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violent storm, which threw the barbarians
into confusion. This storm is said to have
been owing to the prayers of a legion chiefly
composed of Christians. It has given rise to
a famous controversy among the historians of
Christianity upon what is commonly termed
the Miracle of the Thundering Legion. In
175, Aurelius set out for the East, where
Avidius Cassius, urged on by Faustina, the
unworthy wife of Aurelius, had risen In
rebellion ana proclaimed himself emperor.
But before Aurelius reached the East, Cassius
had been slain by his own officers. During
this expedition Faustina died, according to
some, l)y her own hands. Aurelius died in
180, in Pannonia, while prosecuting the war
against the Marcomanni. — The leading feature
in the character of M. Aurelius was his devo-
tion to the Stoic philosophy. We still

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possess a work by him written in the Greek
language, and entitled Meditations. Vo
remains of antiquity present a nobler view
of philosophical heathenism. The chief and
perhaps the only stain upon the memory of
Aurelius is liis persecutions of the Christians.
— ^Aurelius was succeeded by his son Corn-


AURORA. [Eos.]

AURUNCI. [Italia.]

AUSCI or AUSCII (^rum), a powerful
people in Aquitania, whose capital was Clim-
berrum or Elimberrum, also Augusta and
Ausci {Auch).

AUSETANI (^rum), a Spanish people in the
modem Catalonia; their capital was Ansa
(rtque), ^ ^

AU80NE8, AUSONIA. [Italia.]

AU8dNiU8, DECiMU8 MAGNU8 (-i), a
Roman poet, bom at BurdigiUa {Bordeaux),
about A.D. 310, taught grammar and rhetoric
with such reputation at his natire town, that
he was appointed tutor of Gratian, son of the
emperor Yalentinian, and was afterwards
raised to the highest honours of the state.
Many of his poems are extant.

AUSTER (-tri), called Notus by the Greeks,
the 8. wind or strictly the 8. W. wind. It
frequently brought with it fogs and rain ; but
at certain seasons of the year it was a dry
sultry wind, injurious both to man and to
vegetation, the Sirocco of the modem Italians.

AUTARIATAE (-arum), an lUyrian people
in the Dalmatian mountains.

AUTOCHTHONES. [Aborigines.]

AUTOLOLES (-um), or -AE (4lmm), a
Gaetulian tribe on the W. coast of AMca, 8.
of the Atlas mountains.

AUTOLtCUS (-i), son of Hermes (Mercury)
and Chione, and father of AntidSa, who was
the mother of Ulysses. He lived on mount
Parnassus, and was renowned for his cunning
and robberies.

AUTOMEDON (-ontis), son of Diores, the
charioteer and companion of Achilles, and,
after the death of the latter, the companion
of his son Pyrrhus. Hence Automedon is
used as the name of any skilful charioteer.

AUTONOE (-es), daughter of Cadmus and
Harmonia, wife of Aristaeus, and mother of
Actaeon, who is therefore called Autonoeius
lieros. With her sister Ag&vS, she tore
Pentheus^ to pieces. [Penthbus.]

AUTRIGONES (-um), a people in Hispania
Tarraoonensis between the Ocean and the

AUXlMUM(.i: Ommo), an important town
of Picenum in Italy, and a Roman colony.

AUXCmE (-6s), or AX- {Axum), the capital
of a powerful kingdom in Ethiopia, to the 8. E.
of MeroS, which became known to the Greeks
and Romans in the early part of the 2nd
century of our aera.

AVXRICUM. [Bitueioes.]

AYELLA. [Abella.]

AYENIO (-dnis : Avignon) , a town of the
Cavares in Gallia Narbonensis on the lefi
bank of the Rhone.

