Alexsmder (b.c.
331), which is hence frequently called the
battle of Arbela, though it was really fought
near Gauoakxla, about 50 miles W. of Arbela.

ARBUSC0LA (-ae), a celebrated female
actor in pantomimes in the time of Cicero.

ARCA (-ae), or -AE (-ftrum), an ancient city
in the N. of Phoenicia ; the birthplace of the
emperor Alexander Severus.

ARCADIA (-ae), a country in the middle of
Peloponnesus, surrounded on all sides by
mountains, the Switzerland of Greece. The
Achelous, the greatest river of Peloponnesus,
rises in Arcadia. The N. and E. purts of the
country were barren and improductive \ the W.
and S. were more fertile, with numerous valleys
where com was grown. The Arcadians re-
garded themselves as the most ancient people
in Greece: the Greek writers caU them
indigenous and Pelasgians. They were chiefly
employed in hunting and the tending of cattle,
whence their worship of Pan, who was
especially the god of Arcadia, and of Artemis.
They were passionately fond of music, and
cultivated it with success. The Arcadians ex-
perienced fewer changes than any other people
in Greece, and retained possession of their

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ooimtT7 upon the conquest of the rest of
Peloponnesus by the Dorians. After the
second Messenian war, the different towns
beoame independent republics, of which the
most important were Maktinka, Teoba,
OBCHomurus, Psophis, and Phbnkus. Like
the Swiss, the Arcadians frequently served
as mercenaries. The Lacedaemonians made
many attempts to obtain possession of parts
of Arcadia, but these attempts were finally
frustrated by the battle of Leuctra (n. c. 8 7 1 ) ;
and in order to resist all future a^resions on
the part of Sparta, the Arcadians, upon the
advice of Epaminondas, built the city of
Mboalopolis. They subsequently joined the
Achaean League, and finally became subject
to the Romans.

ARCADIUS (-i), emperor of the East, elder
son of Theodosius I., and brother of Hono-
rius, reigned A. D. 395 — 408.

ARC AS (-&dis), king of the Arcadians, son
of Zeus (Jupiter) and Callisto, firom whom
Arcadia was supposed to have derived its

ARCESILlUS (-i). (1) A Greek philoso-
pher, bom at Pitane in Aeolis, succeeded
Crates about b. c. 241 in the chair of the
Academy at Athens, and became the founder
of the second or middle Academy. He is said
to have died in his 76th year ftom a fit of
dunkenness. — (2) The name of four kings of
Cyrene. [Battiadaz.]

ARCfisiuS (-i), father of Lagrtcs, and
grand-father of Ulysses, who is hence called

ARdHELAUS (-i). (1) Son of Heeod the
Great, was appointed by his father as his
successor, and received fh>m Augustus Judaea,
Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title of
ethnarch. In consequence of his tyrannical
government, Augustus banished him in a.d. 7
to Vienna in Gaul, where he died. — C2) King
of Macedonia (b.c. 418 — 399), an illegiti-
mate son of Perdiccas II., obtained the
throne by the murder of his half-brother.
He was a warm patron of art and literature.
His palace was adorned witb paintings by
Zeoxis ; and Euripides, Agathon, and other
men of eminence, were among his guests. —
(3) A distinguished general of Mituridates,
defeated by Sulla in Boeotia, b.c. 86. He
deserted to the Romans, e.g. 81.— (4) Son of
the preceding, was raised by Pompey, in
B.C. 63, to the dignity of priest of the goddess
at Comana in Pontus or Cappadocia. In 56
or 55 Archelaus became king of Egypt by
marrying Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy
Auletes, who, after the expulsion of her father,
had obtained the sovereignty of Egypt. But
at the end of 6 months he was defeated and
slain in battle by Gablnins, who had marched

with an army Into Egypt in order to restore
Ptolemy Auletes. — (5) Son of No. 4, and his
successor in the office of high-priest of Co-
mana, was deprived of his dignity by Julius
Caesar in 47. — (6) Son of No. 5, received
from Antony, in b.c. 86, the k^gdom of
Cappadocia — a favour which he owed to the
charms of his mother Glaphyra. He was
deprived of his kingdom by Tiberius, a.d. 1 7 ;
and Cappadocia was then made a Roman
province. — (7) A philosopher of the Ionic
school, bom either at Athens or at Miletus.
He flourished about b.o. 450.

