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and only obtained his liberty by a ransom of
50 talents. At Miletus he manned some ves-
sels, overpowered the pirates, and conducted
them as prisoners to Pergamus, where he cru-
cified them — a punishment with which he had
frequently threatened them in sport when he
was their prisoner. On his return to Rome
he devoted all his energies to acquire the
favour of the people. His liberality was un-
bounded; and as his private fortune was
not large, he soon contracted enormous
debts. But he gained his object, and
became the favourite of the people, and was
raised by them in succession to the high
offices of the state. He was quaestor in 68,
aedile in 65, when he spent enormous sums
upon the public games and buildings, and
was elected Pontifex Maximus in 63. In
the debate in the senate on the punish-
ment of the Catilinarian conspirators, he
opposed their execution in a very able speech,
which made such an impression that their
lives would have been spared but for the
speech of Cato in reply. In 62 he was prae-
tor, and in the following year he went as pro-
praetor into Further Spain, where he gained
great victories over the Lusitanians. On
his return to Rome he was elected consul
along with Bibulus, a warm supporter of the
aristocracy. After his election, but before he
entered upon the consulship, he formed that
coalition with Pompey and M. Crassus,
usually known by the name of the first tri-
umvirate. Pompey had become estranged
from the aristocracy, since the senate had
opposed the ratification of his acts in Asia,
and of an assignment of lands which he had
promised to his veterans. Crassus, in conse-
quence of his immense wealth, was one of the
most powerful men at Rome, but was a per-
sonal enemy of Pompey. They were recon*

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ciled hy means of Caesar, and the 8 entered
into an agreement to support one another,
and to diyide the power in the state between
them. In 59 Caesar was consul, and being
supported by Pompey and Crassus, he was
able to carry all his measures. Bibulus,
from whom the senate had expected so much,
could offer no effectual opposition, and, after
making a vain attempt to resist Caesar, shut
himself up in his own house, and did not
appeu: again in public till the expiration of
his consulship. Caesar brought forward such
measures as secured for him the affections of
the poorest citizens, of the Equites, and of
the powerful Pompey ; having done this, he
was easily able to obtain for himself the pro.
vinces which he wished. By a vote of the
people, proposed by the tribune Vatinius, the
provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and lUyricom
were granted to Caesar, with 3 legions, for 5
years ; and the senate added to his govern,
ment the province of Transalpine Gaul, with
another legion, for 6 years also, as they saw
that a bill would be proposed to the people
for that purpose, if they did not grant the
province themselves. Caesar foresaw that the
struggle between the different parties at
Rome must eventually be terminated by the
Hword, and he had therefore resolved to ob-
tain an army, which he might attach to
himself by victories and rewards. In the
course of the same jcbt he united himself
more closely to Pompey by giving him his
<laughter Julia in marriage. During the next
9 years Caesar was occupied with the subju.
gation of Gaul. He conquered the whole of
Transalpine Gaul, which had hitherto been
independent of the Romans, with the excep-
tion of the S.E. part called Provincia ; he
twice crossed the Rhine, and twice landed in
Britain, which had been previously unknown
to the Romans. His first invasion of Britain
was made late in the summer of 55, but more
with the view of obtaining some knowledge
of the island ftrom personal observation, than
with the intention of permanent conquest at
present. He sailed from the port Itius (pro.
bably Witsand^ between Calais and Boulogne),
and effected a landing somewhere near the
douth Foreland, after a severe struggle with
the natives. The late period of the year
compelled him to return to Gaul after re.
maining only a short time in the island. In
this year, according to his arrangement with
Pompey and Crassus, who were now consuls,
his government of the Gauls and Illyricum
was prolonged for five years, namely, from
the 1st of January, 53, to the end of Decern,
ber, 49. During the following year (64) he
invaded Britain a second time. He landed in
Britain at the same place as in tho former

