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been proclaimed emperor in Britain (407),
withdrew all the Roman troops from the
island, in order to make himself master of
GauL The Britons were thus left exposed
to the ravages of the Picts and Scots, and at
length, in 447, they called in the assistance
of the Saxons, who became the masters of
Britain. The Roman dominions of Britain
formed a single province till the time of Se-
verus, and were governed by a legatus of the
emperor. Severus divided the country into
2 provinces, and Diocletian into 4.

BRITANNIcUS (-i), son of the emperor
Claudius and Messalina, was born a.d. 42.
Agrippina, the second wife of Claudius, in-

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duced the emperor to adopt her own son, and
give him precedence over Britannicus. This
son, the emperor Nero, ascended the throne
in 54, and caused Britannicus to be poisoned
in the^ following year.

BRITOMARTIS (-is), a Cretan nymph,
daughter of Zeus (Jupiter) and Carme, and
beloved by Minos, who pursued her 9 months,
till at length she leaped into the sea and
was changed by Artemis (Diana) into a

BRIXELLUM (4 : Bregella or Brescella), a
town on the right bank of the Po in Gallia
(^salpina, where the emperor Otho put himself
to death^A.D. 69.

BRIXIA (-ae : Brescia)^ a town in Gallia
Cisalpina on the road from Comum to Aquileia,
through which the river Mella flowed.

BROMIUS, a surname of Dionysus (Bac-
chus), that is, the noisy god, from the noise
of the Bacchic revelries (from /Sji^t**).

BRONTES. [Cyclopes.]

BRUCTERI (-6rum), a people of Germany,
dwelt on each side of ^ the Amisia {Ema) and
extended 8. as far as' the Luppia {lAppe).
The Bructeri joined the Batavi in their re-
volt against the Romans in a.b. 69.

Brindi8i)f a town in Calabria, on a small bay
of the Adriatic, forming an excellent har-
bour, to which the place owed its importance.
The Appia Via terminated at Brundusium,
nnd it was the usual place of embarkation for
Greece and the East. It was conquered and
colonised by the Romans, b.c. 245. The
poet Pacuvius was bom at this town, and
Virgil died here on his return from Greece,
1..C. 19.

BRUTTlORUM AOER, more usually called
BRUTTII after the inhabitants, the S. ex-
tremity of Italy, separated from Lucania by
a line drawn from the mouth of the Laus to
Thurii, and surrounded on the other three
sides by the sea. It was the country called
iu ancient times Oenotria and Italia. The
country is mountainous, as the Apennines
run through it down to the Siclhan Straits ;
it contained excellent pasturage for cattle,
and the valleys produced good corn, olives,
and fruit. — ^The earliest inhabitants of the
country were Oenotrians. Subsequently
some Lucanians^ who had revolted from their
coimtrymen in Lucania, took possession of
the country, and were hence called Bruttii
or Brettiif which word is said to mean
•* rebels " in the language of the Lucanians.
This people, however, inhabited only the in-
terior of the land; the coast was almost
?ntirely in the possession of the Greek colo-
nies. At the close of the 2nd Punic war, in

which the Bruttii had been the allies of Han.
nibal, they lost their independence, and were
treated by the Romans with great severity.
They were declared to be public slaves, and
were employed as lictors and servants of the