AVENTiCUM (-i: Avenches), the chief
town of the Helvetii, and subsequently a
Roman colony, of which ruins are still to be


XVERNUS LACUS (-i), a lake close to
the promontory between Cumae and Puteoli,
filling the crater of an extinct volcano. It is
surrounded by high banks, which in antiquity
were covered by a gloomy forest sacred to
Hec&te. From its waten mephitic vapours
arose, which are said to have killed tl^e birds
that attempted to fly over it, from which cir-
cumstance its Greek name was supposed to
be derived. {Aomos, from i priv. and *fw<,
a bird.) The lake was celebrated in mytho-
logy on account of its connection with the
lower world. Near it was the cave of the
Cumaean Sibyl, through which Aeneas de-
scended to the lower world. Agrippa, in the
time of Augustus, connected this lake with
the Lucrine lake ; he also caused a tunnel to
be made from the lake to Cumae, of which
a considerable part remains and is known
under the name of Grotto di Sibylla. The
Lucrine lake was filled up by an eruption
in 1530, so that Avemus is again a separate

AvUnUS, FLXVIUS (-i), the author of
42 fables in Latin elegiac verse, probably lived
in the 8rd or 4th century of the Christian

AVifiNUS, RUFUS FESTUS (-i), a Latin
poet towards the end of the 4th century of
the Christian aera. His poems are chiefly

AXENU8. [EuxiNus Pontus.]

AXIA (-ae), a fortress in the territory of
Tarquinii in Etruria.

AXlUS (-i), the chief river in Macedonia,
rising in Mt. Scardus, and flowing 8.£.
through Macedonia into the Thermaic gulf.

AZOTUS (-i : A$hdod or Ashdoud), a city
of Palestine, near the sea-coast.

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DABKIuS (4), a Greek poet, probably in the
^ time of Augustus, turned the fables of
Aesop into verse.

BABtLON (^nis). (1) (Babel in O.T. :
Ru. at and around Hillah)^ one of the oldest
cities of the ancient world, built on both banks
of the river Euphrates. In Scripture its foun-
dation is ascribed to Nimrod. Secular history
ascribes its origin to Belus (i. e. the god Baal),
and its enlargement and decoration to Ninus
or his wife Semiramis, the Assyrian monarchs
of Nineveh. Babylon was for a long time
subject to the Assyrian empire. Its greatness
as an independent empire begins with Nabo-
polassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, who,
with thb aid of the Median king Cyaxares,
overthrew the Assyrian monarchy, and de-
stroyed Nineveh (b.c. 606). Under his son
and successor, Nebuchadnezzar (b.o. 60<
562), the Babylonian empire reached its
height, and extended from the Euphrates to
Egypt, and from the mountains of Armenia
to the deserts of Arabia. After his death it
again declined, until it was overthrown by
the capture of Babylon by the Medes and
Persians under Cyrus (b.c. 538), who made
the city one of the capitals of the Persian
empire, the others being Susa and Ecbatana.
Under his successors the city rapidly sank.
Darius I. dismantled its fortifications, in
consequence of a revolt of its inhabitants.
After the death of Alexander, Babylon
a part of the Syrian kingdom of S
Nicator, who contributed to its de-
cline by the foundation of Skleucia
on the Tigris, which soon eclipsed
it. At the present day all its visible
remains consist of mounds of earth,
ruined masses of brick walls, and. a
few scattered fragments. The city
of Babylon formed a square, each
side of which was 120 stadia ( 1 2 geog.
miles) in length. The walls, of burnt
brick, were 200 cubits high and 50
thick ; and they were surrounded by
a deep ditch. The Euphrates, which
divided the city into 2 equal parts,
was embanked with walls of brick,
the openings of which at the ends of
the transverse streets were closed by
gates of bronze. Of the two public
buildings of the greatest celebrity,
the one was the temple of Belus, risj
great height, and consisting of 8 stori(

dually diminishing in width, and asoem ,

flight of steps, which wound round the whole
building on the outside. The other was the
'* hanging gardens" of Nebuchadnezzar, laid
out upon terraces which were raised above one
another on arches. The streets of the city were

straight, intersecting one another at right
angles. The buildings were almost universally
constructed of bricks, some burnt and some only
sim-dried, cemented together with hot bitumen
and in some cases with mortar. The ruling class
at Babylon, to which the kings and priests and
the men of learning belonged, were the Chal-
daean's, who probably descended at an ancient
period from the mountains on the borders of Ar-
menia, and conquered the Babylonians. The
religion of theChaldaeans was Sabaeism, or the
worship of the heavenly bodies. The priests
formed a caste, and cultivated science, especi-
ally astronomy. They were the authors of the
systems of weights and measures used by the
Greeks and Romans. The district around the
city, bounded by the Tigris on the E., Mesopo-
tamia on the N., the Arabian Desert on the W.,
and extending to the head of the Persian Gulf
on the S., was known in later times by the name
of Babylonia, sometimes also called Chaldaea.
[Chaldaka.] This district was a plain, sub-
ject to continual inundations from the Tigris
and Euphrates, which were regulated by
canals. The country was fertile, but deficient
in trees. — (2) A fortress in Lower Egypt,
on the right bank of the Nile, exactly opposite
to the pyramids. Its origin was ascribed
by tradition to a body of Babylonian deserters.

