William Smith.

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coast the Greeks defeated the fleet of Xerxes,
B.C. 480.

ARVERNI (.drum), a Gallic people in
Aquitania, in the modem Auvergne. In early
times they were the most powerful people in
the 8. of Gaul : they were defeated by
Domitius Ahenobarbus and Fabius Maximus
in B.C. 121, but still possessed considerable
power in the time of Caesar (58). Their
capital was Nemossus, also named Angus-
tonemetum or Arvemi on the Elaver {Allier)^
with a citadel, called in the middle ages
Clams Mons, whence the name of the modern
(own, Clermont.

ARUNS (-untis), an Etruscan word, was
regarded by the Romans as a proper name,
Dut perhaps signified a yoimger son in gene-
ral. — (1) Younger brother of Lucumo, i. e.
L. Tarquinius Prisons. — (2) Youngei bro-
ther of L. Tarquinius Superbus, was mur-
dered by his wife. — (3) Younger son of Tar-
quinius Superbus, fell In combat with

ARZANENfi (-«8), a district of Armenia
Major, bounded on the S. by the Tigris,
formed part of Gordtenb.

ASANDER (-dri). (1) Son of Philotas,
brother of Parmenion, and one of the gene-
rals of Alexander the Great. After the death
of Alexander (b.c 323) he obtained Caria for
his satrapy. — (2) A general of Phamaces II.,
fcing of Bosporus, whom he put to death in
47, in hopes of obtaining the kingdom. He
was confirmed in the sovereignty by Augustus,

ASBYSTAE (-Srum), a Libyan people, in
the N. of Cyrenaica.

ASCALAPHtJS (-i). (1) Sonof Ares (Mars)
and Astyoche, led, with his brother lalmenus,
the Minyans of Orchomenus against Troy,
and was slain by Dei'phobus. — (2) Son of
Acheron and Gorgyra or Orphne. When
Pluto gave Perseph6n§ (Proserpina) permis-
sion to return to the upper world, provided
she had eaten nothing, Ascalaphus declared
that she had eaten part of a pomegranate.
Perseph6n§, in revenge, changed him into an
owl, by sprinkling him with water from the
river Phlegethon.

ASCALON (-6nis), one of the chief cities
of the Philistines, on the coast of Palestine,
between Az6tUB and Gaza. *

ASCANIA (-ae). (1) In Bithynia, a great
fresh-water lake, at the E. end of which stood
the city of Nicaea. — (2) A salt-water lake on
the borders of Phrygia and Pisidia.

ASCANIUS (-i), son of Aeneas by Creusa,
accompanied his father to Italy. Other tra-
ditions gave the name of Ascanius to the son
of Aeneas and Lavinia. He founded Alba
Longa, and was succeeded on the throne by
his son Silvius. Some writers relate that
Ascanius was also called Ilus or Julus. The
gens Julia at Rome traced its origin from
Julus or Ascanius.

ASCIBURGIUM (-1 : Ashurg, near Mors)^
an ancient place on the left bank of the

ASCLfiPlADfiS (-is), the name of several
physicians, which they derived f^om the god
Asdepius. [Aesculapius.] The most cele-
brated was a native of Bithynia, who came to
Rome in the middle of the first century b.c,
where he acquired a great reputation by his
successful cures.

ASCLEPIUS. [Aesculapius.]

grammarian, born at Patavium (Padua),
about B.C. 2, and died in his 8dth year in the
reign of Domitian. He wrote a valuable
Commentary on the speeches of Cicero, of
which we still possess considerable fragments.

A8CRA (-ae), a town in Boeotia on Mt.
Helicon, where Hesiod resided, who had
removed thither with his father from Cyme
in Aeolis, and who is therefore called As^

ASCt^LUM (-i). (1) picENUM, the chief
town of Picenum, and a Roman municipium,
was destroyed by the Romans in the Social
War (b.c 89), but was afterwards rebuilt.
— (2) APULUM, a town of Apulia in Daunla on
the confines of Samniimi, near which the
Romans were defeated by Pyrrhus, b.c 729.

ASDRUBAL. [IIasdrubal.]

