William Smith.

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Major, after being a perpetual object of con-
tention between the Romans and the Par-
thians, was subjected to the' revived Persian
empire by its first king Artaxerxes in ▲.!>.

ARMINIUS (-i : the Latinised form of Ser-
mann, "the chieftain "), son of Sigimer, and
chief of the tribe of the Cherusci, who in-
habited the country to the N. of the Haru
mountains, now forming the 8. of Hanover
and Brunswick. He was bora in b.c. 18 ;
and In his youth, he led the Cherusci as aux-
iliaries of the Roman legions in Germany,
where he leamt the Roman language, was
admitted to the freedom of the city, and
enrolled amongst the equites. In a.d. 9,
Aiminius i)er8uaded his countrymen to rise

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against the Romans who were now masters
of this part of Germany. His attempt was
crowned with success. Quintilius Varus,
who was stationed in the country with 3
legions, was destroyed with almost all his
troops [Varus] ; and the Romans had to
relinquish all their possessions beyond the
Rhine. In 14, Arminius had to defend his
country against Oermanicus. At first he
was successful ; but Oermanicus made good
his retreat to the Rhine. It was in the
eourse of this campaign that Thusnelda, the
wife of Arminius, fell into the hands of the
Romans. In 16, Arminius was defeated
by Oermanicus, and his country was probably
only saved from subjection by the jealousy of
Tiberius, who recalled Oermanicus in the
following year. At length Arminius aimed
at absolute power, and was in consequence
cut off by his own relations in the 37 th year
of his age, a.d. 19.

name of the N.W. coast of Gaul lh)m the
Ligeris {Loire) to the Sequana {Seine), derived
from the Celtic or, air, ♦* upon," tnuir, tndr,
" the sea."

ARNA (-ae)i a town in Umbria near

ARNAE (4lrum), a town in Chalcidice in
Macedonia, 8. of Anion and Bromiscus.

ARNISSA (-ae), a town in Eordaea in

ARNUS (-1: Amo), the chief river of
Etruria, rising in the Apennines, flowing by
Pisae, and falling into the Tyrrhenian sea.

AROMATA (-6rum), the E.-most pro-
montory of Africa, at tiie S. extremity of the
Arabian Gulf.

ARPI (-drum), an inland town in the
Daunian Apulia, founded, according to tradi-
tion, by Diomedes, who called it Argos Hip-
pitim, from which its later names of Argp-
rippa, or Argpripa and Arpi are said to have
arisen. It revolted to Hannibal after the
battle of Cannae, b.c. 216, but was retaken by
the Romans in 213.

ARPINUM (i-i), a town of Latium on the
small river Fibrenus, originally belonging to
the Volscians and afterwards to the Samnites,
was a Roman municipiimi, and received the
ius snj^agii, or right of voting in the Roman
comitia, b.c. 168. It was the birthplace of
Marius and Cicero.

ARRETIUM or ArETIUM (-i: Arezto),
one of the most important of the 12 cities of
Etruria, was situated in the N.E. of the
country at the foot of the Apennines, and
possessed a fertile territory near the sources
of the Amus and the Tiber, producing good
wine and com. It was particularly celebrated
for its pottery, which was of red ware. The

Cilnii, from whom Maecenas was descended,
were a noble family of Arretium.

ARRHIDAEUS or ARIDAEU8 (-1), son of
Philip and a female dancer, Philinna of La.
rissa, was of imbecile understanding. On
the death of Alexander, b.c. 323, he was
elected king under the name of Philip, and
in 322, he married Eurydice. On theii
return to Macedonia, he and his wife were
made prisoners, and put to death by order oi
Olympias, 317.

ARRIANUS (-i), a Greek historian and phi-
losopher, was bom at Nicomedia in Bithynia,
about A.I). 90. He was a pupil and friend oi
Epictetus, whose lectures he published at
Athens. In 124, he received f^om Hadrian
the Roman citizenship, and from this time
assumed the name of Flavins. In 136, he
was appointed praefect of Cappadocia, which
was invaded in the year after by the Alani or
Massagetae, whom he defeated. Under Anto-
ninus Pius, in 146, he was consul; and he
died at an advanced age in the reign of
M. Aurelius. Arrian was one of the best
writers of his time. He was a close imitator
of Xenophon both in the subjects of his
works and in the style in which they were
written. The most important of them is his
History of the expedition of Alexander the
Greats in 7 books, which was based upon the
most tmstworthy histories written by the
contemporaries of Alexander.