year, defeated the Britons in a series of en.
gagements, and crossed the Tamesis {I^amua),
The Britcms submitted, and promised to pay
an annual tribute ; but their subjection was
only nominal. Caesar's success in Gaul ex.
cited Pompey's Jealousy; and the death of
Julia in childbirth, in 54, broke one of the
few links which kept them together. Pompey
was thus led to Join again the aristocratical
party, by whose assistance he hoped to retain
his position as the chief man in the Roman
state. The great object of this party was to
deprive Caesar of his command, and to com.
pel him to come to Rome as a private man to
sue for the consulship. Caesar offered to
resign his command if Pompey would do the
same ; but the senate would not listen to any
compromise. Accordingly, on the Ist of
January, 49, the senate passed a resolution
that Caesar should disband his army by a
certain day, and that if he did not do so, he
should be regarded as an enemy of the state.
Two of the tribunes, M. Antonius and
Q. Cassius, put their veto upon this resolu-
tion, but their opposition was set at nought,
and they fled for refuge to Caesar's camp.
Under the plea of protecting the tribunes,
Caesar crossed the Rubiccm, which separated
his province fh>m Italy, and marched towards
Rome. Pompey, who had been entrusted
by the senate with the conduct of the war,
soon discovered how greatly he had overrated
his own popularity and influence. His own
troops deserted to his rival in crowds ; town
after town in Itidy opened its gates to Caesar,
whose march was lUce a triumphal progress.
Meantime, Pompey, with the magistrates and
senators, had fled ftom Rome to the 8. of
Italy, and on the 17 th of March embarked for
Greece. Caesar pursued Pompey to Brundu-
sium, but he was unable to follow him to
Greece for want of ships. Shortly afterwards
he set out for Spain, where Pompey's legates,
Afranius, Petreius, and Yarro, commanded
powerful armies. After defeating Afiranius
and Petreius, and receiving the submission of
Yarro, Caesar returned to Rome, where he
had in the meantime been appointed dictator
by the praetor M. Lepidus. He resigned the
dictatorship at the end of 11 days, i^ter hold-
ing the consular comitia, in which he himself
and P. Servilius Yatia Isauricus were elected
consuls for the next year. — ^At the beginning -
of January, 48, Caesar crossed over to Greece,
where Pompey had collected a formidable
army. At first the campaign was in Pompey's
favour ; Caesar was repulsed before Dyrrha.
chium with considerable loss, and was obliged
to retreat towards Thessaly. In this country
on the plains of Pharsalus, or Pharsalia, a
decisive battle was fought between the two

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armies on Aug. 9th, 48, in which Pompey was
completely defeated. Pompey fled to Egypt,
piinraed by Caesar, but he was murdered
before Caesar arriyed in the country. [Pom-
PEiiTS.] On his arriral in Egypt, Caesar
became involyed in a war, usually called the
Alexandrine war. It arose from the determi-
nation of Caesar that Cleopatra, whose fasci-
nations had won his heart, should reign in
common with her brother Ptolemy ; but this
decision was opposed by the guardians of the
young king, and the war which thus broke
out, was not brought to a close till the latter
end of March, 47. It was soon after this,^
that Cleopatra had a son by Caesar. [Caxsa-
RiON.] Caesar returned to Rome through
Syria and Asia Minor, and on his march
through Pontus, attacked Phamaces, the son
of Mithridates the Great, who had assisted
Pompey. He defeated Phamaces near Zela
with such ease, that he informed the senate
of his victory by the words, Veni^ ruK, vici.
He reached Rome in September (47), and
before the end of the month set sail for Africa,
where Scipio and Cato had collected a large
army. The war was terminated by the defeat
of the Pompeian army at the battle of Thap-
8U8, on the 6th of April, 46. Cato, unable to
defend Utica, put an end to his own life. —
Caesar returned to Rome in the latter end of
July. He was now the undisputed master of
the Roman world, but he used his victory
with the greatest moderation. Unlike other
conquerors in civil wars, he freely forgave
all who had borne arms against him, and
declared that he would make no difference
between Pompeians and Caesarians. His
clemency was one of the brightest features of
his character. One of the most important of
his measures this year (46) was the reforma-
tion of the calendar. As the Roman year
was now S months in advance of the real
time, Caesar added 90 days to this year, and
thus made the whole year consist of 445 days ;
and he guarded against a repetition of simUar
errors for the future by adapting the year to
the sun's course. — ^Meantime the two sons of
Pompey, Sextus and Cneius, had collected a
new army in Spain. Caesar set out for
Spain towards the end of the year, and
brought the war to a close by the battle of
Munda, on the 17th of March, 45, in which
the enemy were only defeated after a most
obstinate resistance. Cn. Pompey was killed
shortly afterwards, but Sextus made good his
escape. Caesar reached Rome in September,
and entered the city in triumph. Possessing
royal power, he now wished to obtain the
title of king, and Antony accordingly offered
him the diadem in public on the festival of
the Lupercalia (the 15th of February) ; but,

