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Cleonae, and Phlius. The country was divided
into the districts of ArgTa or Argos proper,
Epidavria, TaoEZBNiA, and Hbrmionis. The
main part of the population consisted of
Pelasgi and Achaei, to whom Dorians were
a^.ded after the conquest of Peloponnesus by

Digitized by





the Dorians. See below, No. 2. — (2) Argos,
of Aboi, -obvm, in the Latin writers, the
capital of Argolis, and, next to Sparta,
the most important town in Peloponnesus,
situated in a level plain a little to the W.
of the Inachus. It had an ancient Pelasgic
citadel, called Larissa, and another built sub-
sequently on another height. It was particu-
larly celebrated for the worship of Hera
(Juno), whose great temple, Eeraeuniy lay
between Argos and Mycenae. The city is
said to have been built by Inachtjs or his
son Phoeoneus, or grandson Argus. The
descendants of Inachus were deprived of
the sovereignty by Danatjs, who is said to
have come from Egypt. The descendants of
Danaus were in their turn obliged to submit
to the Achaean race of the Pelopidae. Under
the rule of the Pelopidae Mycenae became the
capital of the kingdom, and Argos was a
dependent state. Thus Mycenae was the
royal residence of Atreus and of his son Aga-
memnon; but under Orestes Argos again
recovered its supremacy. Upon the conquest
of Peloponnesus by the Dorians Argos fell to
the share of Temenus, whose descendants
ruled over the country. All these events
belong to mythology ; and Argos first appears
in history about b.c. 750, as the chief state
of Peloponnesus, under its ruler Phidox.
After the time of Phidon its influence de-
clined ; and its iwwer was greatly weakened by
its wars with Sparta. In consequence of its
jealousy of Sparta, Argos took no part in the
Persian war. In the Peloponnesian war it
sided with Athens against Sparta. At this
time its government was a democracy, but at
a later period it fell under the power of
tyrants. In 243 it joined the Achaean
League, and on the conquest of the latter by
the Romans, 146, it became a part of the
Roman province of Achaia.

ARGUS (-i). (1) Son of Zeus (Jupiter)
and Niobe, 3rd king of Argos. — (2) Surnamed
Panoptes, " the all-seeing," because he had a
hundred eyes, son of Agenor, or Arestor, or
Inachus. Hera (Juno) appointed him guar-
dian of the cow into which lo Uad been
metamorphosed; but Hermes (Mercury), at
the command of Zeus, sent him to sleep by
the sweet notes of his flute, and then cut off
his head. .Hera transplanted his eyes to the
tail of the peacock, her favourite bird. — (3)
The builder of the Argo, son of Phrixus.

ARGtRIPA. [Arpi.]

ARIA or -I A (-ae), the most important of
the eastern provinces of the ancient Persian
Empire, was bounded on the E. by the Paro-
pamisadae, on the N. by Margiana and
Hyrcaria, on the W. by Parthia, and on the
S. by the desert of Carmania. From Aria

wiis derived the name under which all the
eastern provinces were included. [Ariana.]

ARLA.DNE (-es), or ARIADNA (-ae),
daughter of Minos and Pasiphae, fell in
love with Theseus, when he was sent by
his father to convey the tribute of the Athe-
nians to the Minotaur, and gave him the clue
of thread by means of which he found his
way out of the Labyrinth. Theseus in
return promised to marry her, and she
accordingly left Crete with him ; but on their
arrival in the island of Dia (Naxos), she was


Ariadiie. (From a paiutloic found at PompeiL)

killed by Artemis (Diana). This is the
Homeric account; but the more common tra.
dition related that Theseus deserted Ariadng
in Naxos, where she was found by Dionysus,
who made her his wife, and placed among
the stars the crown which he gave her at
thejr marriage.

ARIAEUS (-i), the friend of Cyrus, com-
manded the left wing of the army at the
battle of Cunaxa, b.c. 401. After the death
of Cyrus, he purchased his pardon from
Artaxerxes by deserting the Greeks.