BRCTUS (-i), a family of the Junia gens.
— (1) L. JvMiuB Brutus, son of M.
Junius and of Tarquinia, the sister of
Tarqidnius Superbus. His elder brother was
murdered by Tarquinius, and Lucius escaped
his brother's fate only^ by feigning idiotcy,
whence he received the surname of Brutus.
After Lucretia had stabbed herself, Brutus
roused the Romans to expel the Tarquins ;
and upon the banishment of the latter he
was elected first consul with Tarquinius Col.
latinus. He loved his country better than
his children, and put to death his 2 sons,
who had attempted to r^tore the Tarquins.
He fell in battle the same year, fighting
against Aruns, the son of Tarquinius. Brutus
was the great hero in the legends about the
expulsion of the Tarquins. — (2) D. Junius
Beutus, sumamed Gallaecus or Callaicus,
consul 188, conquered a great part of Lusi-
tania. From his victory over the Gallaeci he
obtained his surname. He was a patron of the
poet L. Accius, and well versed in Greek and
Roman literature. — (3) D. Junius Brutus.
consul 77, and husband of Sempronia, who
carried on an intrigue with Catiline. — (4) D.
Junius Brutus, adopted by A. Potrtumius Albi-
nus, consul 9 9, and hence called Brutus AUtinut,
He served under Caesar in Gaul and in the
civil war ; but he nevertheless Joined the
conspiracy against Caesar's life. After the
death of the latter (44) he went into Cisal-
pine Gaul, which had been promised him by
Caesar, and which he refused to surrender to
Antony, who had obtained this province from
the people. Antony made war against him,
and kept him besieged in Mutina, till the
siege was raised in April 43 by the consuls
Hirtius and Pansa, and by OctavianiiB. But
Brutus only obtained a short respite. Antony
was preparing to march against him ftom the
N. with a large army, and Octavianus, who
had deserted the senate, was marching against
him from the S. His only resource was flight,
but he was betrayed by Camillus, a Gaulish
chief, and was put to death by Antony, 43. —
(5) M. Junius Brutus, married Servilia,
the half-sister of Cato of Utica. In 77 he
espoused the cause of Lepidus, and was
placed in command of the forces in Cisal-
pine Gaul, where he was slain by command
of Pompey. — (6) M. Junius Brutus, the so-
called tyrannicide, son of No. 6 and Servilia.
He lost his father when he was only 8 years
old, and was trained by his uncle Cato in the
o 2

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principles of the ariatocratical party. Ac-
cordingly, on the breaking out of the civil
war, 49, he joined Pompey, although he was
the murderer of his father. After the battle
of Pharsalia, 48, he was not only pardoned
by Caesar, but received from him the greatest
marks of confidence and favour. Caesar made
him governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 46, and
praetor in 44, and also prcxnised him the
government of Macedonia. But notwith-
standing all the obligations he was under to
Caesar, he was persuaded by Cassius to mur-
der his benefactor under the delusive idea of
again establishing the republic. [Cabsak.]
After the murder of Caesar, Brutus spent a
short time in Italy, and then took possession
of the province of Macedonia. He was joined
by Cassius, who commanded in Syria, and
their united forces were opposed to those
of Octavian and Antony. Two battles were
fought in the neighbourhood of Philippi (42),
in the former of which Brutus was victorious,
though Cassius was defeated, but in the latter
Brutus also was defeated and put an end to
his own life. Brutus's wife was Pokcia, the
daughter of Cato. Brutus was an ardent
student of literature and philosophy, but he
appears to have been deficient in judgment
and original power. He wrote several works,
all of which have perished. He was a lite-
rary friend of Cicero, who dedicated to him
several of his works, and who has given the
name of Brutus to his dialogue on illustrious

BRYGI (-orum) or BRYGES (-um), a bar-
barous people in the N« of Macedonia. The
Phrygians were believed by the ancients to
have been a portion of this people, who emi-
grated to Asia in early times. [Phktoia.]

BtBASSUS (-i), an ancient city of Caria,
E. of Cnidus, which gave name to the bay
(Bubassius Sinus) and the peninsula on which
it stood.

BCBASTIS (-is) or B0BASTUS (-i), the
capital of the Nomos Bubastltes in Lower
Eg^t, stood on the £. bank of the Pelusiac
branch of the Nile, and was the chief seat of
the worship of the goddess Bubastis, whom
the Greeks identified with Artemis (Diana).

BOCEPHALA or -lA (-ae : Jhelum), a city
on the Hydaspes in N. India, built by Alex-
ander, after his battle with Poms, in memory
of his favourite charger Bucephalus, who died
there, after carrying him through all his
campaigns. This horse was purchased by
Philip for 1 3 talents, and no one was able to
break it in except the youthful Alexander.


BUDINI (-orum), a Scythian people, who
dwelt N. cf the Sauromatae in the steppes of
S. Russia.