AR8AC£S (-is), the name of the founder of
the Parthian empire, which was also borne by
all his successors, who were hence called the
Araiieidae. — vl) He was of obscure origin,
but he induced the Parthians to revolt from
Antiochus II., king of Syria, and became the
first monarch of the Parthians, about b.c. 250.
The events which immediately followed, are
stated very differently by different historians.
He reigned only 2 years, and was succeeded
by his brother Tbridates. — (2) Tiridates,
reigned 37 years, b.c. 248 — 211, and defeated
Seleucus Callinicus, the successor of Antio-
chus II. — (3) Artabantjs I., son of the
preceding, was attacked by Antiochus III.
(the Gr«at), who, however, at length recog-
nised him as king, about 210. — (4) Priapa-
Trus, son of the preceding, reigned 15 years,
and left 3 sons, Phraates, Mithridates, and
Artabanns. — (5) Phraates I., was suc-
ceeded by his brother. — (6) Mithridates I.,
who greatly enlarged the Parthian empire by
his conquests. He defeated Demetrius Nica-
tor, king of Syria, and took him prisoner in
138. He died during the captivity of Deme-
trius, between 138 and 180. — (7) Phraates
II., son of the preceding, defeated and slew
in battle Antiochus VII. Sidetes, b.c. 128.
Phraates himself was shortly after killed by

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' 67


the Scythians. — (8) Artabantts II., youngest
son of No. 4, fell in battle against the Thogarii
or Tocharii,apparently after a short reign. —
(g) MiTHiLiDATEs II., SOU of the preceding,
added many nations to the Parthian empire,
whence he obtained the surname of Great.
lie sent an ambassador to SuUa, b.c. 92.
~— (10) Mnascires (?}, the successor of the
preceding, of whom nothing is known. — (11)
Sanatrocbs, reigned 7 years, and died
about B.C. 70. — (12) Phbaates III., son of
the preceding, lived at the time of the war
between the Romans and Mithridates of
Pontus, by both of whom he was courted.
He was murdered by his 2 sons, Mithridates
and Orodes. — (13) Mithridates III., son
of the preceding, was expelled from the
throne on account of his cruelty, and was
succeeded by his brother Orodes.— (14) Oro-
des I., brother of the preceding, was the
Parthian king, whose general Surenas de-
feated Crassus and the Romans, b.c. 53.
[Crassus.] After the death of Crassus,
Orodes gave the command of the army to his
son Pacorus, who invaded Syria both in 51
and 50, but was in each year driven back by
Cassius. In 40, the Parthians again invaded
Syria, under the command of Pacorus and
Labienus, but were defeated in 89 by Ven-
tidius Bassus, one of Antony's legates^ In
38, Pacorus once more invaded Syria, but
was completely defeated and fell in the battle.
This defeat was a severe blow to the aged
king Orodes, who shortly afterwards surren-
dered the crown to his son, Phraates, during
his life-time. — (15) Phbaates IV., was
a cruel tjrant. In 36, Antony invaded
Parthia, but was obliged to retreat after
losing a great part of his army. A few
years afterwards Phraates was driven out of
the country by his subjects, and Tiridates
proclaimed king in his stead. Phraates,
tiowever, was soon restored by the Scythians,
and Tiridates fled to Augustus, carrjdng with
him the youngest son of Phraates. Augustus
restored his son to Phraates, on condition of
his surrraidering the Roman standards and
prisoners taken in the war with Crassus and
Antony. They were given up in 20, and
their restoration was celebrated not only by
the poets, but by festivals and commemo-
rative monumento. Phraates also sent to
Augustus as hostages his 4 sons. In A.h. 2,
Phraates was poisoned by his wife Ther-
musa, and her son Phraataces. — (16)
Phbaataces, reigned only a short time,
as he was expelled by his subjects on
account of his crimes. The Parthian no-
bles then elected as king Orodes, who was
of the family of the Arsacidae. — (17) Oro-
Dss n., also reigned only a short time, as