seeing that the proi>osition was not favour,
ably received by the people, he declined it for
the present — But Caesar's power was not
witnessed without envy. The Roman aris-
tocracy resolved to remove him by assassina-
tion. The conspiracy against Caesar's life
had been set afoot by Cassius, a personal
enemy of Caesar's, and there were more than
60 persons privy to it. Many of these
persons had been raised by Caesar to wealth
and honour ; and some of ^em, such as M.
Brutus, lived with him on terms of the most
intimate firiendship. It has been the practice
of rhetoricians to speak of the murder of
Caesar as a glorious deed, and to represent
Brutus and Cassius as patriots ; but the mask
ought to be stripped off these fttlse patriots ;
they cared not for the republic, but only for
themselves; and their object in murdering
Caesar was to gain power for themselves and
their party. Caesar had many warnings
of his approaching fate, but he disregarded
them all, and fell by the daggers of his
assassins on the Ides or 1 5th of March, 44.
At an appointed signal the conspirators
surrounded him ; Casca dealt the first blow,
and the others quickly drew their swords
and attacked him ; Caesar at first defended
himself, but when he saw that Brutus, his
friend and favourite, had also drawn his
sword, he exclaimed, TuqttoquefBrtUe / pulled
his toga over his face, and sunk pierced with
wounds at the foot of Pompey's statue. —
Julius Caesar was <me of the greatest men of
antiquity. He was gifted by nature with the
most various talents, and was distinguished
by extraordinary attainments in the most di-
versified pursuits. During the whole of his
busy life he found time for the prosecution of
literature, and was the author of many works,
the majority of which has been lost. The
purity of h^ Latin and the clearness of his
style were celebrated by the ancients them-
selves, and are conspicuous in his Ck>mmentarii^
which are his only works that have come down
to us. They relate the history of the first 7
years of the Gallic war in 7 books, and the
history of the Civil war, down to the com-
mencement of the Alexandrine, in S books.
Neither of these works completed the history
of the Gallic and Civil wars. The history of
the former was completed in an 8th book,
which is usually ascribed to Hirtius, and the
history of the Alexandrine, African, and
Spanish wars was written in three separate
books, which are also ascribed to Hirtius,
but their authorship is uncertain.

C. CAESAR and L. CAESAR, the sons of
M. Yipsanius Agrippa and JuUa, and the
grandsons of Augustus. L. Caesar died at
Massilia on his way to Spain, a.d. 2, and C.

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Caesar in Lycia, a.d. 4, of a wound which
he had received in Armenia.

CAE8ARAUGU8TA (.ae : Zaragoza or Sa~
rago8ia)f more anciently Sai.duba, a town of
the Edetani on the Ibenu, in Hispania Tar.
raconensis, colonized by Augustus b.c. 27.

