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commerce with him. She gained the love of
Titus, who was only withheld from making
her his wife by fear of offending the Romans
by such^a step.

BERENICE (-es), the name of several
cities of the period of the Ptolemies. Of
these the most important were : — (1) For-
merly Eziongeber (Ru. nr. Aki^ah), in Ara-
bia, at the head of the Sinus Aelanites, or E
branch of the Red Sea.^2) In Upper Egypt,
on the coast of the Red Sea, on a gulf called
Sinus Immundus, now {Foul Bay), where its
ruins are still visible. It was named after
the mother of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, who
built it, and made a road hence to Coptos, so

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that it became a chief emporium for the
commerce of Egypt with Arabia and India.
(3) — {Ben Ghaai^ Rw.), in Cyrenaica, for-
merly Hesperis, the fabled site of the
Gardens of the Hesperides. It took its latter
name from the wife of Ptolemy III. Euver-

BERGOMUM (-i : Bergamo)^ a town of
the Orobii in Gallia Cisalpina, between C!omum
and Brixia, afterwards a municipium.

BEROEA (-ae). (1) (rcrria), one of the
most ancient towns of Macedonia, S.W. of
Bella, and about 20 miles from the sea.— (2)
{Aleppo or JIaleb), a town in Syria, near Anti-
och, enlarged by Seleucus Nicator, who gave it
the Macedonian name of Beroea. It is called
Helhon or Chelbon in Ezekiel (xxvii. 18), a
name still retained in the modem Ealeh^ for
which Europeans have substitdted Aleppo.

BEROSUS (-i), a priest of Belus at Baby-
lon, lived in the reign of Antiochus II.
(B.C. 261 — 246), and wrote in Greek a
history of Babylonia. Some fragments of
this work are preserved by Josephus, Euse-
bius, and the Christian fathers.

BERYTUS and BfiRtTUS (-i: Beirut),
one of the oldest sea-ports of Phoenicia, stood
half way between Byblus and Sidon. It was
destroyed by the Syrian king Tryphon (b.c.
140), and restored by Agrippa under Augus-
tus, who made it a colony. It afterwards
became a celebrated seat of learning.

BESSI (-orum), a fierce and powerful Thra-
cian people, who dwelt along the whole of
Mt. Haemus as far as the Euxine.

BESSUS (-i), satrap of Bactria under Da-
rius III., seized Darius soon after the battle
of Arbela, b.c. 331. Pursued by Alexander
in the following year, Bessus murdered Da-
rius, and fled to Bactria, where he assumed
the title of king. He was betrayed by two
of his followers to Alexander, who put him
to death. ^

BETASII (-<5rum), a people in Gallia Bel-
gica, between the Tungri and Nervii, in the
neighbourhood of Beetz in Brabant.

bIANOR (.5ris), also called Ocnus or Auc-
nus, son of Tiberis and Manto, is said to
have built the town of Mantua, and to have
called it after his mother.

BIAS (-antis). (1) Brother of the seer
Melampus. — (2) Of Priene in Ionia, one of
the Seven Sages of Greece, flourished about
B.C. 550.

BIBlCULUS, M. FtJRIUS (-i), a Roman
lK)et, bom at Cremona, wrote a poem on
Caesar's Gallic wars, and another entitled
Athiopis. They are both ridiculed by Horace.
BIBRACTE (-es : Autun), the chief town
of the Aedui in Gallia Lugdunensis, after-
wards Attfftutodunum, I

BIBRAX (-actis : Biitre), a town of the
Remi in Gallia Belgica, not far from Aisne.

aedile b.c 65, praetor 62, and consul 59, in
each of which years he had C. Julius Caesar
as his colleague. He was a staunch adherent
of the aristocratical party, but was unable in
his consulship to resist the powerful combi-
nation of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.
After an ineffectual attempt to oppose Caesar's
agrarian law, he withdrew fi>om the popular
assemblies altogether ; whence it was said in
joke that it was the consulship of Julius and
of Caesar. In the civil war he commanded
Pompey 's fleet in the Adriatic, and died (48)
while holding this command off Corcyra.
He married Porcia, the daughter of Cato
Uticensis. *

BIDI8 (-is), a small town in Sicily, W. of

BIGERRA (-ae), a town of the Oretani in
Hispania Tarraconensis.