ARIANA (-ae), derived from Aria, from
the specific sense of which it must be care,
fully distingfuished, was the general name of
the eastern provinces of the Persian Empire,
including Parthia, Aria, the Paropamisadae,
Arachosia, Drangiana, Gedrosia, and Car-

ARLA.RSTHES (-1), the name of several
kings of Cappadocia.—-(l) Son of Ariamnes I.,
defeated by Perdiccas, and crucified, b.c. 322,
Eumenes then obtained possession of Cappa-
docia. — (2) Son of HolophemeSi and nephew

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of Ariarathes I., recovered Cappadocia after
the death of Eumenes, 315. He was suc-
ceeded by Arianmes JI. — (3) Son of Ariam-
nes II., and grandson of No. 2, married
Stratonlce, daughter of Antiochus II., king of
Syria.— (4) Son of No. 8, reigned 220—162.
He married Antiochis, the daughter of Antio-
chus the Great, and assisted Antiochus in his
war against the Romans. After the defeat of
Antiochus, Ariarathes sued for peace in 188,
which he obtained on favourable terms. —
(5) Son of No. 4, sufnamed PhUopator,
reigned 163 — 130. He assisted the Romans
in their .war against Aristonicus of Per-
gamus, and fell in this war, 130. — (6)
Son of No. 5, reigned 130 — 96. He
married Laodice, sister of Mithridates VI.,
king of Pontus, and was put to death by
Mithridates. — (7) Son of No. 6, also murdered
by Mithridates, who now took possession of
his kingdom. The Cappadocians rebelled
against Mithridates, and placed upon the
throne, — (8) Second son of No. 6; but he
was speedily driven out of the kingdom by
MithridAtes, and shortly afterwards died.
— (9) Son of Ariobarzanes II., reigned 42 —
36. He was deposed and put to death by
Antony, who appointed Archelaus as his sue-

people in the S. part of the Persian pro-
vince of Drangiana, on the borders of Ge-

ARICIA (-ae), an ancient town of Latiimi
at the foot of the Alban Mount, on the
Appian Way, 16 miles from Rome. It was
subdued by the Romans, with the other Latin
towns, in b.c. 338, and received the Roman
franchise. In its neighbourhood was the
celebrated grove and temple of Diana Ariclna,
on the borders of the Lacus Nemorensis.
Diana was worshipped here with barbarous
customs: her priest, called rex nemorensiSy
was always a run-away slave, who obtained
his office by killing his predecessor in single

ARIMASPI (-6rum), a people in the N. of
Scythia, represented as men with only one eye,
who fought with the griffins -for the posses-
sion of the gold in their neighbourhood. The
germ of the fable is perhaps to be recognised
in the fact that the Ural Mountains abound in

ARIMI (-drum), and ARIMA (^mm), fhe
names of a mythical people, district, and
range of mountains in Asia Minor, which the
old Greek poets made the scene of the punish-
ment of the monster Typhoeus.

ARIMINUM (-i: Eimini), a town in
Umbria, at the mouth of the little river Arimi-
nus. It was originally inhabited byUmbrians

and Pelasgians, was afterwards in the posses-
sion of the Senones, and was colonised by the
Romans in b.c. 268, from which time it
appears as a flourishing place. After leaving
Cisalpine Gaul, it was the first town on the
eastern coast of Italy which a person arrived
at in Italia proper.

ARl6BARZAN£8(.is). I. Kings or Satraps
of Pontus. — (1) Betrayed by his son Mithri-
dates to the Persian king, about e.g. 400. — (2)
Son of Mithridates I., reigned 363 — 337. He
revolted f^om Artazerxes in 862, and may be
regarded as the founder of the kingdom of
Pontus. — (3) Son of Mithridates III., reigned
266 — 240, and was succeeded by Mithridates
IV. — II. Kings of Cappadocia. — (1) Sumamed
Philoromaxus, reigned b.c. 93 — 63, and was
elected king by the Cappadocians, under the
direction of the Romans. He was several
times expelled fh>m his kingdom by Mithri-
dates, but was finally restored by Pompey in
63, shortly before his death. — (2) Sumamed
Philopator, succeeded his father in 63. — (3)
Sumamed Eusebks and Philoromaxus, son
of No. 2, whom he succeeded about 51. He
assisted Pompey against Caesar, who not
only pardoned him, but even enlarged his
territories. He was slain in 42 by Cas-