he was killed by the Parthians on account of
his cruelty. Upon his death the Parthians
applied to the Romans for Yonones, one of
the sons of Phraates lY., who was accord-
ingly granted to them. — (18) Vononbs I.,
son of Phraates lY., was also disliked by his
subjects, who therefore invited Artabanus,
king of Media, to take possession of the
kingdom. Artabanus drove Yonones out of
Parthia, who resided first in Armenia, next
in Syria, and subsequently in Cilicia. He
was put to death in a.d. 19. — (19) Arta-
banus III., obtained the Parthian kingdom
soon after the expulsion of Yonones, about
A.D. 16. Artabanus was involved in hostilities
with the Romans, and was expelled more than
once by his subjects. — (20) Gotarzes, sue
ceeded his father, Artabanus III., but was
defeated by his brother Bardanes and retired
into Hyrcania. — (21) Bardanes, brother
of the preceding, was put to death by hi9
subjects in 47, whereupon Gotarze^ again
obtained the crown. — (22) Yonones II.,
succeeded Gotarzes about 50. His reign was
short. — (23) YoLOOESES I., son of Yonones
II. or Artabanus III. Soon after his acces-
sion, he conquered Armenia, which he gave
to his brother Tiridates. He carried on war
•with the Romans, but was defeated by Domi-
tius Corbulo, and at length made peace with
the Romans on' condition that Tiridates
should receive Armenia as a gift from the
Roman emperor. Accordingly Tiridates came
to Rome in 63, and obtained from Nero the
Armenian crown. — (24) Pacorus, succeeded
his father Yologeses I., and was a contempo-
rary of Domitian and Trajan. — (25) Chos-
ROES or OsROES, succeeded his brother
Pacorus during the reign of Trajan. His
conquest of Armenia occasioned the invasion
of Parthia by Trajan, who stripped it of
many of its provinces, and made the Parthians
for a time subject to R^me. [Trajanus.]
Upon the death of Trajan in a.d. 117, Hadrian
relinquished the conquests of Trajan, and
made the Euphrates, as before, the eastern
boundary of the Roman empire. — (26) Yo-
LooESES U., succeeded his father Chosroes,
and reigned from about a.d. 122 to 149. —
(27) YoLooESKS III., was defeated by the
generals of the emperor Yerus, and purchased
peace by ceding Mesopotamia to the Romans.
From this time to the downfall of the Par-
thian empire, there is great confusion in the
list of kings. The last king of Parthia was
Artabanus IY., in whose reign the Persians
recovered their long-lost independence. They
were led by Artaxerxes, the son of Sassan,
and defeated the Parthians in three great
battles, in the last of which Artabanus was
taken prisoner and killed, a.d. 226. Thus

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ended the Parthian empire of the Arsacidae,
after it had existed 476 years. The Parthians
were now obliged to submit to Artaxerxes,
the founder of the dynasty of the Sassanidae,
which continued to reign till a.d. 651.

ARSACIA. [Rhagae.]

ARSACIDAE (-irum), the name of a
dynasty of Parthian kings. [Aksaces.] It
was also the name of a dynasty of Armenian
kings, who reigned in Armenia from b.c. 149
to A.D. 428. This dynasty was founded by
Artaxias I., who was related to the Parthian

ARSAMOSATA, a town and strong for-
tress in Armenia Major, between the Euphrates
and the sources of the Tigris.

ARSANiAS(-ae), -iUS or -US (-i,), the name
of two rivers of Great Armenia.— -(1) The S.
arm of the Euphrates, [Euphrates.] — (2)
A small stream flowing W. into the Euphrates
near Melitene.

ARSES, NARSES, or OARSES, youngest
son of king Artaxerxes III. Ochus, was raised
to the Persian throne by the eunuch Bagoas
after he had poisoned Artaxerxes, b. c. 339,
but he was murdered by Bagoas in the 3rd
year of his reign. After the death of Arses,
Bagoas made Darius III. king.

ARSIA (-ae), a river in Istria, forming the
boundary between Upper Italy and lUyricum,
with a town of the same name upon it.