(-drum), a people in Aquitanianear the Pyre-

BILBILIS (-is : Battbola) a town of the
Celtiberi in Hispania Tarraconensis, the birth-
place of the poet Martial.

BINGIUM (-i: Bingen), a town on the
Rhine in Gallica Belgica.

bION (-onis). (1) Of Smyrna, a bucolic
poet, flourished about b. c. 280, and spent the
last years of Ms life in Sicily, where he was
poisoned. The style of Bion is refined, and
his versification fluent and elegant. — (2) Of
Borysthenes, n?ar the mouth of the Dnieper,
flourished about b.c. 250. He was sold as a
slave, when young, and received his liberty
from his master, a rhetorician. He studied
at Athens, and afterwiuds lived a considera.
blc time at the court of Antigonus Gonatas,
king of Macedonia. Bion was noted for his
sharp sayings, whence Horace speaks of
persons delighting Bumeia sermonibtu et sale

BISALTIA (-ae), a district in Macedonia,
on the W. bank of the Strymon, inhabited
by a Thracian people.

BI8ANTHE (-es : Eodosto), subsequently
Rhaedestum or Rhaedestus, a town in Thrace
on the Propontifl, with a good harbour.

BISTONES (-um), a Thracian people be-
tween Mt. Rhodope and the Aegean sea, on
the lake Bistonis in the neighbourhood of
Abdera. From the worship of Dionysus in
Thrace the Bacchic women are called Bii-

BITITTNIA (-ae), a district of Asia Minor,
bounded on the W. by Mysia, on the N. by
the Pontus Euxinus, on the E. by Paphla-
gonia, and on the S. by Phrygia Epictetus,

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was possessed at an early period by Thracian
tribes from the neighbourhood of the Stry-
mon, called Thyni and Bithyni, of whom the
former dwelt on the coast, the latter in the
interior. The coimtry was subdued by the
Lydians, imd afterwards became a part of the
Persian empire under Cyrus, and was go-
verned by the satraps of Phrygia. During
the decline of the Persian empire, the N. part
of the country became independent, under
native princes, who resisted Alexander and
his successors, and established a kingdoih,
which lasted till the death of Nicomedes III.
(B.C. 74), who bequeathed his kingdom to the
Bomans. Under Augustus, it was made a
proconsular province. It was a fertile coim-
try, intersected with wooded mountains, the
highest of which was the Mysian Olympus,
on its S. border.

BITON (-onis), and CLEOBIS (-is), sons of
Cydippe, a priestess of Hera at Argos. They
were celebrated for their aflTection to their
mother, whose chariot they once dragged
during a festival to the temple of Hera, a dis-
tance of 45 stadia. The priestess prayed to
the goddess to grant them what was best for
mortals ; and during the night they both died
while asleep in the temple.

BITURIGES (-um), a numerous and power-
ful Celtic people in Gallia Aquitanica, had in
e:irly times the supremacy over the other
Celts in Gaul. They were divided into two
tribes: 1 Bit. Cubi, with Avaricum as their
capital {Bmirges), 2 Bit. Vivisei or Urisci :
their capital was Burdigala {Bordeaux)^ on
the left bank of the Garumna.

BLEMYES (-um), an Aethiopian people,
on the borders of Upper Eg>^pt.

BLOSiUS or BLOSSIUS (-i), the name of
a noble family in Campania. One of this
fumily, C. Blosius, of Cumae, was a philo-
sopher, a disciple of Antipater, of Tarsus, and
a friend of Tib. Gracchus.

BOADICEA '(-ae), queen of the Iceni in
Britain, having been shame^ly treated by
tlie Bomans, who even ravished her 2 daugh-
ters, excited an insurrection of the Britons
against their oppressors during the absence
of Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman governor,
<m an expedition to the island of Mona. She
took the Roman colonies of Camalodunum,
Londinium, and other places, and slew nearly
7 0,000 Romans and theii* allies. She was at
length defeated with great loss by Suetonius
Paulinus, and put an end to her own life,
A.D. 61.