ARCHIAS (-ae). (1) An HeracUd of Co-
rinth, who founded Syracuse, b.c 734. — ^2)
A. LiciNrus Abchias, a Grec^ poet, bom at
Antioch in Syria, about b.c. 120, came to
Rome in 102, and was received in the most
friendly way by the Luculli, from whom he
obtained the gentile name of Licinius. He
was enrolled as a citizen at Heraclea in
Lucania ; and as this town was united with
Rome by a foedtu^ he subsequently obtained
the Roman franchise in accordance with the
le^ Plautia Papiria passed in b.c. 89. In 61
he was accused of assuming the citizenship
illegally. He was defended by his fHend
M. Cicero in the extant speech Pro Archia,
in which the orator, after briefly discussing
the legal points of the case, rests the defence
of his client upon his merits as a poet, which
entitled him to the Roman citizenship.

ARCHIDAMUS (.i), the name of 5 kings
of Sparta. — (1) Son of Anaxidamus, contempo-
rary with the Tegeatan war, which followed
soon after the second Messenian, b.c 668. —
(2) Son of Zeuxidamus, succeeded his grand-
father Leotychides, and reigned B.C. 469—427.
He opposed making war upon the Athenians ;
but after the Peloi)onnesian war broke out
(B.C. 431), he invaded Attica, and held the
supreme command of the Peloponnesian forces
tiU his death in 429.— (3) Grandson of No. 2,
and son of Agesilaus II., reigned b.c 361 —
338. In 338 he went to Italy to aid the
Tarentines against the Lucanians, and there
fell in battle. — (4) Grandson of No. 3, and
son of Eudamidas I., was king in b.c 296,
when he was defeated by Demetrius Poli-
orcetes.— <5) Son of Eudamidas n., and the
brother of Agis IV. He was slain soon aftei
his accession, b.c. 240. He was the last king
of the Eurygontid race.

ARCHILOCHUS (-i), of Pares, was one of
the earliest lyric poets, and the first who
composed Iambic verses. He flourished about
B.C. 714 — 676. He went from Paros to
Thasos with a colony, but afterwards returned
to Paros, and fell in battle in a war against
the Naxians. His fame was chiefly founded
on his satiric iambic poetry. He had been

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h Auitor to Neobnie, one of the dfrugrhters of
Lycambes, who first promised and afterwards
refused to give his daughter to the poet.
Enraged at this treatment, Archilochus
attacked the whole family in an iambic poem
with such effect, that the daughters of Ly-
cambes are said to have hung themselves
through shame. While at Thasos, he in-
curred the disgrace of losing his shield in an
engagement with the Thracians of the oppo-
site continent ; but, instead of being ashamed
of the disaster, he recorded it in his verse.

ARCHlMfiDES, (-i and -is), of Syracuse,
the most famous of ancient mathematicians,
was bom b.c. 287. He was a friend, if not a
kinsman, of Hiero, for whom he constructed
various engines of war, which, many years
afterwards, were so far effectual in the defence
of Syracuse agrainst Marcellus, as to convert the
siege into a blockade. The accounts of the
performances of these engines are evidently
exaggerated ; and the story of the burning of
the Roman ships by the reflected rays of the
Hun, is probably a fiction. When Syracuse
was taken (b.o. 212), Archimedes was killed
by the Roman soldiers, being at the time
intent upon a mathematical problem. Some
of his works have come down to us.

ARCH ST AS (-ae), of Tarentum, a distin-
guished philosopher, mathematician, general,
and statesman, lived about b. c. 400, and
onwards. He was contemporary with Plato,
whose life he is said to have saved by his in-
fiuence with the tyrant Dionysius. He was
drowned while upon a voyage on the Adriatic.
As a philosopher, he belonged to the Pytha-
gorean school.

ARCONNfiSUS (-1). (1) An island off the
coast of Ionia, near Lebedus, also called Aspis
and Maoris. — (2) An island off the coast of
Caria, opposite Halicarnassus, of which it
formed the harbour.

ARCTINUS (-i), (^ Miletus, the most dis-
tinguished among the cyclic poets, probably
lived about B.C. 776.

ARCTOPHl'LAX. [Arctos.]

ARCTOS (-i), " the Bear," two constella-
tions near the N. Pole. — (1) The Great Bear
{Ursa Mqjor)^ also called the Waggon
{plattstrum). The ancient Italian name of
this constellation was Septetn Triones^ that is,
the Seven Ploughing Oxen^ also Septentrio^
and with the epithet Mqjor to distinguish it
from the Septentrio Mnorf or Lesser Bear. —
(2) The Lesser or Little Bear ( Ursa Minor) ^
likewise called the Waggon^ and Cynosura^
tlog*s tailf ft*om the resemblance of the con-
stellation to the upturned curl of a dog*s tail.
The constellation before the Great Bear was
called BoOteSf ArctophpiaXf or ArctHrtu. At
a later time Aretophylax became the general