ARION (-8nis). (1) Of Methymna in Les-
bos, a celebrated lyric poet and player on
the cithara, and the inventor of dithyram-
bic poetry. He lived about b.c. 625, and
spent a great part of his life at the court of
Periander, tyrant of Corinth. On one occa-
sion, we are told, Arion went to Sicily to
take part in some musical contest. He won
the prize, and, laden with presents, he em-
barked in a Corinthian ship to return to his
Mend Periander. The rude sailors coveted
his treasures, and meditated his murder.
After trying in vain to save his life, he at
length obtained permission once more to play
on the cithara, and as soon as he had invoked
the gods in inspired strains, he threw himself
into the sea. But many song-loving dolphins
had assembled round the vessel, and one of
them now took the bard on its back and
carried him to Taen&ms, from whence he
retumed to Corinth in safety, and related his
adventure to Periander. Upon the arrival of
the Corinthian vessel, Periander inquired of
the sailors after Arion, who replied that he
had remained behind at Tarentum ; but when
Arion, at the bidding of Periander, came
forward, the sailors owned their guilt, and
were punished according to their desert. —
(2) A fabulous horse, which is said to have
be^n begotten by Poseidon (Neptune).

ARIOVISTUS (-i), a German chief, who
, had conquered a great part of Gaul, but was

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defeated hj Caesar, and driven across the
Rhine, b.c. 58. Ariovistos escaped across
the^ river in a small boat.

ARISTAEUS (-i), son of Apollo and Cyren6,
was bom in Libya. He afterwards went to
Thrace, where he fell in love with Eurydlcfi,
the wife of Orpheus. The latter, while fleeing
from him, perished by the bite of a serpent ;
whereupon the Nymphs, in anger, destroyed
the bees of Aristaeus. The way in which he
recovered his bees is related in the fourth
Georgic of Virgil. After hia death he was
worshipped as a god on account of the benefits
he had conferred upon mankind. He was
regarded as the protector of flocks and
shepherds, of vine and olive plantations:
he taught men to keep bees, and averted from
the fields the burning heat of the sun and
other causes of destruction.

ARISTAGORAS (-ae), of Miletus, brother-
in-law of Histiaeus, was left by the latter dur-
ing his stay at the Persian court, in charge of
the government of Miletus. Having failed in
an attempt upon Naxos (b.c. 501), which he
had promised to subdue for the Persians, and
fearing the consequences of his failure, he
induced the Tonian cities to revolt from Persia.
He applied for assistance to the Spartans
and Athenians : the former refused, but the
latter sent him 20 ships and some troops.
In 499 his army captured and burnt Sardis,
but was finally chased back to the coast. The
Athenians now departed; the Persians
conquered most of the Ionian cities; and
Aristagoras in despair fled to Thrace, where
he was slain by the Edonians in 497.

ARI8TARCHTJ8 (4). (1) Of Samos, an
eminent mathematician and astronomer at
Alexandria, flourished between b.c. 280 and
264. — (2) Of Samothrace, the celebrated
grammarian, flourished, b.c. 156. He was a
pupil of Aristophanes, and founded at A^exan-
dria a grrammatical and critical school. At
an advanced age he went to Cyprus, where he
died at the age of 72, of voluntary starvation,
because he was sufllering from incurable
dropsy. Aristarchus was the greatest critic
of antiquity. His labours were chiefly
devoted to the Homeric poems, of which he
published an edition which has been the
basis of the text from his time to the present
day. He divided the Iliad and Odyssey into
24 J)Ook8 each.