BULLIS (.Idis), a town of lUyria on the
coast, S. of Apollonia.

BCPRASIUM (-i), an ancient town in Elis,
mentioned in the Iliad.

BtRA (-ae), one of the 12 cities of Achaia,
destroyed by an earthquake, together with
Helice, but subsequently rebuilt,

BURDIGALA. [BrruaioBs.]

(-orum), a powerful nation of Germany, dwelt
originally between the Yiadus {Oder) and the
Vistula, and were of the same race as the
Vandals or Goths. They were driven out of
their original abodes by the Gepidae, and the
greater part of them settled in the country
on the Maine. In the 5th century they settled
in Gaul, where they founded the powerful
kingdom of Burgundy. Their chief towns
were Geneva and Lyons.

BURSA. [Plancus.]

BCSIRIS (4dis). (1) A king of Egypt,
who sacrificed strangers to Zeus (Jupiter),
but was slain by Hercules. — (2) A city in
Lower Egypt, stood in the middle of the
Delta, on the W. bank of the Nile, and had a
great temple of Isis, the remains of which
are still standing.

BUTHROTUM (-1 : Butrinto)^ a town of
Epirus, a fiourishing sea-port on a small
peninsula, opposite Corcyra.

BCTO. (1) An Egyptian divinity, was the
nurse of Horus and Bubastis, the children of
Osiris and Isis, whom she saved from the
persecutions of Typhon by concealing them
in the floating island of Chemnis. The
Greeks identified her with Leto (Latona), and
represented her as the goddess of night. —
(2) A city in Lower Egypt, stood near the
Sebennytic branch of the Nile, on the lake of
Buto. It was celebrated for its oracle of the
goddess Buto, in honour of whom a festival
was held at the city every year.

BUXENTUM (-i: Folicastro), originally
Pyxus, a town on the W. coast of Lucania
and on the river Bdxkntius, was founded by
Micythus, tyrant of Messana, b.c. 471, and
was afterwards a Roman colony.

BYBLIS (-idis), daughter of Miletus and
Idothea, was in love with her brother Caimus,
whom she pursued through various lands, till
at length, worn out with sorrow, she was
changed into a fountain.

BYBLUS (-i ; Jebeil), a very ancient city
on the coast of Phoenicia, between Bei*yiU8
and Tripolis, a little N. of the river Adonis.
It was the chief seat of the worship of

BYRSA (-ae), the citadel of Cakthago.

part of Tunis), the S. portion of the Roman
province of Africa.

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BTZANTIUM (4 : OonstanHnople), a town
on the Thracian Bosporos, founded by the
Megarians, b.c. 658, is said to have deriyed
its name from Byzas, the leader of the colony
and the son of Poseidon (Neptune). It was
situated on 2 hills, was 40 stadia in circum-
ference, and its acropolis stood on the site of
the present seraglio. Its farourable position,
commanding as it did the entrance to the
Guxine, rendered it a place of great com.
mercial importance. A new city was built
on its site (SSO) by Cionstantine, who made
it the capital of the empire, and changed its
name into Oonstaktikopous.

pABALIA (.ae), a small district of Asia
^ BUnor, between Lycia and Pamphylia, with
a town of the same name.

CABILLONUM (.i : Ch&loM.»urJSaSiie), a
town of the Aedui on the Arar {S<^ne) in
Gallia Lugdunensis.

CABIRA (.drum), a place in Pontus, on the
borders of Armenia; a frequent residence
of Mithridates, who was defeated here by
Lucullus, B.C. 71.

CABIRI (.drum), mystic divinities wor-
shipped in various parts of the ancient world.
The meaning of their name, their character,
and nature, are quite uncertain. Divine
honours were paid to them at Samothrace,
Lemnoe, and Imbros, and their mysteries at
Samothrace were solemnized with great splen-
dour. They were also worshipped at Thebes,
Anthedon, Pergamus, and elsewhere.