name of the constellation, and the word^o-
tl^rus was confined to the chief star in it.
All these constellations are connected in
mythology with the Arcadian nymph Caixisto,
the daughter of Lycaon. Metamorphosed by
Zeus (Jupiter) upon the earth into a she-
bear, Callisto was pursued by her son Areas
in the chase, and when he was on the point
of killing her, Zeus placed them both among
the stars, Callisto becoming the Great Bear
and Areas the Little Bear or Bodtes. In the
poets the epithets of these stars have constant
reference to the family and country of Callisto :
thus we find them called Lycaonis Arctos :
Maenalia Arctos and Maenalis Ursa (from
M. Maenalus in Arcadia) : Erymanthis Ursa
(from M. Erymanthus in Arcadia) : Pairha-
sides stellae (from the Arcadian town Parr-
hasia.) — Though most traditions identified
Booths with Areas, others pronounced him to
be Icarus or his daughter Erigone. Hence
the Septentrionea are called Boves Icarii.

ARCTURUS. [Arctos.]

ARDEA (-ae), the chief town of the Rutuli
in Latium, situated about 3 miles from the
sea, one of the most ancient places in
Italy, and the capital of Tumus. It was con.
quered and colonised by the Romans, b.c

ARDtJENNA 8ILVA (-ae), the Ardefines,
a vast forest, in the N.W. of Gaul, extending
from the Rhine and the Treviri to the Nervii
and'Remi, and N. as far as the Scheldt.

ARDYS, son of Gyges, king of Lydia,
reigned b.c. 678 — 629.

ArELATB (-Ps), ARELAS (-atis), or
ARELATUM (-i) {Aries), a town in GaUia
Narbonensis, at the head of the delta of the
Rhone on the left bank, and a Roman colony.
The Roman remains at Aries attest the
greatness of the ancient city : there are still
the ruins of an aqueduct, theatre, amphi-
theatre, &c.

AREOPAGUS. [Athenae.]

ARES (-is), called MARS (-rtis), by the
Romans, the Greek god of war, and one of
the great Olympian gods, is called the son of
Zeus (Jupiter) and H6ra (Juno). He is repre-
sented as delighting in the din and roar of
battles, in the slaughter of men, and in the
destruction of towns. His savage and san-
guinary character makes him hated by the
other gods and by his own parents. He was
wounded by Diomedes, who was assisted by
Athena (Minerva), and in his fall he roared
like ten thousand warriors. The gigantic
AloTdae had likewise conquered him, and
kept him a prisoner for 13 months, until he
was delivered by Hermes (Mercury), Ho
was also conquered by Hercules, with whom
he fought on account of his son Cycnus, and

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was obliged to return to Olympus. This
fierce and gigantic, but withal handsome god,
lored and was beloved by AphrodltS (Venus).
[Aphbodite.] According to a late tradition,
.\res slew Halirrhothius, the son of Poseidon
(Neptune), when he was offering violence to
AlcippS, the daughter of Ares. Hereupon
Priseidon accused Ares in the Areopagus,
where the Olympian gods were assembled in

Ares (Mara). (Ludovlsi Statue in Borne).

court. Ares was acquitted, and this event
was believed to have given rise to the name
Areopagus. In Greece the worship of Ares
was not very general, and it was probably
introduced from Thrace. Respecting the
Roman god of war, see Mars.

ARESTOR (-6ri8), father of Argus, the
guardian of lo, who is therefore called Ares-

ARETAS, the name of several kings of
Arabia Petraea. — (1) A contemporary of
Pompey, invaded Judaea in b.c. 65, in order
to place Hyrcanus on the throne, but was
driven back by the Romans, who espoused
the cause of Aiistobulus. His dominions
were subsequently Invaded by Scaurus, the
lieutenant of Pompey. — (2) The father-in-law
of Herod Antipas, Invaded Judaea, because
Herod had dismissed the daughter of Aretas
in consequence of his connection with
Herodias. This Aretas seems to have been
the same who had possession of Damascus at

the time of the conversion of the Apostle
Paul, A.D. 31.

ARETHCSA (-ae), one of the Nereids,
and the nymph of the famous fountain of
Arethusa in the island of Ortygia near Syra-
cuse. For deUdls see Alphsvs.

ARETIUM. [Arretium.]

AREUS (-i), king of Sparta, succeeded
his grandfather, Cleomenes II., and reigned
B.C. 309 — 265. He fell in battle against the

AREViCAE (-arum), or AREVACI
(-orum), the most powerful tribe of the Cel-
tiberians in Spain, near the sources of the
Tagus, derived their name from the river
Areva, a tributary of the Durius.