ASELLIO (-6nis), P. SEMPRONIUS <-!),
tribune of the soldiers under P. Scipio Afri-
canus at Numantia, b.c 133, wrote a Roman

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history from the Punic wars inolusive to the
tiraes^of the Gracchi.

ASIA (-ae), daughter of Oceanus and
Tethys, wife of lapetus, and mother of Atlas,
Prometheus, and Epimetheus. According to
some traditions, the continent of Asia derived
its name from her.

AStA (-ae), in the poets ASIS (Jdis), one
of the 3 great divisions which the ancients
made of the known world. It was first used
by the Greeks for the western part of Asia
Minor, especially the plains watered by the
river Cayster, where the Ionian colonists first
settled; and thence, as their geographical
knowledge advanced, they extended it to the
whole country. The southern part of the con-
tinent was supposed to extend much further
to the E. than it really does, while to the N.
and N.E. parts, which were quite unknown,
much too small an extent was assigned. The
different opinions about the boundaries of
Asia on the side of Africa are mentioned
under Africa : on the side of Europe the
boundary was formed by the river Tanais
{Don), the Paulus Maeotis {Sea of Azof),
Pontus Euxinus {Black Sea), Propontis {Sea
of Marmora), and the Aegean {Archipelago).
— The most general division of Asia was into
2 parts, which were different at different
times, and known by different names. To
the earliest Greek colonists the river Halys,
the eastern boundary of the Lydian kingdom,
formed a natural division between Upper and
Lmoer Asia ; and afterwards the Euphrates
was adopted as a more natural boundary.
Another division was made by the Taurus into
A, intra Taurum, i. e. the part of Asia N.
and N.W. of the Taurus, and A. extra
Taurum, all the rest of the continent. The
division ultimately adopted, but apparently
not till the 4th century of our era, was that
of A. Mqfor and A, Miiior. — (1) Asia
Major was the part of the continent E. of
the Tanais, the Euxine, an imaginary line
drawn from the Euxine at Trapezus {TrebL
zond) to the Gulf of Issud, and the- Mediter-
ranean: thus it included the countries of
Sarmatica Asiatica with all the Scythian
tribes to the E., Colchis, Iberia, Albania,
Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Babylonia, Mesopo-
tamia, Assyria, Media, Susiana, Persis,
Arianq 'Hyrcania, Margiana, Bactriana,
Sogdiana, India, the land of the Sinae and
Serica ; respecting which, see the several
articles. — (2) Asia Minor {Anatolia), was
the penihsula on the extreme W. of Asia,
bounded by the Euxine, Aegean, and Medi-
terranean on the N., W., and S. ; and on the
K. by the mountains on the W. of the upper
course of the Euphrates. It was divided into
Mysia, Lydia, and Caria, on the W., Lyci<i,

Pamphylia, and Cilicia, on the S. ; Bithynia,
Paphlagonia, and Pontus, on the E. ; and
Phrygia, Pisidia, Galatia, and Cappadocia, in
the centre. — (3) Asia Propria, or simply
Asia, the Koman province, formed out of the
kingdom of Pergamus, which was bequeathed
to the Romans by Attalus III. (b.c. 130),
and the Greek cities on the W. coast, and the
adjacent islands, with Ehodes. It included
the districts of Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and
Phrygia ; and was governed at first by pro-
praetorsj^ afterwards by proconsuls.

ASINARUS (-i), » river on the E. side of
Sicily on which the Athenians were defeated
byj,he Syracusans, b. c. 413.

ASINE (-es). (1) A town in Laconia on
the coast between Taenarum and Gythium. —
(2) A town in Argolis, W. of Hermione, was
built by the Dryopes, who were driven out o'
the town by the Argrives after the first Mes-
senian war, and built No. 3. — (3) An
important town in Messenia, near the Pro-
montory Acritas, on the Messenian gnU,
which was hence also called the Asinaean gulf.



ASOPUS (-i). (1) A river fiowing through
the Sicyonian territory into the Corinthian
gulf. The god of this river, was son o'
Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Evadne,
Euboea, and Aegina, each of whom was
therefore called Asopis, Aeacus, the son of
Aegina, is called Asopiades. — (2) A river in
Boeotia, fiowing near Plataeae, and falling
into the Euboean sea. — (3) A river in Thes-
saly, rising in M. Oeta, and flowing into the
Maliac grulf near Thermypolae.