BOCCHUS (-i). (1) King of Mauretania,
and father-in-law of Jugurtha, with whom at
first he made war against the Romans, but
whom he afterwards delivered up to Sulla, the
quaestor of Marius, B.C. 106.— (2). Son of

the preceding, who took part in the civil wars.
He was confirmed in his kingdom by Augustus.

BODOTRIA (-ae), or BODERIA (-ae),
AESTUARIUM (-i), {Fii-th of Forth), an aes-
tuary on the E. coast of Scotland. .

BOEBE (-es), a town in Pelasgiotis in
Thessaly, on the \V. shore ^f the lake Bocbeis.

BOEOTIA (-ae), a district of Greece,
boimded N. by Opuntian Locris, E. by the
Euboean sea, S. by Attica, Megraris, and the
Corinthian Gulf, and W. by Phocis. It is
nearly surrounded by mountains, namely.
Helicon and Parnassus on the W., Cithaeron
and Pames on the S., the Opuntian moun-
tains on the N., and a range of mountains
along the sea-coast on the E. The country
contains several fertile plains, of which the
most important were the vallies of the Asopus
and of the Cephissus. The Boeotians were an
Aeolian people, who originally occupied Ame
in ThessaJy, from which they were expelled
by the Thessalians 60 years after the Trojan
war. They then migrated into the country
called after them Boeotia, partly expelling and
pai-tly incorporating with themselves the an-
cient inhabitants of the land. Boeotia was
then divided into 14 independent states, which
lormed a league, with Thebes at its head. The
chief magistrates of the confederacy were the
Eoeotarchs, elected annually. The govern-
ment in most states was an aristocracy.

BOETHIUS (-i), a Roman statesman and
author, bom about a.b. 470, was famous for
his general learning, and especially for his
knowledge of Greek philosophy. He was first
highly favoured bjTTheodosius the Great ; but
having awakened his suspicion, he was
thrown into prison by him, and afterwards
put to death. It was during his imprisonment
that he wrote his celebrated work. Be ConsO'
latione Fhilosophiaef which has come down
to us.

BOEUM (-i), an ancient town of the
Dorian Tetrapolis.

BOII (-6rum), one of the most powerful
of the Celtic people, said to have dwelt origi-
nally in Gaul (Transalpina), but in what part
of the country is uncertain. At an early time
they migrated in two great swarms, one of
which crossed the Alps and settled in the
country between the Po and the Apennines ;
the other crossed the Rhine and settled in the
part of Germany called Boihemum {Bohemia)
after them, and between the Danube and the
TjTol. The Boii in Italy long carried on a
fierce struggle with the Romans, but they
were at length subdued by the consul P.
Scipio in b.c. 191, and were subsequently
incorporated in the province of Gallia Cisai-
pina. The Boii in Germany maintained their
power longer, but were at length subdued

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by the Marcomanni, and expelled firom the

BOLA (-ae), BOLAE or VOLAE (-arum),
an ancient town of the Aequi, belonging to
the Latin^ league.

BOLBE (-es), a lake in Macedonia, emptying
itself by a short river into the Strymonio gulf
near Bromiscus and Aulon.

BOLBITINE (-es: Jtosetta), a city of
Lower Egypt, near the mouth of a branch of
the Nile (the W.-most but one), which was
called the Bolbltine mouth.

BOMILCAB (-&ris), a Numidian, deep in
the confidence of Jugurtha. When Jugurtha
was at Rome, 109, Bomilcar effected for him
the assassination of Massiva. In 107 he
plotted against Jugurtha.

BOMIUS (-i) M0N8, the W. part of Mt.
Oeta in AetoUa, inhabited by the Bomienses.

BONA DEA (-ae), a Roman divinity, is
described as the sister, wife, or daughter of
Faimus, and was herself called Fauna^ Fatua,
or Oma, She was worshipped at Rome as a
chaste and prophetic divinity ; she revealed
her oracles only to femaies, as Faunus did
only to males. Her festivSl was celebrated
every year on the Ist of May, in the house of
the consul or praetor, as the sacrifices on that
occasion were offered on behalf of the whole
Roman people. The solemnities were con.
ducted by the Vestals, and no male person
was allowed to be in the bouse at one of the
festivals. P. Clodius profaned the sacred
ceremonies, by entering the house of Caesar
in the disguise of a woman, b.c. 62.