BABtLONIA. [Babylon.]

BACCHAE (-arum), also called Maetiades

Bacchante, with Snake-bound Hair. (Thiench. abet
die hellenischen bemalten Yasen.)

and Thyiades. (1) The female companions
of Dionysus or Bacchus in his wanderings

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through the East, are represented aa crowned
xrith vine-leaves, clothed with fawn-skins,
and carrying in their hands the thyrsus. —
12) Priestesses of Dionysus, who by wine
Hnd other exciting causes worked them-
selves up to frenzy at the Dionysiac festi-
vals. For details, see Dionysus.

BACCHUS. [Dionysus.]

BACCHtLIDES, one of the great lyric
poets of Greece, bom at lulis in Ceos, and
nephew of Simonides. He flourished about
B.C. 470, and lived a long time at the court of
Hieron in Syracuse, together with Simonides
dnd Pindar.

BACENIS 8ILVA, a forest which separated
the Suevi from the Cherusci, probably the
W. part of the Thuringian Forest.

BACTRA or ZARIASPA (-ae : Balkh), the
capital of Bactria, stood at the N. foot of
the M. Paropamisus (the Hindoo Koosh) on
the river Bactrus, about 25 miles S. of its
junction with the Oxus.

BACTRIA or -lANA (-ae: BokJuira), a
province of the Persian empire, bounded on the
S. by M. Paropamisus, which separated it
from Ariana, on the E. by the N. branch of the
same range, which divided it from the Sacae,
on the N.E. by the Oxus, which separated it
from Sogdiana, and on the W. by Margiana.
It was included in the conquests of Alex-
ander, and formed a part of the kingdom of
the Seleucidae, until b.c. 255, when Theo-
dotus, its governor, revolted from Antiochus
II., and founded the Greek kingdom of
Bactria, which lasted till b.c 184 or 125,
when it was overthrown by the Parthians.

BAECULA (-ae), a town in Hispania Tarra-
conensis, W. of Castulo, in the neighbourhood
of silver mines.

BAETERRAE (-arum : Beziers), a town in
Gallia Narbonensis on the Obris, not far f^om

BAETIcA. [Hirpania.]

BAETIS (-is : Guadalguwer)^ a river in S.
Spain, formerly called Tartessus, rising in the
territory of the Oretani, flowing S.W. through
Baetica, to which it gave its name, and fall-
ing into the Atlantic Ocean by 2 mouths.

BAGOaS (-ae) or BAGOUS (-i), an eunuch,
highly trusted and favoured by Artaxerxes
III. (bchus), whom he poisoned, B.C. 338. He
was put to death by Darius III. Codomannus,
whom he had attempted likewise to poison,
336. The name Bagoas frequently occurs
in Persian history, and is sometimes used
by Latin writers as synonymous with an
eunuch. ^

BAGRADA (-ae), a river of N. Africa,
falling into the Gulf of Carthage near

BAIAE (-arum), a town in Campania, on a

small bay W. of Naples, and opposite Puteoli,
was situated in a beautiful country, which
abounded in warm mineral springs. The
baths of Baiae were the most celebrated in
Italy, and the town itself was the favourite
watering-place of the Romans. The whole
country was studded with the palaces of the
Roman nobles and emperors, which coTercd
the coast ftom Baiae to Puteoli. The site of
ancient Baiae is now for the most part covered
by the sea.

served under Pompey against Sortorius in
Spain, and received fh)m Pompey the Roman
citizenship. He returned with Pompey to
Rome, where he lived on intimate terms with
Caesar as well as Pompey. In b.c. 56 he
was accused of having illegally assumed the
Roman citizenship ; he was defended by
Cicero, whose speech has come down to us,
and was acquitted. In the civil war, Balbus
had the management of Caesar*s affairs at
Rome. After the death of Caesar he gained
the favour of Octavian, who raised him to the
consulship in 40.