ASPARAGIUM (-i), a town in the territory
of Dyrrhachium in Illyria.

ASPASIA (-ae). (1) The elder, of Miletus,
daughter of AxiOchus, the most celebrated of
the Greek Hetaerae. She came to Athens,
where she gained the affections of Pericles,
not more by her beauty than by her high
mental accomplishments. Having parted with
his wife, Pericles lived with Aspasia, during
the rest of his life. His enemies accused
Aspasia of impiety, and it required all his
personal influence to procure her acquittal.
The house of Aspasia was the centre of the
best literary and philosophical society of
Athens, and was frequented even by Socrates.
On the death of Pericles (b. c. 429), Aspasia
is said to have attached herself to one Lysicles,
a dealer in cattle, and to have made him by
her instructions a first-rate orator. — (2) The
Younger, a Phocaean, daughter of Hermo.
timus, the favourite concubine of Cyrus the
Younger, and subsequently of his brother
Artaxerxes. Cyrus called her Aspasia after
the mistress of Pericle^ her previous name

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haringr been Milto. Darius, son of Arta-
xerxes, having fallen in lore with her, Arta-
xerxes made her priestess of a temple at
Ecbatana, where strict celibacy was reqoi.

ASPENDUS (-i), a flourishing city of
Pamphylia, on the river Eurymedon, 60
stadia from its mouth : said to have been a
colony of Argives.

TUT7M, the great salt lake in the S. E. of
Palestine, which receives the water of the

ASPIS (-Ydis), or Cltpba (-ae), a city on a
promontory of the same name, near the N. £.
point of the Carthaginian territory, founded
by Agathocles, and taken in the first Punic
War by the Romans.

ASPLEdON or SPLEdON, a town of the
Minyae in Boeotia on the river Melas, near

ASS A (-ae), a town in ChalcidlcS in Mace-
donia, on the Singitic gulf.

ASSACdSNI (-onmi), an Indian tribe, in
the district of the Paropamisadae, between
the rivers Cophen {Cabool)^ and Indiis.

ASSARACUS (-i), king of Troy, son of
Tros, father of Capys, grandfather of An-
chises, and great-grandfather of Aeneas.
Hence the Romans, as descendants of Aeneas,
are called domus Assaraci.

ASSESUS (-i) , a town of Ionia near Miletus,
with a temple of Athena sumamed Assesia.

ASSORUS (-i), a small town in Sicily
between Enna and Agyrium.

ASSU8 (-i), a city in the Troad, on thp
Adramyttian Gulf, opposite to Lesbos : after-
wards called ApoUonia: the birthplace of
Cleonthesjthe Stoic.

ASSYRIA (-ae). (i) The country properly
so called, in the narrowest sense, was a district
of Asia, extending along the E. side of the
Tigris, which divided it on the W. and N. W.
from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and bounded,
on the N. and E. by M. Niphates and M.
Zagrus, which separated it from Armenia and
Media, and on the S. E. by Susiana. It was
watered by several streams, flowing into the
Tigris from the E. ; two of which, the Lycus
or Zabatus {Great Zab), and the Caprus or
Zabas or Anzabas {Little Zab)^ divided the
country into three parts: that between the
Upper Tigris and the Lycus was called Aturia
(a mere dialectic variety of Assyria), was
probably the most ancient seat of the mon-
archy, and contained the capital, Nineveb or
Nnrus: that between the Lycus and the
Capros was called Adi&bene : and the part S.
E. of the CapruB contained the districts of
ApoUonlatis and Sittacene. — (2) In a wider
sense the name was applied to the whole

country watered by the Euphrates and the
Tigris, so as to include Mesopotamia and
Babylonia. — (3) By a further extension the
word is used to designate the Assyrian Empire
in its widest sense. It was one of the first
great states of which we have any record. It3
reputed founder was Ninus, the builder of the
capital city ; and in its widest extent it in-
cluded the countries just mentioned, with
Media, Persis, Armenia, Sjria, Phoenicia,
and Palestine, except the kingdom of Judah.
The friiitless expedition of Sennacherib against
Egypt, and the miraculous destruction of his
army before Jerusalem (b. c. 714), so weak-
ened the empire, that the Medes revolted and
formed a separate kingdom. In b. c. 606,
Nineveh was taken, and the Assyrian em-
pire destroyed by Cyaxares, the king of

ASTA (-ae). (1) {Aati in Piedmont), an
inland town of Liguria on the Tanarus, a
Roman colony. — (2) A town in Hispania
Baetica. near Gades, a Roman colony.