BONNA (-ae : Bonn), a town on the left
bank of the Rhine in Lower Germany, and
in the territory of the Ubii, was a strong
fortress of the Romans and the regular
quarters of a Roman legion.

BONONIA (-ae). (1) {Bologna), a town in
Gallia Cispadana, originally called Felsina,
was in ancient times an Etruscan city, and
the capital of N. Etruria. It afterwards fell
into the hands of the Boii, but it was colo-
nised by the Romans on the conquest of the
Boii, B.C. 191, and its name of Felsina was
then changed into Bononia. (2) (Boulogne),
a town in the N. of Gaul. See Gesoriacum.

BOOTES. [Arcturus.]

BORBETOMAGUS(-i: TTonw*), also called
Vanoiones, at a later time Wormatia, a town
of the Vangiones on the left bank of the Rhine
in Upper Germany.

BOREAS (-ae), the N. wind, or more
strictly the wind ftrom the N.N.E., was, in
mythology, a son of Astraeus and Eos, and
brother of Hesperus, Zephyrus, and Notus.
He dwelt in a cave of mount Haemus in
Thrace. He carried off Orithyia, a daughter
of Erechthcus, king of Attica, by whom he

begot Zetes, Calais, and Cleopatra, wife of
Phineus, who are therefore called BoreadeA.
In the Persian war Borea« showed his friendly
disposition towards the Athenians by destroy-
ing the ships of the barbarians. Boreas was
worshipped at Athens, where a festival. Bo-
recumi, was celebrated in his honour.

Borea*. (Kelief from Temple of the Wiudt at Athen*.)

BORYSTHENES (-is : Dnieper), afterwards
Danapris, a river of European Sarmatia,
flows into the Euxine. Near its mouth and
at its junction with the Hypanis, lay the town
BoRYSTHEMES or BoRTSTHKNis {Kttdak), also
called Olbia, Olbiopolis, and Miletopous,
a colony of Miletus, and the most important
Greek city on the N. of the Euxine.

BOSPORUS (-i : Ox-ford), the name of
any straits among the Greeks, but espe-
cially applied to the 2 following: — (1) The
Thracian Bosporus {Channel of ConsUuu
tinople), unites the Propontis or Sea of
Marmora with the Euxine or Black Sea.
According to the legend it was called Bos^
porus, from lo, who crossed it in the form of
a heifer. At the entrance of the Bosporus
was the celebrated Sympleoades. Darius
constructed a bridge across the Bosporus,
when he invaded Scythia. — (2' The Cim-
merian Bosporus {Straits of Kaffa), unites
the Palus Maeotis or Sea of Azof with
the Euxine or Black Sea. It formed, with
the Tanais (Don), the boundary between Asia
and Europe, and it derived its name from the
CiMMERii, who were supposed to have dwelt
in the neigywurhood. On the European
side of the Bosporus, tne modern Crimea,
the Milesians founded the town of Pantica-
paeum, also called Bosporus, and the inhabU

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tants of Pantieapaeum subsequently founded
the town of Phanagoria on the Asiatic side of
the Straits. Pantieapaeum became the resi-
dence of a race of kings, who are frequently
mentioned in history under the name of kings
of Bosporus.

BOSTRA (-Srum : O. T. Bozrah : Btwahf
Ru.), a city of Arabia, in an Oasis of the
Syrian Desert, S. of Damascus.

BOTTIA or BOTTIAEA (-ae), a district in
Macedonia, on the right bank of the river
Azius, extended in the time of Thucydides
to Pieria on the W. The Bottiaei were a
Thracian people, who, being driven out of
the country by the Macedonians, settled in
that part of the Macedonian Chalcidice N. of
Olynthus^ which was called Bottice.


BOVIANUM {Bqjcmo)^ the chief town of
the Pentri in Samnium.

BOYILLAE (^rum), an ancient town in
Latium at the foot of the Alban mountain, on
the Appian Way about 10 miles from Rome.
Near it Clodius was killed by Milo (b.c. 52).