ARSIA SILVA, a wood in Etruria cele-
brated for the battle between the Tarquins
and the Romans.

ARSINOE (-es). (1) Mother of Ptolemy I.,
was a concubine of Philip, father of Alexander
the Great, and married Lagus, while she was
pregnant with Ptolemy. — (2) Daughter of
Ptolemy I. and Berenice, married first Lysi-
machus, king of Thrace, in b.c. 300;
2ndly, her half-brother, Ptolemy Ceraimus,
who murdered her children by Lysimachus ;
and, Srdly, her own brother Ptolemy II.
Philadelphus in 279. Though Arsinoebore
Ptolemy no children, she was exceedingly
beloved by him ; he gave her name to several
cities, called a district of Egypt Arsino'ites
after her, and honoured her memory in
various ways. — (3) Daughter of Lysimachus,
married Ptolemy II. Philadelphus soon after
Ms accessioi^, e.g. 285. In consequence of
her plotting against her namesake [No. 2],
when Ptolemy fell in love with her, she was
banished to Coptos in Upper Egypt. She had
by Ptolemy three children, Ptolemy III.
Evergetes, Lysimachus, and Berenice. — (4)
Also called Eurydice and Cleopatra, daughter
of Ptolemy III. Evergetes, wife of her brother
Ptolemy IV. Philopator, and mother of
Ptolemy V. Epiphanes. She was killed by
order of her husband. — (5) Daughter of

Ptolemy XI. Auletes, was carried to Rome by
Caesar after the capture of Alexandria, and
led in triumph by him in 46. She afterwards
returned to Alexandria; but her sister
Cleopatra persuaded Antony to have her put
to death in 41.

ARSINOE (-^), the name of several cities,
each called after one or other of the
persons mentioned above. Of these the
most important were : — (1) In the Nomos
Hero5polite« in Lower Egypt, near or upon
the head of the Sinus Heroopolites or W.
branch of the Red sea {Gulf of Suez) 4 It
was afterwards called Cleopatra. — (2) The
chief city of the Nomos Arsinoltes in Middle
Egypt ; formerly called Cr5cr6dllop(51is, from
its being the chief seat of the Egj'ptian
worship of the crocodile.

ARTABANUS (-i). (1) Son of Hystaspes and
brother of Darius, is frequently mentioned in
the reign of his nephew Xerxes, as a wise
and frank counsellor. — (2) An Hyrcanian,
commander of the body-guard of Xerxes,
assassinated this king in b. c. 465, but was
shortly afterwards killed by Artaxerxes. — (3)
Kings of Parthia. [Arsaces.]

ARTABAZUS (-i). (1) A Persian general in
the army of Xerxes, served under Mardonius
in B.C. 479, and after the defeat of the
Persians at Plataea, he fled with 40,000 men
and reached Asia in safety. — (2) A Persian
general, fought under Artaxerxes II., and
Artaxerxes III., and Darius III. Codomannus.
One of his daughters, Barsinc, became by
Alexander the mother of Hercules.

ARTABRI (-orum), a Celtic people In the
N.W. of Spain, near the Promontory Nerium
or Celticum, also called Artabrum after
them {C. iinisterre).

ARTACE (-es), a sea-port town of the
peninsula of Cyzicus, in the Propontis : also
a mountain in the same peninsula.

ARTACIE (-58), a fountain in the country
of the Laestrygones.

ARTAEI (-6rum),was, according to Hero-
dotus, the old native qame of the Persians.
It signifies noble, and appears, in the form
Arta, as the -first part of a large number of
Persian pi'oper names.

ARTAPHERNES (-is). (1) Son of Hystaspes
and brother of Darius. He was satrap of
Sardis at the time of the Ionian revolt, b. c.
500. See Aristaooras. — (2) Son of the former,
commanded, along with Datis, the Persian
army of Darius, which was defeated at the
battle of Marathon, b.c. 490. He commanded
the Lydians and Mysians in the invasion of
Greece by Xerxes in 480.