G&CUS, (-i), son of Vulcan, was a huge giant,
who inhabited a cave on Mt. Aventine, and
plundered the surrounding country. When
Hercules came to Italy with the oxen which
he had taken from Oeryon In Spain, Cacus
stole part of the cattle while the hero slept,
and, as he dragged the animals into his cave
by their tails, it was impossible to discover
their traces. But when the remaining oxen
passed by the cave, those within began to
bellow, and were thus discovered, whereupon
Cacus was slain by Hercules. In honour
of his victory Hercules dedicated the ara
tnaxima, which continued to exist ages after-
wards in Home.

CADI (-orum), a city of Phrygia Epiotetus,
on the borders of Lydia.

CADM£A. [Thebab.]

CADMUS (-i). (1) Son of Agenor, king
of Phoenicia, and of Telephassa, and brother
of Europa. Another legend makes him a
native of Thebes in Egypt. When Europa
was carried off by Zeus (Jupiter) to Crete,
Agenor sent Cadmus In search of his sister,
enjoining him not to return without her.
Unable to find her, Cadmus settled in Thraoe,

out having consulted the oracle at Delphi, he
was ccHnmanded by the god to follow a cow
of a certain kind, and to build a town on the
spot where the cow should sink down with
fatigue. Cadmus found the cow in Phocis
and followed her into Boeotia, where she sank
down on the spot on which Cadmus built
Cadmea, afterwards the citadel of Thebes.
Intending to sacrifice the cow to Athena
(Minerva), he sent some persons to the
neighbouring well of Ares to fetch water.
This well was guarded by a dragon, a son of
Ares (Mars), who killed the men sent by
Cadmus. Thereupon Cadmus slew the dragon,
and, on the advice of Athena, sowed the teeth
of the monster, out of which armed men grew
up, called S^xtrH or the Sowh^ who killed each
other, with the exception of 5, who were the
ancestors of the Thebans. Athena assigned to
Cadmus the government of Thebes, and Zeu8
gave him Harmonia for his wife. The mar-
riage solemnity was honoured by the pre.
sence of all the Olympian gods In the Cadmea.
Cadmus gave to Harmonia the famous peplus
and necklace which he had received from
Hephaestus (Vulcan) or from Europa, and he
became by her the father of Autonoe, Ino,
Semele, Agave, Polydorus, and at a subse-
quent period, lUyrius. In the end, Cadmus
and Harmonia were changed into serpents,
and were removed by Zeus to Elysium. Cad-
mus is said to have introduced into Greece
frt>m Phoenicia or Egypt an alphabet of 16
letters.— (2) Of Miletus, the earliest Greek
historian or logographer, lived about b.c.

CADURCI (-drum), a people in Gallia
Aquitanica, in the country now called Querci
(a corruption of Cadurci). Their capital was
DrroNA, afterwards Civitas Cadvrcobum, now
OahorSf where are the remains of a Boman
amphitheatre and of an aqueduct.

cAdUSII (-drum) or G£LAE (-firum), a
powerful Scythian tribe in the mountains
S.W. of the Caspian, on the borders of Media

CADTTIS, according to Herodotus, a great
city of the Syrians of Palestine, not much
smaller than Sardis, was taken by Necho,
king of Egypt, after his defeat of the
"Syrians" at Magdolus. It is now pretty
well established that by Cadytis is meani
Jerusalem, and that the battle mentioned by
Herodotus is that in which Necho defeated
and slew king Josiah at Megiddo, b. c. 608.

CAECILIA (-ae).— (1) Caia, the Ronum
name of TAHAaviL, wife of Tarquinins Pris-
ons. — (2) Mbtblla, daughter of L. Metellus
Dalmaticus, consul b. c. 1 1 9, was first married
to M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul in 115, and
afterwards to the dictator Sulla. — (3) Daughter

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of T. Pomponins Atticus, called Caecilia,
because her father took the name of his uncle,
Q. CaeciliuB, by whom he was adopted. She
was married to M. Yipsanius Agrippa.