BRACEDiANAE (-arum), or BRACH-
MANES (4um), a name used by the an-
dent geographers, sometimes for a caste of
priests in India (the Brahmins) , sometimes,
apiMurently, for all the people whose reli£rion
was Brahmin ism, and sometimes for a par-
ticular tribCj^

BRANCHIDAE (-arum: Jeronda, Ru.),
afterwards Didyma, or -i, a place on the sea
coast of Ionia, a little 8. of Miletus, cele-
brated for its temple and oracle of Apollo,
snmamed Didymeus. This oracle, which the
lonians held in the highest esteem, was said
to have been founded by Branchus, son of
Ajmllo, and a Milesian woman. The reputed
descendants of this Branchus, the Branchidae,
were the hereditary ministers of this oracle.
The temple, called Didymacum, which was
destroyed by Xerxes, was rebuilt, and its
rains contain some beautiful specimens of the
Ionic order of architecture.

BRASIDAS (-ae), the most distinguished
Spartan in the first part of the Peloponnesian
war. In b.c 424, at the head of a small
force, having effected a dexterous march
through the hostile country of Thessaly, he
gained possession of many of the cities in
Macedonia subject to Athens; his greatest
acquisition was Amphipolis. In 422 he
gained a brilliant victory over Cleon, who had
been sent, with an Athenian force, to recover
Amphipolis, but he was slain in the battle. He
waA buried within the city, and the inhabit-
ants honoured him as a hero, by yearly sacri-
fices and by games.

BRATUSPANTIUM (-i), the chief town of
the Bellovaci in Gallia Belgica.

BRAURON (-onis), a demus in Attica, on
the E. coast on the river Erasinus, with a
celebrated temple of Artemis (Diana), who
was hence called Brauronia,

BRENNUS (-i). (1). The leader of the
Senonian Gauls, who in b.c. 890 crossed the
Apennines, defeated the Romans at the Allia,
and took Rome. After besieging the Capitol
for 6 months, he quitted the city upon
receiving 1000 pounds of gold as a ransom
for the Capitol, and returned home safe with
his booty. But it was subsequently related
in the popular legends that Camillus and a
Roman army appeared at the moment that
the gold was being weighed, that Brennus
was defeated by Camillus, and that he himself
and his whole army were slain to a man. —
(2). The chief leader of the Gauls who in-
vaded Macedonia and Greece, b.c. 280, 279.
In the year 279 he penetrated into the S. of
Greece, but was defeated near Delphi, most of
his men were slain, and he himself put an end
to his own life. •

BREUNI (-orum), a Rhaetian people,
dwelt in the Tyrol near the Brenner.

BRIAREUS. [Aeoaxon.]

BRIGANTES (-um), the most powerful of
the British tribes, inhabited the whole of the
N. of the island from the Abus {Hiunher) to
the Roman wall, with the exception of the
8. E. comer of Yorkshire, which was in-
habited by the Parisii. The Brigantes con-
sequently inhabited the greater part of York-
shire, and the whole of Lancashire, Durham,
Westmoreland, and Cumberland. Their capi-
tal was Eboracxtm. They were conquered
by Petilius Cerealis, in the reign of Vespasian.
There was also a tribe of Brigantes in the S.
of Ireland, between the rivers Birgus {Bar-
row) and Dabrona {Blacktoater), in the coim-
ties of Waterford and Tipperary.

BRIGANTlNUS (-i) LACUS {Bodensee or
Lake of Constance), aLso called Yemetus and
AcEONius, through which the Rhine flows,
inhabited by the Helvetii on the S., by the
Rhartii on the S. E., and by the Vindelici on

BRISElS (-idis), daughter of Briseus, of
Lymessus, fell into the bands of Achilles, but
was seized by Agamemnon. Hence arose the
dire feud between the 2 heroes. [Achilles.j
Her proper name was Hippodamia.

BRITANNLA (-ae), the island of England
and Scotland, which was also called ALBION.
HiBEKNiA, or Ireland, is usually spoken of as
a separate island, but is sometimes included
imder the general name of the Insulax Bri-
TANNicAE, which also comprehended the
smaller islands around the coast of Great
Britain. The Britons were Celts, belonging
to that branch of the race called Cymry.