ARISTEAS, of Proconnesus, an epic poet
of whose life we have only fabulous accoimts.
His date is quite uncertain. He is represented
as a magician, whose soul could leave and
re-enter its body according to its pleasure.
He was connected with the worship of Apollo,
which he was said to have introduced at

IrISTIdSS (-is) . (1) An Athenian, son of
Lysimachus, sumamed the ** Just," was ol
an ancient and noble family. He fought at
the commander of his tribe at the battle of
Marathon, b.c. 490 ; and next year, 489, he
was archon. He Was the great rival of
Themistocles, and it was through the influence
of the latter with the people, that he
sufliered ostracism in 483 or 482. He was
still in exile in 480 at the battle of Salamis,
where he did good service by dislodging the
enemy, with a band raised and armed by
himself, from the islet of Psyttalea. He was
recalled from banishment after the battle,
was appointed general In the following year
(479), and commanded the Athenians at the
battle of Plataea. In 477, when the allies
had become disgusted with the conduct of
Pausanias and the Spartans, he and his
colleague Cimon had the glory of obtaining for
Athens the command of the maritime con-
federacy : and to Aristides was by general
consent entrusted the task of drawing up its
laws and fixing its assessments. This first
tribute of 460 talents, paid into a common
treasury at Delos, bore his name, and was
regarded by the allies in after times, as
marking their Satumian age. This is his
last recorded act. He probably died in 468.
He died so poor that he did not leave enough
to pay for his ftmeral : his daughters were
portioned by the state, and his son Lysima.
chus received a grant of land and of money.
— (2) The author of a licentious romance,
in prose, entitled ift/enoea, having Miletus for
its scene. It was translated into Latin by L.
Cornelius Sisenna, a contemporary of Sulla,
and became popular with the Romans. The
title of his work gave rise to the term Milenan,
as applied to works of fiction. — (3) Of Thebes,
a celebrated Greek painter, fiourished about
B.C. 360 — 380. His pictures were so much
valued that long after his death Attains, king
of Pergamus, ofliered 600,000 sesteices for
one of them. — (4) P. Ablits Aristides, sur-
named ^Thbodobus, a celebrated Greek rhe-
torician, was bom at Adriani in Mysia, in
A.D. 117. After travelling through various
countries, he settled at Smyrna, where he
died about a.d. 180. Several of his works
have come down to us.

ARISTION, a philosopher, who made him-
self tyrant of Athens through the influence
of Mithridates. He was put to death by
Sulla, on the capture of Athens by the latter,
B.C. 87.

ARISTIPPUS (-i), a native of Cyrenfi, and
founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy,
flourished about b.c. 370. The fame of
Socrates brought him to Athens, and he
remained with the latter almost up to the

Digitized by





time of his execution, b.c. 399. Though a
disciple of Socrates, he was luxurious in his
mode of living ; and he took money for his
teaching. He passed part of his life at the
court of Dionjrsius, tyrant of Syracuse ; hut
he appears at last to ha^e returned to Cjrrene,
and there to have spent his old age. He
imparted his doctrine to his daughter AretS,
by whom it was communicated to her son,
the younger Aristippus.

ARISTOBCLUS (-i). (1) The name of
several princes of Judaea. Of these the best
known in history is the brother of Uyrcanus.
of whom an account is given under Htrcanus.
— (2) Of CassandrSa, served under Alexander
the Great in Asia, and wrote a history of
Alexander, which was one of the chief sources
used by Arrian ui the composition of hib

ARISTODEMUS (-i). (1) A descendant of
Hercules, son of Aristomachus, brother of
Temenus and Cresphontes, and father of
Eurysthenes and Procles. He was killed at
Vaupactus by a flash of lightning, just as he
was setting out on the expedition into Pelo-
ponnesus, and his two sons obtained Sparta,
whioh would have fallen to him. — (2) A
Messenian, the chief hero in the first Messe-
nian war. He sacrificed his own daughter
to save his country. He was afterwards
elected king in place of Euphaes ; and con-
tinued the war against the Spartans, till at
length, finding resistance hopeless, he put an
end to his life on the tomb of his daughter,
about B.C. 723.