CAECILIUS (-1). (1) Q., a wealthy Ro-
man eques, who adopted his nephew Atticus
in his will, and left the latter a fortune of 10
millions of sesterces. — (2) Cabcilitts Calac
TINT7S, a Greek rhetorician at Rome in the
time of Augustus. — (3) Cakcilivs SxATrus,
a Roman comic poet, the immediate prede-
cessor of Terence, was by birth an Insubrian
Gaul, and a native of Milan. Being a slave,
he bore the servile appellation of StatiuSf
which was afterwards, probably when he
received his freedom, converted into a sort of
cognomen, and he became known as Caecilius
Statius. He died b. c. 168.


CAEClNA (-ae), the name of a family of
the Etruscan city of Volaterrae, probably de-
rived from the river Caecina, which flows
by the town. — (1) A. Cakcima, whom Cicero
defended in a law-suit, b. c. 69. — (2)
A. Caecina, son of the preceding, published
a libellous work against Caesar, and was in
consequence sent into exile after the battle of
Pharsalia, b. c. 48. — (3) A. Caecina Auents
was quaestor in Baetica, in Spain, at Nero's
death, and was one of the foremost in joining
the party of Galba. He served first under
Galba, and afterwards joined Yitellius ; but
proving a traitor to the latter, he joined
Vespasian, against whom, also, he conspired ;
and was slain by order of Titus.

CAECtJBUS (-i) AGER, a marshy district
in Latium, bordering on the gulf of Amyclae,
close to Fundi, celebrated for its wine {Cue-
oubum) in the age of Horace. In the time of
Pliny the reputation of this wine was entirely

CAECt^LUa (-i), an ancient Italian hero,
son of Vulcan, is said to have founded

(-ae), the leader of an Etruscan army, is said
to have come to Rome in the reign either of
Romiilus or of Tarquinins Prisons, and to
have settled with his troops on the hill called
after him the Caelian.

CAELlUS or COELIUS M0N8. [Roma.]

CAENEUS (-€fis or -^i), one of the La-
pithae, son of Elatus or Coronus, was
originally a maiden named Caenis (-Idis),
who was beloved by Poseidon (Neptune), and
was by this god changed into a man, and
rendered invulnerable. In the battle between
the Lapithae and the Centaurs at the mar-
riage of Pirithous, he was buried by the Cen-
taurs under a mass of trees, as they were

unable to kill him ; but he was changed into
a bird. In the lower world Caeneus re-
covered his female Jorm.

CAENI or CAENICI (-orum),aThracian peo-
ple, between the Black Sea and the Panysus.

CAENINA (-ae), a town of the Sabines, in
Latium, whose king Acron is said to have
catried on the first war against Rome. After
their defeat, most of the inhabitants removed
to Rome.

CAENIS. [Caeneus.]

CAEPIO, Cn. SERVILIUS C-i), consul b. c.
106, was sent into Gallia Narbonensis to
oppose the Cimbri. In 105 he was defeated
by the Cimbri, along with the consul Cn.
Mallius or Manlius. 80,000 soldiers and
40,000 camp-followers are said to have
perished. Caepio survived the battle, but 10
years afterwards (95) he was brought to trial
by the tribune C. Norbanus, on account of hlM
misconduct in this war. He was condemned,
and cast into prison, where, according to one
account, he died ; but it was more generally
stated that he escaped from prison, and lived
in exile at Smyrna.

CAERE {Cervetri), called by the Greeks
AoYLLA (AgylHna «r6», Virg.), a city in
Etruria, situated on a small river W. of
Veil, and 50 stadia from the coast. It was an
ancient Pelasgic city, the capital of the cruel
Mezentius, and was afterwards one of the 1 2
Etruscan cities, with a territory extending
apparently as far as the Tiber. In early times
Caere was closely allied with Rome; and
when the latter city was taken by the Gauls,
B.C. 890, Caere gave refuge to the Vestal
virgins. The Romans, out of g^^titude, are
said to have conferred upon the Caerites the
Roman franchise without the suffragium,
though it is not improbable that the Caerites
enjoyed this honour previously. The Caerites
appear to have been the first body of Roman
citizens who did not enjoy the suffrage. Thus,
when a Roman citizen was struck out of his
tribe by the Censors, and made an aerarian.
he was said to become one of the Caerites,
since he had lost the suffrage : hence we fi^d
the expressions in tabulaa Caeritum referrc,
and aerarium facere^ used as synonymous.