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Their manners and oustoms were in general
the same as the Gaols ; but separated more
than the Gaols from intercourse with civilised
nations, they preserved the Celtic religion in
a purer state than in Gaul ; and hence Druid-
ism, according to CsQsarj was transplanted
from Gaul to Britain. The Britons also re-
tained many of the barbarous Celtic customs,
which the more civilised Gauls had laid aside.
They painted their bodies with a blue colour,
extracted from woad, in order to appear more
terrible in battle; and they had wives in
common. At a later time the BelgsB
crossed over from Gaul, and settled on the S.
and £. coasts, driving the Britons into the
interior of the island. It was not till a late
period that the Greeks and Bomans obtained
any knowledge of Britain. In early times
the Phoenicians visited the Scilly islands and
the coast of Cornwall for the purpose of ob-
taining tin; but whatever knowledge they
acquired of the country they Jealously kept
secret ; and it only transpired that there were
CASSiTBawES, or Tin Islands^ in the N. parts
of the ocean. The ftrst certain knowledge
which the Greeks obtained of Britain was
from the merchants of Massilia about the
time of Alexander the Great, and especially
from the voyages of Pythkas, who saUed
round a great part of Britain. From this
time it was generally believed that the island
was in the form of a triangle, an error which
continued to prevail even at a later period.
Another important mistake, which likewise
prevailed for a long time, was the position
of Britain in relation to Gaul and Spain. As
the N.W. coast of Spain was supposed to
extend too far to the N. and the W. coast of
Gaul to run N.E., the lower part of Britain
was believed to lie between Spain and Gaul.
The Romans first became personally ac-
quainted with the island by Caesar's invasion.
He twice landed in Britain (b.c. 55, 54), and
though on the second occasion he conquered
the greater part of the S.£. of the island, yet
ho did not take permanent possession of any
portion of the country, and after his departure
the Britons continued as independent as be-
fore. ThOtRomans msule no further attempts
CO conquer the island for nearly 100 years.
In the reig^ of Claudius (a.d. 43) they again
landed in Britain, and permanently subdued
the country S. of the Thames. They now
began to extend their conquests over the
other parts of the island; and the great
victory (61) of Suetonius Paulinus over the
Britons, who had revolted under Boadicxa,
still further consolidated the Roman do-
minions. In the reign of Vespasian, the
Romans made several successful expeditions
ugaiust the Silures and the B&iqantbs ; And

the conquest of S. Britain was at length
finally completed by Agrioola, who in 7 cam-
paigns (78 — 84) subdued the whole of the
island as far N. as the Frith of Forth and
the Clyde, between which he erected a series
of forts to protect the Roman dominions from
the incursions of the barbarians in the N. of
Scotland. The Roman part of Britain was
now called Britannia Romana, and the N.
part inhabited by the Caledonians Britannia
Barbara or Caledonia. The Romans how.
ever gave up the N. conquests of Agricola in
the reign of Hadrian, and made a rampart
of turf from the Aestuarium Ituna {Solway
Frith) to the German Ocean, which formed
the N. boundary of their dominions. In the
reign of Antoninus Pius the Romans again
extended their boundary as far as the con-
quests of Agricola, and erected a rampart
connecting the Forth and the Clyde, the re.
mains of which are now called Grimet Dyke,
Grime in the Celtic language signifying great
or powerful. The Caledonians afterwards
broke through this wall ; and in consequence
of their repeated devastations of the Roman
dominions, the emperor Beverus went to
Britain in 208, in order to conduct the war
against them in person. He died in the
island at Rboracum {York) in 211, after
erecting a solid stone wall from the Solway
to the mouth of the Tyne, a little N. of the
rampart of Hadrian. After the death of
Severus, the Romans relinquished for ever
all their conquests N. of this wall. Upon
the resignation of the empire by Diocletian
and Maximian (305), Britain fell to the share
of Constantius who died at Eboracum in 306,
and his son Constantine assumed in the island
the title of Caesar. Shortly afterwards the
Caledonians, who now appear under the
names of Plots and Scots, broke through the
wall of Severus, and the Saxons ravaged the
coasts of Britain ; and the declining power
of the Roman empire was unable to afford
the province any effectual assistance. In
the reign of Honorius, Constantine, who had

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