^BALEARES (-ium), also called GTMNfi-
SIAE, by the Greeks, 2 islands in the Mediter-
ranean, off the coast of Spain, distinguished by
the epithets Mqjor and Minora whence their
modern names Mqforca and Minorca. Their
inhabitants, also called Baleares^ were cele-
brated as slingers. They were subdued b.c.
123, by Q. Metellus, who asstmied accordingly
the surname Balearicus.

BANDCSIAE pons {Sambueo), a fountain
in Apulia, 6 mUes from Venusia.

BANT I A (-ae: Banzi or Fanzt), a town
in Apulia, near Venusia, in a woody district.

BARBXRI, the name given by the Greeks
to all foreigrners, whose language was not
Greek, and who were therefore regarded by
the Greeks as an inferior race. The Romans
applied the name to all people, who spoke
neither Greek nor Latin.

BARCA. [Hamilcar.]

BARCA (-ae) or -E (-es : MerjeK)^ the second
city of Cyrenaica, in N. Africa, 100 stadia from
the sea, appears to have been at first a settle-
ment of a Libyan tribe, the Barcaei, but about
B.C. 560 was colonised by the Greek secedeni
from Cyrene, and became so powerful as to
make the W. part of Cyrenaica virtually inde-
pendent of the mother city. In b.c 510 it
was taken by the Persians, who removed
most of its inhabitants to Bactria; and under
the Ptolemies its ruin was completed by the
erection of its port into a new city, which
was named Ptolemais.

BARCINO {Barcelona) t a town of the
Laeetani in Hispania Tarraconensis, with an
excellent harbour.

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BARGtJsil (-orum), a people in the N.K.
of Spain, between the Pyrenees and the

BARIUM {Bari)y a town in Apulia, on the
Adriatic, a municipium, and celebrated for its

BARSINfi (-es). (1) Daughter of Artabazns,
and wife of Memnon the Rhodian, subse-
quently married Alexander the Great, to
whom she bore a son, Hercules. She and
her son were put to death by Polysperchon
in 309.— (2) Also called STATIRA, elder
daughter of Darius III., whom Alexander
married at Susa, b.c. 324. Shortly after
Alexander's death she was murdered by

BASSAREUS (-?5s or §1), a surname of Dio-
nysus, probably derived from hassaria^ a fox-
skin, worn by the god himself and the Mae-
nads in Thrace. Hence Ba^saris (-idis), was
the name of a female Bacchante.

warlike German people, partly settled between
the Tyras {^Dniegter) and Borysthenes {Dnie~
per)t and partly at the mouth of the Danube,
under the name of Petunniy from their inha-
biting the island of Pence, at the mouth of
this river.

BATA VI or BATAVI (-orum), a Celtic people,
inhabiting the island formed by the Rhine, the
Waal, and the Maas, called after them Insula
Batavorttm, They were for a long time allies
of the Romans, but they revolted under
Claudius Civilis, in a.d. 69, and were with
great difficulty subdued. Their chief town
was Lugdunum {Ley den) ^ between the Maas
and the Waal. The Caninefatea or Cannine-
fates were a branch of the Batavi, and dwelt
in the W. of the island.

BATHYLLUS (-i). (1) Of Samoa, a beautiful
youth beloved by Anacrcon. — (2) Of Alexan-
dria, the freedman and favourite of Maecenas,
brought to perfection, together with Pylades
of Cilicia, the imitative dance or ballet called
Pantomimtis. Bathyllus excelled in comic,
and Pylades in tragic personifications.

BATNAE (-arum). (1) (&jn{/), a city of
Osroene in Mesopotamia, founded by the
Macedonians. — (2) {BaJuUt), a city of Cyr-
rhestice, in Syria.

BATO (-onis), the name of 2 leaders of the
Pannonians and Dalmatians in their insur-
rection in^the reign of Augustus, a.d. 6.