ASTABORAS (-ae), and A8TAPUS (-i), two
rivers of Aethiopia, having their sources in
the highlands of Ahyasinia and uniting to form
the Nile. The land enclosed by them was the
island of Merob.

ASTACUS (-i), a celebrated city of Bithynia,
on the Sinus Astacenusi a bay of tiie Propontis,
was a colony from Megara, but afterwards
received fresh colonists from Athens, who
called the place OUm, It was destroyed by
Lysimachus, but was rebuilt on a neighbour-
ing site, by Nicomedes I., who named his new


ASTA PA (-ae), a town in Hispania Baetica.


ASTARTE. [Aphkodot and Stria Dra.]

ASTERIA (-ae), or ASTERIE (-es), daugh-
ter of the Titan Coeus and Phoeb€, sister of
Leto (Latona), wife of Perses, and mother of
Hec^tS. In order to escape the embraces of
Zeus, she is said to have taken the form of a
quail {ortyx), and to have thrown herself
down fh)m heaven into the sea, where she
was metamorphosed into the island Asteria
(the island which had fallen from heaven
like a star), or Ortygia, afterwards called

ASTERIS (-idis), or ASTERIA (-ae), a
small island between Ithaca and Cephallenia.

A8TRAEA (-ae), daughter of Zeus (Jupiter)
and Themis, and goddess of justice, lived
during the golden age among men ; but when
the wickedness of men increased, she with-
drew to heaven and was placed among the
stars, under the name of Virgo. Her sister
Pudicitia left the earth along with her,

ASTRAEUS (-1), a Titan, husband of Eos
(Aurora), and father of the winds and the

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Stan. Ovid calls the -winds Astraei (adj.)
fratreSy^ the " Astraean brothers."

ASTURA (-ae), a river in Latium, flowing
between Antium and Circeii into the Tyrrhe-
nian sea. At its mouth it formed a small
island with a town upon it, also called Astura,
where Cicero had an estate.

ASTURES (-um), a warlike people in the
N.W. of Spain, bounded on the £. by the
Cantabri and Vaccaei, on the W. by the Gal-
laeci, on the N. by the Ocean, and on the
S. by the Vettones. Their chief town was
Asturica Augusta {Astor$a),

ASTdG£S (-is), sonof Cyaxares, last king
of Media, reigned b.c. 594 — 559. He was
deposed and deprived of his dominions by his
grandson Cyrus. For details see Ctbus.

ASTtANAX (au!tis), son of Hector and
Andromache. After the capture of Troy the
Greeks hurled him down from the walls, that
he might not restore the kingdom of Troy.

ASTtPALAEA (-ae), one of the Sporades
in the S. part of the Grecian archipelago,
with a town of the same name, founded by
the Megrarians.

ASTtRA (-ae), a town of Mysia, N. W. of

ATABtJLUS (-i), the name in Apulia of
the parching S.E. wind, the Sirocco, which is
at present called Altino in Apulia.

ATABtRIS or ATABtRIUM (4), the
highest mountain in Rhodes on the S.W. of
that island, on which was a celebrated temple
of Zeus Atabyrius.

ATAGI8. [Athesis.]