ARGENTORlTUM (-i), or -TUS (-i),
{Strassburg)^ an important town on the
Rhine in Gallia Belgica, and a Roman muni,

ARGES. [Gtclopks. .

ARGI. [Aroos.]

ARGIA (-ae), daughter of Adrastus and
Amphithea, and wife of Polynlces.

ARGILETUM (-i), a district in Rome,
extending from the S. of the Quirinal to the
Capitoline and the Forum. It was chiefly
inhabited by mechanics and booksellers.

ARGILUS (-i), a town in Macedonia be-
tween AmphipoUs and Bromiscus, a colony
of Andros.

ARGINnSAE (-arum), 3 small Islands off
the coast of Aeolis, opposite Mytilene in
Lesbos, celebrated for the naval victory of
the Athenians over the Lacedaemonians under
Callicratidas, b.c. 406.

ARGIPHONTES (-is), " the slayer of Ar-
gus," a surname of Hermes (Mercury).

ARGIPPAEI (-orum), a Scythian tribe in
Sarmatia Asiatica, who appear to have been
of the Calmuck race

ARGITHEA (-ae), the chief town of Atha-
mania in Epirus.

ARGIVA (-ae), a surname of Hera or
Juno from Argos, where she was especially
honoured. [Aroos.]

ARGIVI. [Argos.]


ARGOLIS. [Aroos.]

ARGONAUTAE (-arum), the Argonauts,
" the sailors of the Argo," were the heroes
who sailed to Aea (afterwards called Colchis)
for the purpose of fetching the golden fleece.
In order to get rid of Jason [Jason], Pelias,
king of lolcus in Thessaly, persuaded him to
fetch the golden fleece, which was suspended
on an oak tree in the grove of Ares (Mars) in
Ck)lchl8, and was guarded day and night by a
dragon. Jason undertook the enterprize, and
commanded Argus, the son of Phrixus, to
build a ship with 50 oars, which was called

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Argo after the name of the builder. The
goddess Athena (Minerra) is represented in
-vrorks of art superintending the building of
the ship. Jason was accompanied by all the
great heroes of the age, such as Hercules,
Castor and Pollux, Theseus, &o. : their num.
ber is said to hav^ been 50. After meeting
with many adrentures, they at length arrived
at the mouth of the river Phasis. The Col-
chian king Ae^tes promised to give up the
gol'den fleece, if Jason would yoke to a
plough two flre-breathing oxen with brazen
feet, and sow the teeth of the dragon which
had not been used by Cadmus at Thebes.
MedSa, the daughter of Aeetes fell in love

with Jason, and on his promising to marry
her, she famished him with the means of
resisting fire and steel, and sent to sleep the
dragon who guarded the golden fleece. After
Jason had taken the treasure, he and his
Argonauts embarked by night, along with
Medea, and sailed away. On their return
they were driven by a storm to the W. of
Italy ; and after wandering about the western
coasts of the Mediterranean, they at length
arrived at lolcus. [Medka; Jason.] The
tale of the Argonauts may have arisen from
the commercial enterprises which the wealthy
Minyans, who lived in the neighbourhood of
lolcus, made to the coasts of the Euxine.

Athena (Minerva) BuperintencUng tb.« Building of the Argo. (ZoCga, fi&ft»i rilievi, tav. 4o.j

ABOOS is said to have signifled a plain in
the language of the Macedonians and Thessa-
lians, and it may therefore contain the same
root as the Latin word ager. In Homer we
find mention of the Pelasgic Argos, that is, a
town or district of Thessaly, and of the
Achaean Argos, by which he means some-
times the whole Peloponnesus, sometimes
Agamemnon's kingdom of Argos of which
Mycenae was the capital, and sometimes the
town of Argos. As Argos frequently signifies
the whole Peloponnesus, the mont important
part of Greece, so the 'A<>'«u< often occur in
Homer as a name of the whole body of the
Greeks, in which sense the Roman poets also
use Argivi, — (1) Aiioos, a district of Pelo-
ponnesus, also called by Greek writers, Argfa
or Argdlici or Argdlia, Under the Romans

Argolis became the usual name of the country,
while the word Argos or Argi was confined to
the town. The Roman Argolis was bounded
on the N. by the Corinthian territory, on the
W. by Arcadia, on the 8. by I^onia, and
included towards the £. the whole peninsula
between the Saronic and Argolic gulfs : but
during the time of Grecian independence
Argolis or Argos was only the country lying
round the Argolic gulf, bounded on the W.by
the Arcadian mountains, and separated on
the N. by a range of mountaixis firom Corinth,

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