BATTIADAE (-anmi), kings of Cyrene
during 8 generations. (1) Batttjs I., of
Thcra, led a colony to Africa at the command
of the Delphic oracle, and founded Cyrene
about B.C. 631. — (2) Arcesilaus I., son of
No. 1, reigned b.c. 599 — 588. — (3) Battus
II., sumamed "the Happy," son of No. 2,
rwigned 583 — 560 ? — (4) AacBSiLAUg II., son

of No. 3, sumanjed "the Oppressive," reigned
about 560 — 550. His brothers withdrew
from Cyrene, and founded Barca. — (5) Bat-
TtTS III., or " the Lame, " son of No. 4,
reigned about 550 — 530 ; gave a new consti-
tution to the city, whereby the royal power
was reduced within very narrow limits. —
(6) AacEsiLAXTS III., son of No. 5, reigfned
about 530 — 514. — (7) Batttjs IV., of whose
life we have no accounts. — (8) Arcesilavs
IV., at whose death, about 450, a popular
government was established.

BATTUS (-i), a shepherd whom Hcrmc*
turned into a ston'^, because he broke a pn>>
mise which he made to the god.

BAUCIS. [Philemon.]

BAULI (-6nmi), a collection of villas rutber
than a town, between Misenum and Baiae in

BAVIUS (-i) and MAEVIUS (-i), 2 male-
volent poetasters, who attacked the poetry of
Virgil and Horace.

BfiBRtCE? and BEBRTCES (-um). (1)
A mythical people in Bithynia, said to be of
Thracian origin, whose king, Amycus, slew
Pollux. — (2) An ancient Iberian people on
the coast of the Mediterranean, N. and S. of
the Pyrenees.

BEdRIACUM (-i), a small place in Cisal-
pine Gaul between Cremona and Verona, ce-
lebrated for the defeat both of Otho and of
the Vitellian troops, a.d. 69.

BELESIS or BELESTS, a Chaldaean priest
at Babylon, who is said, in conjunction with
Arbaces, the Mede, to have overthrown the old
Assyrian empire. Belesis afterwards received
the satrapy of Babylon ftom Arbaces.

BELGAE (-arum), a people of German
origin, inhabiting the N. E. of Gaul, were
bounded on the N. by the Rhine, on the W.
by the ocean, on the S. by the Sequana {Seine)
and Matrona {Mdme), and on the E. by the
territory of the Treviri. They were the bravest
of the inhabitants of Gaul, and were subdued
by Caesar after a courageous resistance.

BELGICA. [Gallia.]

BELGIUM (-i), the name generally ap-
plied to the territory of the Bkllovaci, and
of the tribes dependant upon the latter,
namely, the Atrebates, Ambiani, Velliocasses,
Aiderci, and Caleti. Belgium did not include
the whole country inhabited by the Belgae,
for we find the Nervii, Remi, &c., expressly
excluded from it.

BELIDES^ [Belxts.]

BELISARIUS, the greatest general of Jus-
tinian, overthrew the Vandal kingdom in
Africa, and the Gothic kingdom in Italy. In
A.D. 563 he was accused of a conspiracy against
the life of Justinian ; according to a popular
tradition, be was deprived of his property, his

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eyes were put out, and he wandered as a
beggar through C!onstantinople ; but accord-
ing to the more authentic account, he was
merely imprisoned for a year in his own

palace, and then restored to his honours.
He died in 565.

PHONTES (.ae), son of the Corinthian king

Bellerophon taking leave of Froetus. (Tischbein, Hamilton Yases, vol. 3, pi. 38.)

Glaucus and Eurymede, and grandson of I and received the name Bellerophon fi'om
bisyphus, was originally called HipponouSf I slaying the Corinthian Belerus. To be puri.

Bellerophon, Pegasus, and Chimaera. (Tlselib«ixi, Hamilton Vases, toL 1, pi. 1.)

fled fi-om the murder he fled to Proctus, king I the young hero ; but ap her ofTers were
of Argos, whose wife Antga fell in love with I rejected by him, she accused him to her