ATALANTA (-ae), or XtXlANTE (-es).
(1) The Arcadian Atalanta, was a daughter
of lasus (lasion or lasius) and Clymene.
She was exposed by her father in her
infancy, and was suckled by a she-bear,
the symbol of Artemis (Diana). After she
had grown up she lived in pure maiden-
hood, slew the centaurs who pursued her,
and took part in the Calydonian hunt. Her
father subsequently recognised her as his
daughter ; and when he desired her to marry,
she required every suitor to contend with her
In the foot-race, because she was the most
swift-footed of mortals. If he conquered her,
he was to be rewarded with her hand ; if he
was conquered, he was to be put to death. She
conquered many suitors, but was at length
overcome by Mllanlon with the assistance of
Aphrodite (Venus). The goddess had given
him 3 golden apples, and during the race he
dropped them one after the other : their
beauty charmed Atalanta so much, that she
coald not abstain fi-om gathering them, and
Mllanlon thus gained the goal before her.
She accordingly became his wife. They were
subsequently both metamorphosed into lions,

because they had profaned by their embraces
the sacred grove of Zeus (Jupiter). — (2) The
Boeotian Atalanta, The same stories are
related of her as of the Arcadian Atalanta,
except that her parentage and the localities
are described differently. Thus she is said
to have been a daughter of Schoenus, and to
have been married to Hippomenes. Her foot-
race is transferred to the Boeotian Onchestus,
and the sanctuary profaned was a temple of
Cybele, who metamorphosed them into lions,
and yoked them to her chariot.

ATALANTE (-es), a town of Macedonia
on the Axius.

ATARANTES (-urn), a people in the E. of
Libya, between the Garamantes and Atlantes.

ATARNEUS, a city on the coast of Mysia,
opposite to Lesbos : a colony of the Chians :
the residence of the tyrant Hermias, with
whom Aristotle resided some time.

AT AX (-Scis; Aude)^ originally called
Narbo, a river in Gallia Narbonensis, rising
in the Pyrenees, and flowing by Narbo Mar-
tins into the Lacus Rubresus or Rubrensis,
which is connected with the sea.

AT£ (-Cs), daughter of Eris or Zeus (Jo.
piter), was an ancient Greek divinity, who
led both gods and men into rash and incon-
siderate actions.


ATELLA (-ae: Aversa)^ a town in Cam-
pania between Capua and Neapolis, originally
inhabited by the Oscans, afterwards a Roman
municipium and a colony. Atella owes it«
celebrity to the Atellanae FabtUae or Oscan
farces, which took their name fh)m this town.

ATERNUM (-i: Pescara), a town in
central Italy on the Adriatic, at the mouth
of the river Atemus, was the common harbour
of the Vestini, Marrucini, and Peligni.

ATERNUS. [Atehnum.]

ATESTE (-€s : Ftite), a Roman colony in
the country of the Venetl in Upper Italy.

AtHACUS (-i), a town in Lyncestis in

ATHAMANIA (-ae), a mountainous country
in the 8. of Epirus, on the W. side of Pindus,
of which Argithea was the chief town. The
Atham&nes were a Thessalian people, who
had been driven out of Thessaly by the

ATHAMAS (-antis), son of Aeolus and
Enarete, and king of Orchomenus in Boeotia.
At the command of Hera (Juno), Athamas
married Nepheie, by whom he became the
father of Phrixus and Helle. [Phrixus.]
But he was secretly in love with the mortal
Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, by whom he
begot Learchus and Melicertes. Having thus
incurred the anger both of Hera and of Nephel£,
Athamas was seized with madness, and m

Digitized by





this state killed his own son, Learehns. Inc
threw herself with Melicertes into the sea,
and both were changed into marine deities,
Ino becoming Leucothea, and Melicertes
Palaemon. Athamas, as the nrxrderer of
his son, was obliged to flee from Boeotia,
and settled in Thessalj. — Hence we hare
AthanumHMet (-a«), son of Athamas, i. e.
Palaemon ; ondiAthamantit {'Xdut), daughter of
Athamas, i. e. Helle.

ATHANAOIA (-ae), the chief town of the
Ilergetes in Hispania Tarraconensis.

ATHENA (-ae), or ATHENE (-es), called
MINERVA by the Romans, was one of the great
divinities of the Greeks. She is frequently
called PeUlat Athena^ or simply Pallas, She
was the daughter of Zeus (Jupiter) and Metis.
Before her birth Zeus swallowed her mother ;
and Athena afterwards sprung forth trovo. the
head of Zeus with a mighty war-shout and in
complete armour. As her father was the most
powerful and her mother the wisest among
the gods, so Athena was a combination of the
two, a goddess in whom power and wisdom
weit harmoniously blended. Bhe appears as
the preserver of the state and of everything
which gives to the state strength and pros.