CA£SAR£a (.ae), a name given to several
cities of the Roman empire in honour of one
or other of the Caesars.— (1) C. ad Aroaxxjm,
formerly Mazaca, also Eusbbia {Ketarieh^
Hu.), one of the oldest cities of Asia Minor,
stood upon Mount Argaeus, about the centre
of Cappadocia. When that country was made
a Roman province by Tiberius (a.d. 18), it
received the name of Caesarea. It was ulti-
mately destroyed by an earthquake. — (2) C.
Phiuppi or Pambas {Bamaa)^ a city of Pales-
tine, at the S. foot of M. Hermon, on the
Jordan, just below its source, built by Philip
the tetrarch, b.c. 8 ; King Agrippa called it
Neronias, but it soon lost this name. — (3) C
Palaestinab, formerly Stratomis Tvrris,
an important city of Palestine, on the sea-
coasi, just above the boundary line between
Samaria and Galilee. It was surrounded
with a wall, and decorated with splendid
buildings by Herod the Great (b.c. 18), who
called it Caesarea, in honour of Augustus.
He also made a splendid harbour for the
city. Under the Romans it was the capital
of Palestine and the residence of the procu-
rator. — (4) C, Mavrbtaniax, formerly Iol
(Zershell^ Ru.), a Phoenician city on the N.
coast of Africa, with a harbour, the residence
of King Juba, who named it Caesarea, in
honour of Augustus. There are several other
cities, which are better known by other

CAESIriON (-Snis), son of C. Julius
Caesar and of Cleopatra, originally called
Ptolemaeus as an Egyptian prince, was bom
B.C. 47. After the death of his mother in 80
he was executed by order of Augustus.

OAESARODCNUM (-i : Tows), chief town
of the TurSnes or TurSni, subsequently called
TuRONi, on the Liger {Loire) in Gallia Lug-

CAESIa (-ae), a forest in Germany be-
tween the Lippe and the Yssel.

CAiCUS (-i), a river of Mysia, rising in M.
Temnus and flowing past Pergamus into the
Cumaean Gulf.

CAiETA (-ae : Oaeta), a town in Latium
on the borders of Campania, situated on a
promontory of the same name and on a bay
of the sea called after it Sikus Caietanus.
It possessed an excellent harbour, and was
said to have derived its name from Caieta^
the nurse of Aeneas.

CAlUS, the jurist. [Gaixjs.]


CALABER. [QuiNTUS Smtrkasus.]

GALABRIa (-ae), the peninsula in the
S.E. of Italy, extending from Tarentum to
the Prom. lapygium, formed part of Apulia.

CALACTl (-es), originally the name of
part of the coast, and afterwards a town on
the N. coast of Sicily, founded by Ducetius,
a chief of the Sicels, about b.c 447.
. CALAGURRIS (-is : Calahorra)^ a town
of the Yascones in Hispania Tarraconensls
near the Iberus. It was the birth-place of

CALAIS, brother of Zetes. [Zetbs.]

CALANUS (-i), an Indian gymnosophist,
who burnt himself alive in the presence of
the Macedonians, 8 months before the death
of Alexander (b.c 323), to whom he had pre-
dicted his approaching end.

CAlAtIa (-ae : Cqjazzo)^ a town in 8am-
nium on the Appia Via between Capua and

CALAtINUS, a. ATILIUS, consul T». c
258, and dictator 249, when he carried on
the war in Sioily. He was the first dictator
that^commanded an army out of Italy.

CALAUREA or -LA (-ae : Poro)^ a small
island in the Saronic gfulf off the coast of
Argolis and opposite Troezen, possessed n
celebrated temple of Poseidon (Neptune),
which was regarded as an inviolable asylum.
Hither Demosthenes fled to escape Antipater,
and here he took poison, b.c 822.

CALCHAs (-antis), son of Thestor, was
the wisest soothsayer among the Greeks at
Troy, and advised them in their various dif-
ficulties. An oracle had declared that he
should die if he met with a soothsayer supe-
rior to himself; and this came to pass at
Claros, near Colophon, for here he met the
soothsayer Mopsus, who predicted things
which Calchas could not. Thereupon Calchas
died of grief. After his death he had an
oracle in Daunia.