ARTAVASDfiS or ARTABAZfiS (-is). (1)
King of the Greater Armenia, succeeded his
father (Tigranes. He betrayed Antony in his

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campaign against the Parthians in b.c. 86.
Antony accordingly invaded Armenia in 34,
took Artavasdes prisoner, and carried him to
Alexandria. He was killed after the battle
of Actium by order of Cleopatra. — (2) King
of Armenia, probably a grandson of No. I,
was placed upon the throne by Augustus, but
was deposed by the Armenians. — (3) King of
Media Atropatene, and an enemy of Arta-
vasdes I., king of Armenia. He died shortly
before b.c. 20.

ARTAXATA {-orum), or -A (-ae), the later
capitfd of Great Armenia, built by Artaxias,
under the advice of Hannibal, on a peninsula,
Borrounded by the river Araxes. After being
burnt by the Romans under Corbulo (b.c.
58), it was restored by Tiridates, and called

ARTAXERXES (-is), the name of 4 Persian
kings. — (1) Sumamed Lomoihanus, from his
right hand being longer than his left, suc-
ceeded his father Xerxes I. and reigned b.c
464 — 425. He carried on war against the
Epyptians who were assisted in their revolt
by the Athenians. He was succeeded by
his son Xerxes II. — (2) Sumamed Mnemon,
from his good memory, succeeded his father,
Darius II., and reigned b.c. 405 — 359.
Respecting the war between him and his
brother Cyrus, see Cyrus. Tissaphernes was
appointed satrap of W. Asia in the place of
Cyrus, and was actively engaged in wars with
the Greeks. [Aoesilacs.] Artaxerxes had
to carry on frequent wars with tributary
princes and satraps, who endeavoured to make
themselves independent. Thus he maintained
a long struggle against Evagoras of Cyprus,
from 885 to 376 ; and his attempts to recover
Egypt were unsuccessful. Towards the end
of his reign he put to death his eldest son
Darius, who had formed a plot to assassinate
him. His last days were still further embit-
tered by the unnatural conduct of his son
Ochus, who caused the destruction of two of
his brothers, in order to secure the succession
for himself. Artaxerxes was succeeded, by
Ochus, who ascended the throne under the
name of Artaxerxes III. — (3) Also called
OcHirs, reigned b.c 359 — 338. By the
aid of his Greek generals and mercenaries,
he reconquered Phoenicia and Egypt. The
reins of government were entirely in the
hands of the eunuch Bagoas, and of Mentor
the Rhodian. At last he was poisoned by
liagoas, and was succeeded by his youngest
«kon, Arsks. — (4) The founder of the dynasty
of the Sassanidab.

ARTAXIaS (-ae), or ARTAXfiS (-is), the
name of 3 kings of Armenia. — (1) The founder
of the Armenian kmgdom, was one of the
generals of Antiochus the Great, but revolted

from him about b.c 188, and became an in.
dependent sovereign. Hannibal took refuge
at the court of Artaxias, and he superintended
the building of Aktaxata, the capital of
Armenia. Artaxias was conquered and taken
prisoner by Antiochus IV. Epiphanes, about
165. — (2) Son of Artavasdes, was put to death
by his own subjects in b.c 20, and Augustus
placed Tigranes on the throne. — (3) Son of
Polemon, king of Pontus, was proclaimed
king of Armenia by Germanicus. in a.d. 18
He died about 35.

ARTEMIDORUS (-i). Q) A native of
Ephesus, but called Daldianus, from Daldis in
Lydia, his mother's birth-place, to distinguish
him from the geographer Artemidorus. He
lived at Rome in the reigns of Antoninus Pius
and M. Aurelius (a.d. 138 — 180), and wrote a
work on the interpretation of dreams, in 5
books, which is still extant. — (2) Also of
Ephesus, a Greek geographer, lived about
B.C. 100. An abridgment of his work was
made by Marcianus, of which part is still