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husband of having made improper proposals
to her. Proetus, nnwUling to kill him with
his own hands, sent him to his father-in-law,
lobates, king of Lyda, with a letter, in which
the latter was requested to put tiie young
man to death. lobates accordingly sent him
to kiU the monster Chimaera, thinkhig that he
was sure to perish in the contest [Chiicabra. ]
After obtaining possession of the winged horse,
Pegasus, Bellerophon rose with him into the
air, and slew the Chimaera with his arrows.
[PsoASus.] lobates, thus disappointed, sent
Bellerophon against the Solymi and next
agninst the Amazons. In these contests he was
also Tictorious ; and on his return to Lyca,
being attacked by the bravest Lycians, whom
lobates had placed in ambush for the purpose,
Bellerophon slew them all. lobates, now see-
ing that it was hopeless to kill the hero,
gave him his daughter (FhilonoS, Anticlea,
or Cassandra) in marriage, and made him
his successor on the throne. At last Belle-
rophon drew upon himself the l^tred of the
gods, and consumed by grief^ wandered
lonely through the Aleian field, avoiding the
paths of men. This is all that Homer says
respecting Bellerophon's later fate : some
traditions related that he attempted to fiy to
heaven upon Pegasus, but that Zeus sent a
gad-fly to sting the horse, which threw oflf
the rider upon the earth, who became lame
ur blind in consequence.

BELLONA (-a), the Roman goddess of war,
represented as the sister or wife of Mars.
Her priests, called Bellonariit 'v^ounded their
own arms or legs when they offered sacrifices
to her.

BELLOVACI (-orum), the most powerful
of the Belgae, dwelt in the modem BeauoaiSy
between the Seine, Oise, Somme, and Bresle.

BELUS. (1) Son of Poseidon (Neptune)
and Libya or Eurynome, twin-brother of
Agenor, and father of Aegyptus and Danaus.
He was believed to be the founder of Babylon.
The patronymic Bolides is given to Aegyptus
and Danaus, to Lyncens, son of Aegyptus,
and to Palamedes. The Danaides, daughters
of Danaus, are also called BeUdes. — (2)
[Ndhr Nafnan)y a river of Phoenicia, falling |
into the sea close to the S. of Ptolemais {Acre) \
celebrated for the tradition that its fine sand I
first led the Phoenicians to the invention of
glass. J

BfiNiCUS (-i) LACTTS [Lago di Garda), a]
lake in the N. of Italy, out of which the |
Hindus fiows.

BENEVENTUM (-1 : Benevento), a town I
in Samnium on the Appia Via, formerly
called Maleventuniy on accoimt, it is said, of i
its bad air. It was one of the most ancient I
towns in Italy, having been founded, accord, j

ing to tradition, by Diomedes. In the Samnite
wars it was subdued by the Romans, who
sent a colony thither in b.c. 268, and changed
its name Maleventum into Beneventum. The
modem tow^ has several Roman remains,
among others a triumphal arch of Trajan.

BERECYNTIA (-ae), a surname of Cybele,
which she derived trana Mt Berecyntus in
Phr^^ where she was worshipped.

BERENICE (-es), a Macedonio form of
Pherenlce, i, e, "Bringing Victory." — (1)
Wife of Ptolemy I. Soter, and the mother of
Ptolemy II. Philadelphus. — (2) Daughter of
Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, and wife of Antio-
chus Theos, king of Syria, who divorced Lao-
dice in order to marry her, b.c. 249. On the
death of Ptolemy, 247, Antiochus recalled La-
odice, who notwithstanding caused him to be
poisoned, and murdered Berenice and her
son. — (8) Daughter of Magas, king of Cyrene,
and wife of Ptolemy III. Euergetes. She
was put to death by her son, Ptolemy IV.
Philopator on his accession to the throne,
221. The famous hair of Berenice, which
she dedicated for her husband's safe return
fi'om his Syrian expedition, was said to have
become a constellation. — (4) Otherwise called
Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy VIII. La-
thyrus, succeeded her father on the throne,
B. c. 81, and married Ptolemy X. (Alexander
II.), but was murdered by her husband 19
days after her marriage. — (5) Daughter of
Ptolemy XL Auletes, and eldest sister of the
famous Cleopatra, was placed on the throne
by the Alexandrines when they drove out her
father, 58. She next married Archelaus, but
was put to death with her husband, when
Gabinius restored Auletes, 55. — (6) Sister of
Herod the Great, married Aristobulus, who
was put to death b.c. 6. She was the
mother of Agrippa I. — (7) Daughter of
Agrippa I., married her uncle Herod, king
of Chalcis, by whom she had two sons. After
the death of Herod, a.d. 48, Berenice, then
20 years old, lived with her brother, Agrippa
II., not without suspicion of an incestuous

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