Atbena (Minerva). Aegina Marbles.)

perity. — As the protectress of agriculture,
A .hena is represented as creating the olive

tree (see below), inventing the plough and

Athens (Mlnerra). (From a Statue in the
a of Mr. Hope)

rake, &c. She was the patroness of both the
useful and elegant arts, such as weaving.
[See Arachnk.] Later writers make her the
goddess of all wisdom and knowledge. As
the patron divinity of the state, she main-
tained the authority of law and order in the
courts and the assembly of the people. She
was believed to have instituted the ancient
court of the Areopagus at Athens. She
also protected the state from outward enemies,
and thus assumes the character of a warlike
divinity. In the war of Zeus against the
giants, she buried Enceladus under the island
iif Sicily, and slew Pallas. In the Trojan
war she sided with the Greeks. As a goddess
of war she usually api)ears in armour, with
the aegis and a golden staff. In the centre
of her breast-plate or shield, appears the head
of Medusa, the Gofgon. She is represented
as a virgin divinity, whose heart is inacces-
sible to the passion of love. Tiresias was de.
prived of sight for having seen her in the
bath; and Hephaestus (Vulcan), who had

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made an attempt upon her chastity, Tras obliged
to take to fli{?ht. Athena was worshipped in
all parts of Greece. She was especially the
protecting deity of Athens and Attica. The
tale ran that in the reign of Cccrops both Po-
seidon (Neptune) and Athena contended for
the possession of Athens. The gods resolved
that whichever of them produced a gift most
useful to mortals should have possession of the
land. Poseidon struck the ground with his
trident and straightway a horse appeared.

Athena then planted the olive. The gods
thereupon decreed that the olive was mure
useful to man than the horse, and gave the
city to the goddess, from whom it was called
Athenae. At Athens the magnificent festival
of the Panathenaea was celebrated in honour
of the goddess. At this festival took place the
grand procession, which was represented on
the frieze of the Parthenon. Respecting her
worship In Italy, see Mikkrva. The owl, ser-
pent, cock, and olive-tree, were sacred to her.

Athena (Miuerva). (BartoU, AdiuiriiDtia, pi. 41.)

ATIIKXAE (-arum : -Athens^ the capital of
Attica, about 4 miles from the sea, between
the small rivers Cephissus on the W. and
llissus on the E., the latter of which flowed
through the town. The most ancient part of it,
the Acropolis^ is said to have been built by the
mythical Cecrops, but the city itself is said to
have owed its origin to Theseus, who united
the 12 independent states or townships of
Attica Into one state, and made Athens their
capital. . The city was burnt by Xerxes in
B.C. 480, but was soon rebuilt under the
administration of Themistoclcs, and was
adorned with public buildings by Cimon, and
especially by Pericles, in whose time (b.c.
4G0 — 429) it reached its greatest splendour.
Its beauty was chiefly owing to its public
buildings, for the private houses were mostly
insignificant, and its streets badly laid out.
Towards the end of the Peloponnesian war,
it contained 10,000 houses, which at the rate
of 1 2 inhabitants to a house, would give a
population of 120,000, though some writers
make the inhabitants as many as 180,000.
Under the Romans Athens continued to be a
great and flourishing city, and retained many
privileges and immunities when the south of
Greece was formed into the Roman province of
Achaia. It suffered greatly on its capture by
Sulla, B.C. 86, and was deprived of many of
its privileges. It was at that time, and also
durinif the early ccnturicu of the Christian

aera, one of the chief seats of learning ; and
the Romans were accustomed to send their
sons to Athens, as to an University, for the
completion of their education. Hadrian,
who was very partial to Athens, and fre-
quently resided in the city (a.d. 122 — 128),
adorned it with many new buildings, and his
example was followed by Herodes Atticus,
who spent large sums of money upon boauti.
fying the city in the reign of M. Aurelius. —
Athens consisted of two distinct parts : I.
The City, properly so called, divided into,
1. The Upper City or Acropolis, and, 2. The
Lower City, surrounded with walls by The-
mistoclcs. II. The S harbour-towns of

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