CAL£ (-es : Oporto) ^ a port-town of the
Callaeci in Hispania Tarraconensis at the
mouth of the Durius. From Porto Cole the
name of the country Portttgal is supposed to
have come.


CALENUS, Q. FtFIUS, a tribune of the
plebs, B.C. 61, when he succeeded in saving
P. Clodius from condemnation for his vio-
lation of the mysteries of the Bona Dea. In
59 he was praetor, and from this time ap.
pears as an active partisan of Caesar, in
whose service he remained until Caeaar's
death (44). After this event Calenus joined
M. Antony, and subsequently had the com-
mand of Antony's legions in the N. of Italy.

CALES (-is, usually PI. C&les, -ium : Calvi),
chief town of the Caleni, an Ausonian people

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in Campania, on the Via Latina, said to have
been founded by Calais, son of Boreas, and
therefore called Tkreida by the poets. It
was celebrated for its excellent wine.

CALETES (.urn) or CALETI (^nim), a
people in Belgic Gaul near the mouth of the
Seine. ^

CALIGULA (-ae), Roman emperor, a.d.
37 — 41, son of Germanicus and Agrippiua,
was bom a.d. 12, and was brought up among
the legions in Germany. His real name was
Caixu CaesaTf and he was always called Caiua
by his contemporaries ; Caligula was a sur-
name giren him by the soldiers from' his
wearing in his boyhood small ealigaey or
soldiers* boots. He gained the favour of
Tiberius, who raised him to offices of honour,
and held out to him hopes of the succession.
On the death of Tiberius (87), which was
either caused or accelerated by Caligula, the
latter succeeded to the throne. He was sa-
luted by the people with the greaeest enthu-
siasm as the son of Germanicus. His first
acts gave promise of a just and beneficent
reign. But at the end of 8 months his conduct
became suddenly changed. After a serious
illness, which probably weakened his mental
powers, he appears as a sang-uin&ry and
licentious madman. In his madness he built
a temple to himself as Jupiter Latiaris, and
appointed priests to attend to his worship.
His extravagance was monstrous. One in-
stance will show at once his wasteAilness and
cruelty. He constructed a bridge of boats
between Baiae and Puteoli, a distance of about
3 miles, and after covering it with earth he
built houses upon it. When it was finished,
he gave a splendid banquet in the middle of
the bridge, and concluded the entertainment
by throwing numbers of the guests into the
sea. To replenish the treasury he exhausted
Italy and Rome by his extortions, and then
marched into Gaul in 40, which he plundered
in all directions. With his troops he ad-
vanced to the ocean, as if intending to cross
over into Britain ; he drew them up in battle
array, and then gave them the signal — to
collect shells, which he called the spoils of
conquered Ocean. The Roman world at
length grew tired of such a mad tyrant.
Four months after his return to the city, on
the 24th of January, 41, he was murdered
by Cassius Chaerea, tribime of a praetorian
cohort, Cornelius Sabinus, and others. His
wife Caesonia and his daughter were like-
wise put to death.


CALLATI8 (-is), a town of Moesia, on the
Black Sea, originally a colony of Miletus, and
afterwards of Haraclea.

CALLIAS (-ae) and HIPPONICUS (-i), a

noble Athenian family, celebrated for their
wealth. They enjoyed the hereditary dignitr
of torch-bearer at the Eleusinian mysteries,
and claimed descent from Triptolemus. The
first member of this family of any note
was Callias, who fought at the battle of
Marathon, 490. He was afterwards ambas-
sador from Athens to Artazerxes, and ac-
cording to some accounts negotiated a peace
with Persia, 449, on terms most humiliating
to the latter. On his return to Athens, he
was accused of having taken bribes, and was
condemned to a fine of 50 talents. His son
Hipponicus was killed at the battle of Delium
in 424. It was his divorced wife, and not
his widow, whom Pericles married. His
daughter Hipparete was married to Alci-
biades. Callias, son of this Hipponicus by
the lady who married Pericles, dissipated all
his ancestral wealth on sophists, fiatterers.
and women. The scene of Xenophon's Baiu
quet, and also that of Plato's Protagoras, is
laid at his house.