ARISTOGITON. [Hakmodius.]

ARISTOMACHUS (-i), son of Cleodcmus or
Cleodaeus, grandson of Hyllus, great-grandson
of Hercules, and father of Temenus, Cres-
phontes, and Aristodemus. He fell in battle
when he invaded Peloponnesus; but his 3
sons were more successful and conquered

ARISTOMENES (-is), the Messenian, the
hero of the second war with Sparta, belongs
more to legend than to history. He was a
native of Andania, and was sprung from the
royal line of Aepytus. Tired of the yoke of
Sparta, he began the war in b.c. 685. After
the defeat of the Messenians in the third year
of the war, Aristomeues retreated to the moun-
tain fortress of Ira, and there maintained the
war for 11 years, constantly ravaging the
land of Laconia. In one of his incursions
the Spartans overpowered him with superior
numbers, and carrying him with 50 of his
comrades to Sparta, cast them into the pit
where condemned criminals were thrown.
The rest perished ; not so Aristomenes, the
favourite of the gods ; for legends told how
an eagle bore him up on its wings as he fell.

I and a fox guided him on the third day from
I the cavern. But the city of Ira, which he
had so long successfully defended, fell into
the hands of the Spartans, who again became
masters of Messenia, b.c. 668. Aristomenes
settled at lalysus in Rhodes, where he mar-
ried his daughter to Damagetus, king of

IrISTON. (1) Of Chios, a Stoic philo-
sopher, and a disciplie of Zeno, flourished
about B.C. 260. — (2) A Peripatetic philoso-
pher of lulis in the island of Ceos, succeeded
Lycon as head of the Peripatetic school, about
B.c^ 230.

ARIST5nICUS (-i), a natural son of Eu-
menes II., of Pergamus. Upon the death of
liis brother Attalus III., b.c. 133, who left his
kingdom to the Romans, Aristonicus laid
claim to the crown. He defeated in 131 the
consul P. Licinius Crassus; but in 130 he
was defeated and taken prisoner by M. Per-
pema, was carried to Rome by M*. Aquillus
in 129, and was there put to death.

ARISTOPHANES (-is). (1) The celebrated
comic poet, was bom about b.c. 444, and pro-
bably at Athens. His father Philippus had
possessions in Aegina, and may originally
have come from that island, whence a ques-
tion arose whether Aristophahcs was a genuine
Athenian citizen : his enemy Cleon brought
against him more than one accusation to
deprive him of his civic rights, but without
success. He had three sons, Philippus,
Araros, and Nicostratus, but of his private
history we know nothing. He died about
B.C. 380. The comedies of Aristophanes are
of the highest historical interest, containing
as they do an admirable series of caricatures
on the leading men of the day. The first
great evil of his own time against which he
inveighs, is the Peloponnesian war^ to which
he ascribes the influence of demagogues like
Cleon at Athens. His play, called the
KnightSy was especially directed against Cleon.
Another great object of his indignation was
the system of education which had been intro-
duced by the Sophists, and which he attacks
in the Clouds^ making Socrates the repre-
sentative of the Sophists. Another feature of
the times was the excessive love for litigation
at Athens, which he ridicules in the Wasps.
Eleven of the plays of Aristophanes have
come down to us. As a poet he possessed
merits of the highest order. He was a com-
plete master of the Attic dialect, which
appears in his works in its greatest perfection.
— (2) Of Byzantium, an eminent Greek
grammarian, was a pupil of Zenodotus and
Eratosthenes, and teacher of the celebrated
Aristarchus. He lived about b.c 264, and
had the management of the library at Alex-

Digitized by





andria. He was the first who introduced the
use of accents in the Greek language.