ARTEMIS (-is), called DllNA (-ae) by the
Romans, one of the great divinities of the
Greeks. According to the most ancient ac-
count, she was daughter of 2eus (Jupiter) and
Leto (Latona), and the twin-sister of Apollo,
bom with him in the island of Delos. (1)
Artemis as the sister of Apollo^ is a kind of
female Apollo, that is, she as a female divinity
represented the same idea that Apollo did as a
male divinity. As sister of Apollo, Artemis
is like her brother arm«d with a bow, quiver,
and arrows, and sends plagues and death
among men and animals. Sudden deaths,
but more especially those of women, are
described as the effect of her arrows. As
Apollo was not only a destructive god, but
also averted evils, so Artemis likewise cured
and alleviated the sufferings of mortals. In
the Trojan war she sided, like Apollo, with
the Trojans. She was more especially the
protectress of the young; and from her
watching over the young of females, she
came to be regarded as the goddess of the
flocks and the chase. In this manner she
also became the huntress among the im-
mortals. Artemis, like Apollo, is unmarried ;
she is a maiden-divinity never conquered by
love.' She slew Okion with her arrows be-
cause he made an attempt upon her chastity ;
f^nd she changed Actaeon into a stag, simply
because he had seen her bathing. With her
brother -Apollo, she slew the children of
NioBE, who had deemed herself superior to
Leto. When Apollo was regarded as iden-
tical with the Sun or Helios, Ws sister was
looked upon as Selenfi or the Moon. Hence
she is represented as in love with the fair

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putb Endtmion, whom she kissed in his | sleep ; but this legend properly relates to Se-
lene or the Moon, and is foreign
to the character of Artemis,
who, as we hare observed, was
a goddess unmoved by love.
— (2) 7%« Arcadian Artemis
is a goddess of the nymphs,
and was worshipped as such
in Arcadia in very early times.
She hunted with her nymphs
on the Arcadian mountains,
and her chariot was drawn by
4 stags with golden antlers.
There was no connection be-
tween the Arcadian Artemis
and Apollo.— (3) The Tau-
rian Artemis. There was in
Tauris a goddess, whom the
k Greeks identified with their
^ own Artemis, and to whom
all strangers thrown on the
coast of Tauris were sacri-
ficed. Iphigenia and Orestes
brought her image from thence,
and landed at Brauron in Attica
whence the goddess derived
the name of Brauronia. The
Brauronian Artemis was wor-
shipped at Athens and Sparta,
and in the latter place the
boys were scourged at her
altar till it was besprinkled
with their blood. — (4) The
Epheeian Artemis, was a di-
vinity totally distinct trom the
Greek goddess of the same
name. She was an ancient
Asiatic divinity whose wor-
ship the Greeks found esta-
blished in Ionia, when they
settled there, and to whom
they gave the name of Arte-
mis. Her .image in the mag-
nificent temple of Ephesus was
represented with many breasts.
— The representations of the
Greek Artemis in works of art
are different according as she
is represented either as a
huntress, or as the goddess
of the moon. As the himtress,
her breast is covered, and the
legs up to the knees are naked,
the rest being covered by the
chlamys. Her attributes are
the bow, quiver, and arrows,
or a spear, stags, and doga.
As the goddess of the moon,

,^ .. ,, ™ , « «-» she wears a long robe
ArteniU. (Diana), godde.. of the MooB. (Gorii. MuB.Flor.. vol. 2, Uv.88.) ^^^^ ^^^^^ down tO her

feet, a veil covers her head, and above her forehead rises the crescent of the moon*

Anemia (Diana), tlie Huntreaa. (Muaeum Capitolinum, vol. 4, tav. 37.)

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In her hand she often appears holding- a

ARTEMISIA (-ae). (1) Daughter of Lyg-
damis, and queen of Halicarnassus in Caria,
accompanied Xerxes in his inyasion of Greece,
and in the battle of Salamis (b.c. 480) greatly
distinguished herself by her prudence and
courage, for which she was afterwards highly
honoured by the Persian king. — (2) Daughter
of Hecatomnus, and sister, wife, and suc-
cessor of the Carian prince Mausolus, reigneu
B.C. 352 — 350. She is renowned in history
for her extraordinary grief at the death of
her husband Mausolus. She is ^aid to have
mixed his ashes in her daily drink ; and to
perpetuate his memory she built at Halicar-
nassus the celebrated monument, MausoUum^
which was regarded as one of the 7 wonders
of the world, and whose name subsequently
became the generic term for any splendid
sepulchral monument.

ARTEMiSiUM (-i), a tract of country on
the N. coast of Euboea, opposite Magnesia, so
called from the temple of Artemis (Diana),
belonging to the town of Hestiaea : oif this

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