CAESAR (-firis), the name of a patrician
family, of the Julia gens, which traced its
origin to lulus, the son of Aeneas. Various
etj'mologies of the name are given by the
ancient writers ; hut it is probably connected
with the Latin word eaes-ar-ieSy and the Sans-
krit kesOf "hair;" for it is in accordance
with the Roman custom for a surname to he
given to an individual from some peculiarity
in his personal appearance. The name was
assumed by Augustus as the adopted son of
the dictator C. Julius Caesar, and was by

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Augustus handed down to his adopted son
Tiberius. It continued to be used by Caligula,
Claudius, and Nero, as members either by
adoption or female descent of Caesar's family ;
but though the family became extinct with
Nero, succeeding emperors still retained the
name as part of their titles, and it was the
practice to prefix it to their own name, as,
for instance, Imperator Caesar Domitianus
Augustus, When Hadrian adopted Aelius
Varus, he allowed the latter to take the title
of Caesar; and from this time, though the
^ title of Augustus continued to be confined to
the reigning prince, that of Caesar was also
granted tu the second person in the state, and
the heir presumptive to the throne. — (1)
L. Julius Caesak, consul, b.o. 90, fought
against the Socii, and in the course of the
same year proposed the Lex Julia de Civitatey
which granted the citizenship to the Latins and
the Socii who had remained faithful to Rome.
Caesar was censor in 89 ; he belonged to the
aristocratical party, and was put to death by
Marius in 87. — (2) C Julivs Caesar Stkabo
Vopiscus, brother of No. 1, was curule aedile
90, was a candidate for the consulship in 88,
and was slain along with his brother by
Marius in 87. He was one of the chief
orators and poets of his age, and is one of the
speakers in Cicero's dialogue De Oratore, —
(3) L. Julius Cassak, son of No. 2, and
uncle by his sister Julia of M. Antony the
triumvir. He was consul 64, and belonged,
like his father, to the aristocratical party.
He appears to have deserted this party after-
wards ; we find him in Gaul in 52 as one of
the legates of t. Caesar, and he continued in
Italy during the civil war. After Caesar's
death (44) he sided with the senate in oppo.
sition to his uncle Antony, and was in conse-
quence proscribed by the latter in 48, but
obtained his pardon through the influence of
his sister Julia. — (4) L. Juuus Cae8ab, son
of No. 8, usually distinguished from his
father by the addition to his name otJUius or
adoleseens. He joined Pompey on the break-
ing out of the civil war in 49, and was sent
by Pompey to Caesar with proposals of peace.
— (5) C. Julius Caesak, the dictator, was bom
on the 12th of July, 100, in the consulship of
C. Marius (YI.) and L. Valerius Flaccus, and
was consequently 6 years younger than
Pompey and Cicero. Caesar was closely con-
nected with the popular party by the mar-
riage of his aunt Julia with the great Marius ;
and in 83, though only 17 years of age, he
married Cornelia, the daughter of L. Cinna,
the chief leader of the Manan party. Sulla
commanded him to put away his wife, but he
refused to obey lum, and was consequently
proscribed. He concealed himself for some

time in the country of the Sabines, till his
friends obtained his pardon ftom Sulla, who
is said to have observed, when they pleaded
Ms youth, ** that that boy would some day
or another be the ruin of tiie aristocracy, for
that there were many Mariuses in hhn."
Seeing that he was not safe at Rome, he went
to Asia, where he served his first campaign
under M. Minucius Thermus, and, at the
capture of Mytilene (80), was rewarded with
a civic crown for saving the life of a fellow,
soldier. On the death of Sulla, in 78, he
returned to Rome, and in the following year
gained great renown as an orator, though he
was only 22 years of age, by his prosecution
of Cn. Dolabella on account of extortion in
his province of Macedonia. To perfect him-
self in oratory, he resolved to study in
Rhodes under Apollonius Molo, but on his
voyage thither he was captured by pirates,

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