ARISTOTELES (-is), the philosopher, was
bom at Staglra, a town in Chalcidice in
Macedonia, b.c. 384. His father, Nicoma-
chus, was physician in ordinary to Amyntas
II., king of Macedonia ; his mother's name
was Phacstis or Phaestias. In 367, he went
to Athens to pursue his studies, and there
became a pupil of Plato, who named him
the " intellect of his school," and his house,
the house of the "reader." He lived at
Athens for 20 years, but quitted the city
upon the death of Plato (347) and repaired
to his friend Hermlas at Atameus, where he
married Pythias, the adoptive daughter of the
prince. On the death of Hbrmias, who was
killed by the Persians (344), Aristotle fled
from Atameus to Mytilene. Two years after-
wards (342) he accepted an invitation from
Philip of Macedonia, to undertake the instruc-
tion of his son Alexander, then 13 years of age.
Here Aristotle was treated with the most
marked respect. His native city, Staglra,
which had been destroyed by Philip, was
rebuilt at his request*. Aristotle spent 7 years
in Macedonia. On Alexander's accession to
the throne in 335, Aristotle returned to
Athens. Here he had the Lyceum, a gym-
nasium sacred to Apollo Lyceus, assigned to
him by the state. He assembled round him
a large number of scholars, to whom he deli-
vered lectures on philosophy in the shady
walks (9^/t«tw) which surrounded the Ly-
ceum, while walking up and down (ci^/waraJv),
and not sitting, which was the general prac-
tice of the philosophers. From one or other
of these circumstances the name Peripatetic
is derived, which was afterwards given to his
school. He gave two different courses of
lectures every day. Those which be delivered
in the morning (called esoteric) to a narrower
circle of hearers, embraced subjects connected
with the more abstruse philosophy, physics,
and dialectics. Those which he delivered in
the afternoon to a more promiscuous circle
(called exoteric) f extended to rhetoric,
sophistics, and politics. He presided over
his school for 13 years (335 — 323). During
this time he also composed the greater part
of his works. In these labours he was
assisted by the kingly liberality of his former
pupil, who caused large collections of natural
curiosities to be made for him, to which
I)OBterity is indebted for one of his most ex-
cellent works, the History of Animals. After
the death of Alexander (323), Aristotle was
looked upon with suspicion at Athens as a
friend of Macedonia ; but as it was not easy
to bring any political accusation against him,
lie was accused of impiety. He withdrew

f^om Athens before his trial, and escaped in
the beginning of 322 to Chalcis in Euboea,
where he died in the course of the same year,
in the 63rd year of his age. He bequeathed
to Theophrastus his well-stored library and
the originals of his writings. He is described
as having been of weak health, which, con-
sidering the astonishing extent of his studies,
shows all the more the energy of his mind.
His works, which treated of almost all the
subjects of human knowledge cultivated in
his time, have exercised a powerful influence
upon the human mind ; and his treatises on
philosophy and logic still claim the attention
of every student of those sciences.

ARISTOXENUS (-i), of Tarentum, a Peri-
patetic philosopher and a musician, flourished
about B.C. 318. He wrote numerous works,
of which one on music is still extant.

ARItJSIA (-ae), a district on the N. coast
of Chios, where the best wine in the island
was grown.

ARMENE (-es), a town on the coast of
Paphlagonia, a little to the W. of Sinope.

ARMENIA (-ae), a country of Asia, lying
between Asia Minor and the Caspian, is a lofty
table-land, backed by the chain of the Cau-
casus, watered by the rivers Cyrus and
Araxes, and containing sources the of the
Tigris and of the Euphrates, the latter of
which divides the country into 2 unequal
parts, which were called Major and Minor. —
The people of Armenia were one of the
most ancient families of that branch of the
human race which is called Caucasian.
They were conquered by the Assyrians and
Persians, and were at a later time subject to
the Greek kings of Syria. When Antiochus
the Great was defeated by the Romans (b.c.
190), the country regained its independence,
and was at this period divided into the two
kingdoms of Armenia Major and Minor.
Ultimately, Armenia Minor was made a
Roman province by Trajan; and Armenia

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