CALLIAS, a wealthy Athenian, who, on
condition of marrying Cimon's sister, Elpi-
nice, liberated Cimon ftom prison by paying
for him the fine of 50 talents which had been
imposed on Miltiades.

CALLIDROMUS or -UM (4), part of the
range of Mt. Oeta, near Thermopylae.

CALLIFAE, a town in Samnium of uncer.
tain site^^

CALLIMACHUS (-i), a celebrated Alexan-
drine grammarian and poet, was a native of
Cyrene in Africa, lived at Alexandria in
the reigns of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Euer-
getes, and was chief librarian of the famous
library of Alexandria, ftom about fi.c. 260 until
his death about 240. Among his pupils were
Eratosthenes, Aristophanes of Byzantium,
and Apollonius Rhodius, with the latter of
whom he subsequently quarrelled. He wrote
numerous works on an infinite variety of sub-
jects, but of these we possess only some of
his poems, which are characterised rather by
labour and learning than by real poetical

CALLInUS (-i), of Ephesus, the earliest
Greek elegiac poet, probably flourished about
B.C. 700.

CALLIoPE. [Musab.]

CALLIPOUS (-is). (1) A town on the E.
coast of Sicily not far from Aetna. — (2) (GaU
lipoli)f a town in the Thracian Chersonese
opposite Lampsacus. — (3) A town in Aetolia.


CALLIRRHOfi (-es). (l) Daughter of
Achelous and wife of Alcmaeon, induced her
husband to procure her the peplus and neck-
lace of Harmonia, by which she caused his
death. [Alcmaeon.] — (2) Daughter of Sea-

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mander, wife of Tros, and mother of Ilus
and Ganymedes.

CALLIKRHOfi (-es), afterwards caUed En.
NEAcsuxus or the " Nine Springfs," because
its water was distributed by 9 pipes, was the
most celebrated well in Athens, situated in
the S.E. part of the city, and still retains its
ancient name Callirrhoe,

CALLISTHENES (-is), of Olynthus, a re-
lation and a pupil of Aristotle, accompanied
Alexander the Great to Asia. He rendered
himself so obnoxious to Alexander by the
boldness and independence with which he
expressed his opinions on several occasions,
that he was accused of being privy to the
plot of Hermolaus to assassinate Alexander ;
and after being kept in chains for 7 months,
was either put to death or died of disease.
He wrote several works, all of which have

CALLISTO (-as: aee. JS), an Arcadian
nymph, hence called Nonaenna virpo, from
Nonacris, a mountain in Arcadia, was a com.
panion of Artemis (Diana) in the chase. She
^as beloved by Zeus (Jupiter), who meta-
morphosed her into a she-bear, that Hera
(Juno) mi^ht not become acquainted with
the amour. But Hera learnt the truth, and
caused Artemis to slay Callisto during the
chase. Zeus placed Callisto among the stars
under the name of Aretos, or the Bear.
A&CAS was her son by Zeus. [Arctos.]

CALLISTRAXIA (-ae), a town in Taphla-
gonia, on the coast of the Euxine.

GALLIUM (-i) caUcd CALLIPOLIS (-is),
by Livy, a town in Aetolia in the valley of
the Spercheus.

CALOR (-Oris), a river in Samnium flow-
ing past Beneventum and falling into the

CALPE (-es : Gibralter,) (1) A mountain
in the S. of Spain on the Straits between the
Atlantic and Mediterranean. This and M.
Abyla opposite to it on the African coast,
were oaHediheColumtu of Hercules. [Abyla.]
—(2) A river, promontory, and town on the
coast of Bithynia.

CALPURNIA (-ae), daughter of L. Calpur-
nius Piso, consul b.c. 58, and last wife of the

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